Skip to main content

Full text of "Recollections and reflections : an auto of half a century and more"

See other formats

r l\ 



library of 
(Efye University of Xlovtif Carolina 




of the class of 1889 



|300K?, f »STATfSHps; 


t Raleigh, N. c. ": 






Form No. A-368, Rev. 8/95 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 

Recollections and Reflections, 


6a sr o w?/, ■_.- ~ - 3 St-o jyyr 







presses of 

Edwards and Broughton Printing Company 



To God's noblest handiwork and true men's highest concep- 
tion of ideal perfection, a good, well-balanced woman, true in 
all the relationships of home and domestic life, and as little 
deficient in social intercourse with the outside world beyond, 
pious without pretension, erudite without pedantry, charitable 
without parade, soft of speech but duly assertive, stickler for 
the social proprieties but void of prudery, ever genial but 
never frivolous ; — such is an imperfect pen-portraiture of a 
few of the amiable and lovable traits of one seen in my mind's 
eye and the one best known in actual life. It is my blessed 
privilege to have undisputed ownership to such a priceless 
treasure. Yes ! to thee, Adeline, wife of my bosom and 
solace of declining age, at this the terminal period of "the 
fitful dream," I pledge renewed troth, and say, as Ferdinand 
said to Prospero's daughter in the incipiency of new-born 
love, — 

* * * * for several virtues 

Have I liked several women; never any 

With so full soul, but some defect in her 

Did quarrel with the noblest grace she owed, 

And put it to the foil: But you, O you, 

So perfect, and so peerless, are created 

Of every creature's best. 

To thee, dear wife, is dedicated this, my initial and, most 
probably, ultimate book. 



On this, the initial day of a new-born century, I begin a 
work long held in contemplation, namely, the compilation of 
the Memoirs of a somewhat eventful life of a commonplace 
sort, covering the greater part of the century just ended ; his- 
torically speaking, the most eventful of all the centuries. 
Probably, no epoch of like duration is more replete with 
books of a reminiscent character. 

To avoid the suspicion of presumption in venturing to 
launch a new book of a similar sort upon an already over- 
booked era, be it known from the start, that the self-imposed 
task is not essayed for futurity, finance, or ephemeral fame. 
Hence, neither maelstrom, nor iceberg, nor hidden shoal, holds 
out terrors for my puny venture. True, it is intended for 
posterity, but posterity in a very restricted sense — my own and 
that of kindred, and of a few tried friends, who have urged 
the undertaking. If some of these may, perchance, find a 
kernel of profit out of the mass of chaff attendant, my idle 
half-hours in the postmeridian of life will not have been 
entirely misspent. 

Apropos of books of a reminiscent character, it is a crude 
opinion of mine that only two classes are entitled to write 
them, namely, those who have made history themselves, or 
those who have been brought in close contact and acquaint- 
ance with the class who have. Of right to write by rule pre- 
scribed, I make no claim, and abjure all pretension on basis 
number one. On that of number two, I think I may, with- 
out incurring the suspicion of vanity or arrogance, jot down 
some few of many reminiscences connected with illustrious 
personages, for it was my proud privilege to be brought in 
close touch with many of them. 



Conspicuous amongst these, in boyhood and maturer age, 
was a quartet, or rather quintet, of world-recognized gentle- 
men and historical heroes. I knew and honored and loved 
them, each and all, and thank the Master that it was my 
blessed prerogative to have been born of their tribe and racial 
line of thought. By name, they are known as John C. Cal- 
houn, Andrew Jackson, Jefferson Davis, Albert Sidney John- 
ston, and Wade Hampton. Others there were, fitting com- 
peers of even such as these; but, as I am essaying memoir 
only, — not history, — they are not mentioned by nomenclature. 
The Muse of History will, doubtless, align with the others 
Robert E. Lee, Thomas J. Jackson, and Nathan B. Forrest, 
only the first-named of whom was known to me personally, 
and but slightly; the last so casually as not to justify the 
claim of acquaintance on my part, and the second, not at all. 
Hence this reticence. Booked they all are for highest niches 
in "Walhalla." 

In discussing this batch of " preux-chevaliers," and others 
of kindred soul but less resplendent lustre, as well as others 
still, who can set up no claim to kinship with such immacu- 
lates as these, it is proposed to do so fairly and dispassionately, 
but with no mawkish observance of the classic adage — " De 
mortuis nil, nisi bonum." If allusion is made to such as 
Nero, Caligula, Commodus, or Domitian, in an earlier age ; 
or to Alva, Jeffreys, or the Guises, in more recent times, 
chance position of the culprit will not restrain anathema, or 
rather, harsh criticism. Silence is sometimes culpable. 
"The rank is but the guinea's stamp; a spade's a spade, for 
all that." Some have deemed me aforetime too plain of 
speech, in not calling that useful implement by a more euphe- 
mistic synonym. To such, the reply is that having used un- 
varnished old English up to the allotted span of man, it is 
now too late to acquire a modulated and more euphonic dia- 
lect in dealing with knaves, shams, and pretenders. 



If there is any merit in my desultory writings, having 
been a scribbler off and on through life, it consists in thor- 
ough conviction and pointedness of expression. Those who 
object to that style might as well close the little volume. 
Rosewater and diluted catnip is repugnant to taste, and un- 
suited to my genius. The field is already overcrowded with 
that sort, men who shun a positive, unequivocal expression of 
opinion on men, measures, and policies, as they would a bolt 
from a catapult. 

January 1, 1900. 





Birth, Genealogy, and Earliest Childhood Days — Loss of Mother 
When Four Years Old — Transference to Home of My Uncle 
Joseph P. Wharton, near Lebanon, Tenn. — Early Terrors: Ped- 
agogues, Pinafores, and Apparitions 1 


Proclivity for Field Sports — How I Came Into Possession of My 
Cousin Bob's Hounds Later On — Measles and the Tender Pas- 
sion: First Attack of Each — Meeting with My Father, After a 
Ten Years Separation 21 


Visit to the Sage of the Hermitage: His Impressibility — Subsequent 
Visit to the Same Spot with His Adopted Niece, Mrs. Mary 
Donelson Wilcox 24 


Sketch of My Father, Thomas J. Greene, from the N. C. University 
Magazine, 1892 — His Early Political Bias and Predilection — 
His Subsequent Romantic History — Author of the Bill in the 
Texan Congress, Making the Rio Grande the Boundary Line 
Between Texas and Mexico, which Resulted in the War with 
Mexico and the Acquisition of Texas and Boundless Territory 
Further West — Journey from Nashville to Washington — Re- 
marriage of My Father — Dr. Branch T. Archer, Father of the 
Texan Revolution, a Remarkable Man 30 


In Louisville — Division of the Methodist Church and Sectional Di- 
vergence—In Washington, the Straggling Village — Visit to 
Paternal Grandmother — Return to Washington — Dr. Branch T. 
Arthur, the Instigator of the Texan Revolt Against Mexican 
Tyranny — John C. Calhoun and Jefferson Davis 45 


In Georgetown College — Contempt of Academic Laurels — How to 

Succeed : Crawl, Creep, Cringe 54 




My Father's Second Wife — The Little Girl who Became My Wife: 
Her Training and Disposition; Her Love and Loyalty; her 
Death , 59 


In Lovejoy's School — Transferred to Boston — An Inspiring Teacher 
— Admitted to West Point; Class of 1850; Distinguished Class- 
mates — War Reminiscences — West Point Instructors — Colonel 
Lee a Peacemaker — Social Life 63 


Resignation from the Academy — Sheridan and Schofield — At the 
White Sulphur Springs — Duelling Pistols and the Duello — A 
Trip to Kentucky and a Bit of Romance — At the University of 
Virginia — Some Professors — Literary Society Experiences — The 
Fateful Numeral One 92 


Admitted to Practice Law Before the Supreme Court of the United 
States — From Washington to Texas — Rattlesnakes, "Northers," 
and Hospitality — San Antonio — Desperadoes — Distinguished 
Soldiers 109 


Albert Sydney Johnston, an Excerpt from the Biography by His 

Son, Col. William Preston Johnston 124 


"Bigfoot Wallace" — Anecdote of Bedford Forrest — A Hunting Ex- 
cursion 129 


Marriage and Bridal Tour — In the Land of the Pharoahs — European 
Travel — Home Again — War — Military Experiences — My Body- 
servant Guilford 140 


The Fortunes of War— The Epoch of Self-sacrifice — Wounded— With 
the Invading Army — Wounded and a Prisoner of War — Life on 
Johnson's Island 164 




Exchanged — The South is Vanquished — In Politics — Elected to Con- 
gress — Some Reminiscences 194 


A Trip to the Pacific Coast — Home Again — Closing Reflections 204 


Letter from Jefferson Davis — Letters to the Boston Herald, Written 
at Venice, Naples, Rome, and Thebes — The Second N. C. Bat- 
talion — Address on General Robert Ransom — West Point Then 
and West Point Now — A Paper on Jefferson Davis — Address 
Before the J. E. B. Stuart Chapter, U. D. C— Gettysburg- 
Memorial Address in Honor of Mrs. Davis — Speech in the House 
of Representatives on the Adulteration of Food and Drugs. . . . 223 




W. J. Gbeen Frontispiece 

"Sugar Tree Grove" 16 

General Thos. J. Green 30 

"Esmaralda" 42 

"Jamacia Plains" 58 

General Albert Sydney Johnston 124 

"Tokay" Vineyard 196 

General Wade Hampton 200 

Jefferson Davis 224 




While making no claim to merit on the line genealogic, still 
I am not debarred, by excessive modesty, from saying that my 
forbears are of good, honorable, and unblemished record, run- 
ning back more than a century in this country and embracing 
six or eight generations of "traceable grandfathers," both on 
the paternal and maternal side of the house. Many of them 
were of marked name, trait, and characteristic, and none ever 
false to himself, his blood, or his manhood, as far as my re- 
searches go. The fountain source of migration was, in every 
instance, "English, pure and undefiled," for which Heaven 
be praised. There was not a Tory in the stock in the Revo- 
lutionary War, nor a traitor or renegade to the South in the 
"War between the States" ; very few of these last since then. 
All branches flowed from Virginia and North Carolina into 
Tennessee, where concentration set in, towards the close of 
the eighteenth century. As a rule, they were ever planters 
and tillers of the soil, although some few sided off into pro- 
fessional and mechanical pursuits. Such is a simple and suc- 
cinct statement of family history. It is one of which no 
scion of any house in this broad land could be ashamed. Let 
him, who can match it, say "Laus Deo !" in all fervor. 

My father, Thomas J. Green, of Warren County, North 
Carolina, afterwards General Green of Texan Revolutionary 
fame, married my mother, Sarah A. Wharton, of Nashville, 
Tennessee, on January 8, 1830. She was the daughter of 
Honorable Jesse Wharton, at one time United States Senator 
in Congress. They moved to his plantation, near St. Mark's, 
Florida, where I was born on February 28, 1831. By death 
I sustained the irretrievable loss of this last dear parent on 



March 11, 1835, being thus deprived of her ministering care 
at the early age of four years. She had met with the same 
great affliction when barely one year old. She was only 
twenty-three, and her mother twenty-six, at the time of death. 
The thought that oft recurred — would I not have been a bet- 
ter man had her life been spared a few years longer? ]STot 
that I have any right or cause to complain of the dear hands 
that received me. On the contrary, never did motherless 
waif pass into gentler and more considerate keeping. A few 
lines descriptive of this peculiarly interesting couple (my 
uncle, Joe Wharton, and his wife, Caroline) will not be out 
of place. They had married about the time that my parents 
did, and had the incipiency of a young family, which later 
on increased to large proportions. Two of their sons, and a 
son-in-law, died fighting for liberty, and the regret of both 
was that they could not duplicate their tender to the Cause. 
They took me into their house as if I had been one of their 
little fold, and for the nine or ten years succeeding accorded 
precisely the same. May their souls rest in peace, and their 
reward be commensurate to their unpretentious good works. 
Fortunately, they were well to do. A thousand broad acres 
of as inviting land as Middle Tennessee contains was their 
abiding-place, with forty or fifty sleek, overfed, contented 
negroes to cultivate them. The recollection of that home and 
the blessed spirit pervading it is a veritable dream of Arcadia. 
Every thing used on the place was raised or made on the 
place, except sugar, coffee, powder and lead, and a few 
woman's fixings. The men-folk dressed in homespun, and 
were well content to get it. With no attempt at ostentation 
or display, they were nevertheless the most bountiful livers 
for their means, and in their simple way, that I have ever 
known. Hospitality was a synonym for home, the latch- 
string being ever on the outside of the door. In those blessed 
days, there were but few things to cause pain or occasion 


i p co Cr 

O. CFQ i— IB 

,i* O ' _, 

'^ S hn CB 

e p " i. 

CD & P g 

| o Sg 

o p E. 2. 

2 » w « 

■8 „ -^ 

^ F cd' aq 

ET. co p p 

O "B ■< <r+ 

; 5 H p 

5' ™ 2 £f 

M £ & S 

tr " 3 1 ' 

CD "" O =H 

jo g o 

(C ^ [_, CD 

§ S & 0- 

"j CD l"0 

2. O 

3 £ 


o. a 

B" M. .^ „. 

c ^ ■ X? 

^ CD 

» r tr 3 


Oj CI 


f° <3 o 



h a- a 

£» g 

■S §. cr 

° £ - 2 

CD " J «■ 

3 o* - 


trouble. Primarily of these were, by alliteration, peda- 
gogues, pinafores, and apparitions. Especially was the peda- 
gogue my pet abomination, being almost ever of the genus 
ignoramic, tyrannic, or pompostic, individually, or in combi- 
nation. Being a tyrant hater by nature as well as by inheri- 
tance, one of my grandfathers having been of that honorable 
Commission of Forty (afterwards known as "Regicides") 
that cut off the head of one Charles Stuart, about the last of 
that crown-wearing tribe of tyrants in England. God be 
praised both the sceptre-bearing and rod-wielding specimens 
of the vile tribe are fast becoming extinct. Tyranny has had 
its day! 

Dionysius, the historic tyrant, is dead; and so is his peda- 
gogic successor, Dionysius, the terror of schoolboys. I write 
feelingly in behalf of the boy to be, having been a boy myself, 
under that merciless regime. They all seemed to have a 
special hate against me, and, to be candid, there was little 
love lost between us, as certified by old smarts and long- 
dormant grudge for having received them for nothing. Un- 
fortunately, the other fellow had 'whip hand,' and 'hinc lach- 
rymae.' But there was one day when the boys would get the 
upper hand of the dominie, and that was "turning-out" day 
of blessed memory. (See Judge Longstreet's description in 
"Georgia Scenes.") 

My father left a young negro woman, Lucinda by name, 
to wait on me in my juvenile years. She had been my 
nurse, and was devoted to me, but, unfortunately, her head 
was full of African 'folk-lore' and superstitions, in which the 
horrible predominated, all of which naturally passed into my 
own cranium. Being of a credulous and impressive tem- 
perament, they made a most baleful and baneful impress on 
the imagination until nine or ten years of age, especially when 
having to sleep in a room by myself. Many a night in mid- 
summer have I slept with head under blankets to shut out a 
2 [17] 


devil's 'high carnival' in dread apprehension. It is easy to 
look back and smile at these fancies and conjurations of juve- 
nile years, but at the time it was no laughing matter, but 
veritable purgatorial torture. I sincerely trust that few boys 
or girls have ever suffered a tithe as much in those tender 
years. To make the hallucination utterly inexplicable in my 
case, it was notorious that I could "lick" any boy in school 
though my superior by long odds in pounds, inches, and age. 
This, perhaps, was at times needlessly done to convince my- 
self that I was not a coward for standing in such mortal terror 
of the devil and his imps, and rawhides and bloody bones. 
More singular still, I didn't believe in that absurd phantas- 
magoria any more then than to-day. This is the honest expe- 
rience of a lad who was, and admits he was, afraid of ghosts 
and goblins, and yet did not believe in their existence. What 
a strange anomaly the mind is any way. 

]STow for the third, and last, misery of my boyhood life at 
that early stage, — 'pinafores.' At the time of beginning life 
in this rustic paradise, there was left an elaborate supply of 
juvenile toggery, appropriate to a picnic or a Sunday-school, 
but entirely out of place in a day-school for country children. 
This I realized very early, and importuned raiment befitting 
surroundings. My aunt, however, being of a frugal mind, 
thought it expedient that they should be worn before outgrown. 
As they invariably exhibited a soiled and battered show-up 
after school was out, she concluded to add checked aprons to 
the 'get-up,' as a sort of armor-protector. An extra fight or 
two for days succeeding, for the twit of being 'a gal,' led to 
the conclusion, on my part, that this addendum in raiment 
was not suited to my 'style of beauty.' And so they disap- 
peared, to be substituted by a 'dressing' of another sort on 
reaching home. My aunt, though later on a 'rebel,' so-called, 
herself, was not prone to tolerate rebellion to established au- 
thority in her little domain. And so the contest continued 


AjST auto of half a century and moke. 

between us, day after day, until the supply of the obnoxious 
things was exhausted, or else the dear good soul's patience 
and powers of endurance. It seems to me, after these long 
years, that she tacitly called a truce. Certes, there was no 
'Appomattox' for me in that momentous struggle for the 
'Rights of Man.' 

It was a miniature prelude to another struggle soon to 
follow on a far more extended scale. I know that my aunt 
thought she was right in this needless assertion of prerogative, 
for she never did a thing in her blessed life that wouldn't 
stand that primary test. Perhaps, too, Bill Seward and his 
puppets thought the same in their sublime assertion of pre- 
rogative. And yet, is it not barely possible that each might 
have been slightly out of reckoning ? I could not help think- 
ing then, and still maintain, that it is a desecration to try to 
turn a boy into a girl or a dude. JSTot that girls are not an 
essential factor in the world's economy and make-up ; but 
still, no true boy wants to be one, much less that nondescript 
other thing. Let it be said, that those are the only whippings 
this my second mother ever gave me, with the exception of an 
occasional one for a Sunday fishing escapade. Uncle Joe 
never struck me a lick in his life, that comes to recollection, 
probably thinking I got my full complement at school. Be it 
said, that whilst pedagogic brutality was sometimes met by 
puny and impotent resistance, I always took my Aunt Caro- 
line's corrections like a little man. 

And so the period of first boyhood passed by, and the tenth 
year beginning, say, the secondary period came on. By that 
time I was a strong, robust, double- jointed specimen of 
juvenile humanity. Am glad to say my constitution, by that 
time grounded, was strengthened by the next four or five 
years of active outdoor exercise, riding, hunting, fishing, etc. 
My health has always been exceptionally good, up to the near 



approach of the Biblical limit of the years of man's pilgrim- 
age. At least, it was so until this vile imported foreign dis- 
ease, called 'La Grippe,' put in an appearance a year or so 
ago. That has not only impaired physical stamina, but worse 
by far, changed a disposition naturally gentle, forbearing, 
and amiable, into the morose and melancholic order. Never 
thought it would please me. The orthography is too Frenchy 
for the ear of an Englishman. 


[20 J 


The second stage of these puerilities naturally calls for a 
new chapter. 

My Uncle Joe was an inborn sportsman, one of the finest 
shots, both with the rifle and shotgun, that I have ever known. 
In due time these were permitted me to use, glorious privi- 
lege that it was. He was the owner likewise of one of the 
finest packs of hounds in Tennessee, and one of the highest 
delights in life was to follow them in his company. Those 
dogs in after years became my sole and exclusive property by 
deed of gift from his son Bob, who was not averse to becoming 
the son-in-law of one of the largest sheep raisers in the coun- 
try, who naturally had a repugnance to the whole canine fam- 
ily, both of high and low degree. Alas ! poor Bob, after sacri- 
ficing his pets to propitiate the father, failed to win the con- 
sent of the daughter, thus losing "Tray, Blanche, Sweetheart, 
and all." Cousin Robert had my heartfelt sympathy, especi- 
ally for the loss of 'Sweetheart/ but when he asked for a 
cancellation of the aforesaid deed, I couldn't see it. Poor 
Bob, it is too mean to spring the story on you at this late day, 
but it was too good to keep all to myself. Still, in this sad, 
sad tale may be seen confirmation of the old saw — "Patient 
waiters are no losers." Though Robert never fed his father's 
flocks on the Grampian Hills, he, nevertheless, married one 
of the finest and finest-looking women in all those parts, and 
can count a round baker's dozen of boys and girls around him, 
whom he and his good wife can call their own. 

Up to that date I had escaped juvenile ailments, including 
the tender passion and the measles. Exemption from the 
first was probably due to native bashf illness and dread of 
'strange creatures.' Next to a lean, lanky, bonified ghost, 
nothing was so terrible as a fat, laughing, romping, rosy- 



cheeked girl. They seemed to know, by instinct, that they 
had me 'hacked/ and it was their delight to play on my fears. 
And yet, it was only a vague, ill-defined apprehension at the 
bottom. The thought never occurred that they would bite 
me any more than that demons would rend me, but they 
scared all the same. The incipient sisterhood ought to know 
better than to make sweet faces and frighten poor innocent 

But the measles ! The whole school had it and could stay 
at home, but it was not for me to take it. 

When the tender passion did awake, each attack was of a 
virulent type, the first love-spell especially. It came on in 
the fourteenth or fifteenth year. By the way, the incertitude 
as to precise dates of important events here shown is a fact 
that is going to give trouble in the furtherance of this self- 
imposed task, never having kept a connected diary as every 
boy and girl, and man and woman, should. But to return 
to my first love. "Inamorata" had the advantage by 
about a dozen years. It was a case of unrequited affection. 
She treated me meanly. Of course, such ill-mated ardor had 
to find utterance by the mouth of the ink-bottle. Yes, let it 
be confessed, I wrote her, aye, in burning words, telling of 
never having loved another, and of unalterable devotion to 
her. Either through the direct agency of that superannuated 
young female, or by surreptitious means, to me unknown, 
that billet-doux passed into the hands of all others most ob- 
jectionable, those of my paternal ancestor. Perhaps, he didn't 
make himself merry, and me miserable, by reference to and 
quotation from that injudicious and ill-starred epistolary 
effusion. These were usually of the merry twinkle of the eye 
sort of order, but none the less galling. It cured me of love 
letters for a long time to follow. Moral: "Boys, do not 
write them ; girls, do not answer them ; and thus the evil will 
be cured." 



A mile from the house was the millpond, replete with fine 
perch, and it afforded endless enjoyment, for I have ever been 
a devotee of the rod — of the fishing-rod, be it understood. 

And so the world sped on for nine or ten years after enter- 
ing this ideal home of boyhood. One day, on returning from 
the creek, soiled, wet, barefoot, coatless, a stranger met me on 
entering. He was one of the most superb specimens of manly 
good looks that I had ever seen up to that time, or have ever 
seen since, and most faultlessly attired. He looked the sol- 
dier in every lineament, movement and gesture, and as one 
born to command. He was my father, and embraced me 
warmly. Kiss me, he did not, and never did, but taught me 
to despise that mode of salutation between men as effeminate 
and savoring too much of the Latin races, none of which stood 
high in his estimation. 

A separate chapter will be devoted to General Green later 



The next day saw me in the hands of the village tailor. 

After emerging, I hardly knew myself, or was recognizable 
to others, such a complete transmogrification having been 
wrought in the outer man. The day after, I made my entry 
into the wide, wide world beyond. 

After mutual lamentations between my aunt, the children 
and myself, my uncle having walked off a piece, we started 
to Nashville, thirty-three miles off, by hired conveyance. 
Eighteen miles from Lebanon stands "The Hermitage," the 
home of one of the grandest and most remarkable men of this 
country and century, or those of any others. General Green 
had been a favored young friend of the grand old man in his 
earlier years, and had spent some time as his guest. His ad- 
miration for him was so great that he bestowed the name of 
the old hero on me, his only child. Note. This I continued 
to bear until the Nullification and Force Proclamation in- 
duced us both to reflect that it would be as well to substitute 
for the old gentleman's first name (Andrew) my mother's 
maiden name Wharton, which has clung to me ever since. 
That political blunder of his was the only act that we de- 

Of course, there was no passing such a spot without stop- 
ping. On being told that the General was still in bed, my 
father told the servant not to disturb him, but to give his card 
on arousing. As we were starting back to the vehicle, the 
servant rushed back exclaiming: "Master says don't go, but 
come right in." Be it said that for this deviation from the 
rule against seeing visitors, the great question of Texan An- 
nexation was then just in the bloom, President Polk having 
been installed in office only a month before. His great prede- 
cessor was so deeply absorbed in this momentous issue that, 



although only six weeks from the grave, he had himself 
helped up and arrayed in his morning gown, seated in easy 
chair with pipe lit, and talked by the hour on this matter 
nearest his heart with one fresh from the Lone-Star Republic, 
and presumably posted on the drift of opinion in that quarter. 
Here was illustration of the old saying — "The ruling passion 
strong in death." One remark impressed me: — "Let me live 
to see that consummated, and I can depart in peace." Other 
things he said that still remain on memory's tablets. 

After a while, as illustrating his proverbial politeness and 
consideration for others, evidently thinking the conversation 
was dull to a boy, he sent for one of his young kinsmen of 
about my age (if not at fault his grandson and namesake), 
aud told him to take me in the garden and show me the 
flowers. He showed more, namely Aunt Rachel's and Uncle 
Andrew's graves, side by side, and covered by a little sum- 
mer-house-like structure. "But the General isn't dead," I 
put in. "All the same," was the reply, "but he wanted to 
have it this way, and you know he has always had his own 
way." To this I assented with the after-thought of after- 
years — "except when Aunt Rachel put in her mild veto, sup- 
plemented with tears." God bless them both! for the "give- 
in," on such occasions, of that iron, and otherwise inflexible, 

On taking leave, he placed his hands upon my head, and 
gave me his blessing. Later on in life, two others of the 
world's celebrities did the same, barring the manipulation, 
thus wise. 

As we were returning from a country-drive one afternoon 
in Rome, we met the head of a pontifical cortege in carriages, 
returning from some church festival or other religious duty. 
Being in Rome, etc., I naturally conformed to the customs of 
Rome, alighted, and stood uncovered until the carriage of Pio 
Nono had passed. To our surprise, it stopped abreast, and 



the venerable Pontifex Maximus, for whom I have ever since 
felt the highest respect, had his driver stop, and, leaning out 
of the window, bestowed the "benedicite" (if correct in 
Church nomenclature), and moved on. Whether that good 
old man's good wish has kept me immune from the ills of life, 
I am not prepared to say, but appreciate the force of the great 
Hildebrand's reproof to the stiff-necked and stiff-kneed young 
Englishman, who refused to kneel at High-Mass in St. 
Peter's : — "My son, the blessing of an old man will do thee 
no hurt." 

The third instance apposite was at "Beauvoir," Mississippi, 
of which more, perhaps, anon. 

It would seem that I ought to have turned out to be a 
much better specimen than I have, after so much benediction 
from sources most highly appreciated, each world-mover, as 
he was. If the blessing of three such good old men as these 
availeth not to keep a poor wayward child out of the burning, 
then tell me not of a conjoint one of the whole College of 
Cardinals, with the eleven thousand virgins of Cologne thrown 
in for good measure. 

On leaving that historic home of the most pronounced, not 
to say remarkable, character in American history, I could 
but remark on the judicious judgment in selection and the 
good taste in its development. Everything evinced the eye 
and touch of the natural artist in all of its concomitants and 
surroundings. The "Hermitage neighborhood" had long been 
a synonym for refinement, high tone, and hospitality, up to 
the outbreak of the war, as I can aver from frequent visits 
thereabouts later on in early manhood. The fertility of the 
soil and adaptability to agriculture were in keeping with 
those exalted traits of the owners. In the heart of that lovely 
region it was that the hero of the most wonderful battle, and 
one of the most unique and phenomenal careers on record, 
built his house and reared his beautiful and peaceful home in 

[26 j 


the latter part of one of the stormiest and yet withal one of 
the most uniformly successful lives, on a grand historic scale, 
that any man can point to. 

His previous homes, from the one-room cabin in Western 
North Carolina, in which his grand old Irish mother had 
blessed the world at large, but more especially her newly 
adopted country, with a hero, a sage, a statesman, and, above 
all, a MA1ST. His homes, I say, and surroundings, had not 
been of the highest aesthetic type, but he was at home where- 
ever he was, from the aforesaid cabin to the Presidential 
mansion. He was a marked figure in every sphere and sta- 
tion of life. This power of adaptability to change of condi- 
tions and circumstances has been adduced by a great thinker 
as one of the most infallible proofs of inborn gentility, if not 
of highest order of genius. He was right, and here was an 
exemplar of the combination. Of him it may be said, if of 
any, — "And thus he bore, without reproach, the grand old 
name of gentleman" ; the best definition of which rare char- 
acter, as given by Thackeray, is — "It is to be gentle and gen- 
erous, brave and wise, and having these qualifications, to 
exercise them in the most graceful manner." This he exem- 
plified always, as Bayard might have done at times, Chester- 
field never. 

Of him was said by a newly arrived French ambassador : — 
"This, Mr. Secretary of State, is the surprise of my life. I 
went in with you expecting to find a boor in your Chief Mag- 
istrate, and I tell you now, in all soberness, that I know not 
his counterpart for refinement in the court of my own coun- 
try." High praise that from a Frenchman. 

In that lovely section of country, he drew around him on 
neighboring plantations many of his wife's kindred, having 
none of his own. These, and other congenial homes in the 
surrounding country, made it one of the most famous resi- 
dential quarters in the entire country. Such was the fitting 



retreat of the old hero in the closing years of his most remark^ 
able career. Here it was rounded off some six or eight weeks 
after the visit referred to, in peace and good will with all 
mankind, as he declared to his beloved pastor, Dr. Edgar, 
some time before the end came. No man ever had such hosts 
of warm, devoted friends, and few, such virulent and implac- 
able foes. The first he owed to his undeviating sincerity, 
utter fearlessness, and devotion to duty, both public and pri- 
vate. The last were due, in great measure, to his self-assert- 
iveness whenever his conscience told him he was in the right. 
Assertive he usually was when so convinced; needlessly ag- 
gressive, most rarely. Most marked instance of this last was 
his quarrel with a brother-giant, Mr. Calhoun, whose nature 
was cast in a kindred mould. 

He ever met the puppy impertinence of "unworthies," 
whether on his own social plane or not, with silent and sov- 
ereign contempt, until it called for the cane, the cowhide, or 
the pistol. It must be confessed, too, that in his earlier man- 
hood he fought cocks, raised and ran race-horses, and deported 
himself generally like an untamed young war-horse of the 
young country in which his lot was cast. But there was no 
duplicity or sniveling or hypocrisy in his make-up. He wore 
his badge upon his sleeve, and it bore the impress — "truth, 
courage, honor, country, charity," and his escutcheon was 
never belied. True, perhaps, at that stage he was not a 
model specimen of approved orthodox "high society," a "4-00" 
sort of artificial thing; but he was what that pack of popin- 
jays could not evolve in a million years — a MAN, — such as 
the poet called for — 

" Give me a man that's all a man, 
Who stands up straight and strong ; 
Who loves the plain and simple truth, 
And scorns to do a wrong." 

There he was ! 



£ The last time I visited this tomb of a hero was just three 
years ago, on the occasion of the Confederate Veterans' Re- 
union in Nashville, in 1897, in company of my wife, young- 
est daughter, and Mrs. Mary Donelson Wilcox of Washington, 
daughter of President Jackson's Private Secretary, Andrew 
J. Donelson, and the first child ever horn in the White House. 
It was a privilege to have this accomplished woman for a 
cicerone midst the scenes of her girlhood days, replete with 
incident and childhood memories of Uncle Andrew. It was 
one of the mysterious charms that he possessed, that all chil- 
dren loved him after their brief acquaintance. He seemed to 
crave the company of the little ones, probably because he and 
Rachel had none of their own, and he, not a known relation 
in the world. The great man was lonesome. 



Perhaps, it may be said by some that the preceding chapter 
is a little too effusive in laudation of this extraordinary man. 
To such be it said, that the estimate given is the mature 
conviction of life-long reading and reflection in maturer years. 
In boyhood days, he was far from being one of my ideal 
heroes, for that period had been passed in the strongest Whig 
county, I believe, in the United States, where party passion 
ran to the highest pitch, and my juvenile mind had been 
unconsciously tinctured with antipathies against our neigh- 
bor, just over the Wilson border, closely akin to what had 
until lately been felt for the devil. And yet, here was a 
philosophic Warwick, who made Presidents and shaped poli- 
cies, in his voluntary retiracy. Tell me not, ye partisan 
bigots, that this man was not a giant among giants. He 
stands on the historic scroll so inscribed, and all the puny 
malignity of partisan and sectional hate cannot wipe it out. 
In all reverence, be it said ; God be praised, he was a JSForth 

I come now to speak of another character of kindred type, 
if not the same effulgent shine — my father. 

General Thomas Jefferson Green ; a sketch from the North 
Carolina University Magazine, 1892, ISTo. 5, by his son, 
W. J. Green. 

Despite the possible imputation that praise of a near kins- 
man is only a sort of reflected self-laudation, I venture to 
give the outline of the life-story of my nearest male progeni- 
tor, premising that if space permitted a fuller recital, the 
lives of few would furnish more varied and startling incident. 

To briefly summarize. In the fifteen years of his active 
public life he had been a representative in one or the other 
branch of no less than four different State legislatures, a 


.- - : 

(<K J, uM&u) 


brigadier-general in command during the Texan revolution, 
had laid the foundation of three cities now in train of full- 
fledged development, had by legislative enactment established 
the boundary line between Texas and Mexico, which led to 
the war between the United States and Mexico and the result- 
ing acquisition by us of ISTew Mexico, Arizona, California and 
Nevada ; and was the first active advocate of a railroad to the 
Pacific, giving as reason imperative public necessity, gauged 
simply from a military standpoint, and without reference to 
the great East Indian trade, which has been the making 
(omitting unmaking) of every State claiming its monopoly. 
There is a record, and a sustainable record, of which no man 
need be ashamed. 

Born amidst the throes of political revolution, of which 
Jefferson and Hamilton were the incarnate embodiment of 
antagonizing ideas, he received the name and espoused the 
teachings of the first, and clung to them with unwavering 
tenacity until his final dissolution amdist the mighty clash 
of arms resulting some three-score years later on. He ever 
held that his namesake was the wisest political thinker of all 
times, and that Mr. Calhoun was his worthy disciple. ISTo 
public act of his did he ever deplore or deprecate, save his 
ungenerous persecution of a kindred intellect and on the same 
line of thought. Speaking of this last, self-poised and self- 
reliant, shipwrecked by emotional clamor and the force of 
circumstances, he has been heard to declare that "the best- 
directed bullet that ever left the mouth of a pistol was when 
Colonel Burr pulled trigger ou the heights of Weehawken." 

He once took that unfortunate gentleman as text to incul- 
cate a lesson to me. "Whilst Colonel Burr pushed his con- 
tempt of invidious public opinion to a fatal extreme, I would 
nevertheless have you, my son, imitate him to the extent of 
not attaching undue weight to the fulsome praise of over- 
zealous friends or the covert dispraise of inimical mouthers. 



He, whose life motto is 'mens sibi conscia recti/ will not be 
unduly elated or depressed by either." 

He was partly educated at Chapel Hill, and partly at the 
United States Military Academy. Returning home, he was 
elected to the General Assembly shortly after attaining his 
majority. Shortly thereafter he married the daughter of 
Hon. Jesse Wharton, of Nashville, Tennessee, who had fig- 
ured in both houses of Congress from that State. Thereupon 
he removed to Florida, then a territory, and engaged in plant- 
ing until the death of his young wife five years later, having 
represented his county in the Legislature during that time. 
He thereupon repaired to Texas, which had lately declared 
her independence of Mexico, and tendered his services to the 
young republic, just then emerging into statehood. It is safe 
to assert that no corresponding population of any age or 
country ever possessed such a galaxy of adventurous, daring 
spirits, and brilliant, brainy, cultured men. They poured in 
from all sections and many countries, but notably from the 
Southern States. A common impulse actuated all, namely, to 
throw off the Mexican yoke and to erect a new republic identi- 
cal with that on the other side of the Sabine. 

When it is taken into account that the incipient State 
covered an area about seven times greater than North Caro- 
lina, and was occupied by a meager population, barely exceed- 
ing that of Wake County to-day, and that these had deliber- 
ately resolved to measure blades and try conclusions with an 
adjacent nation nearly two hundred to a unit in excess of 
numbers, the purpose ranks either as the superlative of mad- 
ness or the sublimity of heroism. They dared to do it, and 
they did it. 

Odds considered, it eclipses all the revolutions of ante- 
cedent time. Of course minimum in numbers had to be 
compensated by maximum in men, and so it was. There 
were no dwarfs or cowards there, but "men, high-minded 



men," and mostly of good old English stock. By any others 
the attempt would have been the acme of lunacy. Consider 
but a few of them, for small as their number was, it was too 
extended for a muster-roll. There was Branch T. Archer, 
"the old Roman," the father of the revolution ; Albert Sidney 
Johnston, by a later war catalogued with the recognized few 
greatest captains of all time; John Wharton, "the keenest 
blade that flashed on the field of San Jacinto," and William, 
his well-mated brother ; Mirabeau Lamar, statesman, soldier, 
poet, philanthropist, with inherent intellect permeating every 
drop of his blood. There was Felix Huston, of fame punc- 
tilious, and grand old Ruske, and Henderson, Hamilton, 
Houston, Burleson, Burnet, Hunt, Milam Travis, Crockett, 
Bee, Hays, McCulloch, Moore, Fisher, Sherman, Wilson, 
Anson Jones, Lubock, Smith, and a legion of others too 
numerous to mention — heroes, one and all. 

"Souls made of fire, and children of the sun," were they, 
imbued with hatred of oppression and love of adventure. 
General (and afterwards Governor and Senator) Foote 
places the subject of this memoir in the forefront rank of 
those gallant spirits for services rendered his adopted coun- 
try. (Vide "Texas and Texans.") We challenge any his- 
toric State, numbers considered, to mate at juncture that 
matchless chivalry in all the lofty attributes of true man- 
hood. Let the slur of witlings be admitted that some there 
were in that heterogenous population "who had quit their 
country for their country's good." I, for one, will maintain, 
if need be, before a college of cardinals, that self-sacrifice that 
prompted the following of such as these condoned much pre- 
vious offending. 

Charity is first in the eye of the Most High. Where can 

higher illustration be found than in heroism which prompts 

self-immolation for principle and for posterity ? Who knows 

that when the golden gates are being besieged by clamorous 

3 [33] 


claim for admittance, "Goliad" and "The Alamo" will not 
constitute better passport to the sympathetic old janitor, who 
upon a generous impulse could chop off an ear, than will 
psalmody, unsupported by regard for the rights of others? 
I can but believe that Peter will strain a point when Crockett 
and Travis and Fannin knock. 

Arriving in Texas in 1836, he was commissioned brigadier- 
general and directed to return to "the States" and raise a 
brigade. This he promptly did, absorbing his entire fortune 
in the effort. Whilst so engaged in ISTew Orleans a ludicrous 
incident is reported to have occurred in one of the Episcopal 
churches of that city. There was a striking likeness between 
his kinsman, the Rev. Leonid as Polk, and himself. One 
Sunday some of his recruits chanced to stray into a church 
where the later-on fighting bishop was officiating. One of 
them, mistaking him for his senior officer, who was not over- 
clerically inclined, remarked, loud enough to be heard by 
most of the congregation: "Well, boys, who'd a thought it? 
Uncle Jeff a-preaching, and in his shirt-tail at that." It is 
needless to add that an unorthodox smile spread over the 

In the meanwhile the decisive battle of San Jacinto had 
been won against overwhelming odds, and the Mexican Gen- 
eralissimo was a puling prisoner. Pate so ordained that 
General Green should arrive at Yelasco on the identical day 
that Santa Anna was released and placed on a war vessel to 
be carried to Vera Cruz. General Green, believing this to be 
an unauthorized exercise of power on the part of some one, 
protested against its being carried out. Together with Gen- 
erals Hunt and Henderson, under authority of President Bur- 
net, he went on board and brought him ashore. This action 
was fully sustained by the government, and the tyrant was 
consigned to his custody for safe keeping. During the time, 

he was my father's guest and bed-fellow. When their rela- 



tions were subsequently reversed, General Green was made to 
feel acutely his long pent-up venom. The Mexican assassin 
ordered him heavily ironed and made to work the roads. 
This last he emphatically refused to do, though threatened 
with death as the alternative. (See his Journal.) 

For a while the young republic enjoyed comparative immu- 
nity after her big neighbor had been taught on the San 
Jacinto the sort of material she was made of. But later on, 
Mexico relying on numbers and resources, and her President 
having partially recovered from his panic, incident to the 
San Jacinto 'grip' and consequent confinement, began his 
incursions again, and carried them on in a most merciless 
and demoniac spirit, scarcely equalled in barbaric atrocity by 
any civilized people since the devastation of the Palatinate. 

Then it was, as if by common consent of the sturdy settlers, 
a counter-invasion was resolved upon. A force of two or 
three thousand was assembled, and all clamorous for retalia- 
tion. But, through executive, sharp practice and chicane, 
President Houston being opposed to the movement, the bulk 
of them was induced to disband and return to their homes. 
Some seven hundred, however, resolved to remain, and, under 
command of General Somerville, an appointee of President 
Sam Houston, crossed into Mexico. Their commander, how- 
ever, imitating the King of Prance, marched over, and then 
marched back again. Then, under implied executive author- 
ity, he started homewards with something like one-half of his 

Three hundred and four gallant fellows, however, refused 
to go, and determined to recross the Rio Grande and try con- 
clusions on the enemy's ground. The battle of Mier was the 
consequence, in which two hundred and sixty-one (261) 
Texans, after inflicting a loss of over three times their num- 
ber upon a force of two thousand three hundred and forty 



(2,340) under General Ampudia, were cajoled into a sur- 
render by false claim and falser promise. It is well-estab- 
lished fact that General Green, the second in command, pro- 
tested most loudly against such promise, and called for a 
hundred volunteers to cut their way through the enemy's 
lines. These not being forthcoming, he was surrendered with 
the rest, after firing with effect the two last shots and break- 
ing his arms. 

They were then started on foot for the Castle of Perote for 
safe keeping, that being the strongest fortress in Mexico; 
Colonel Fisher, General Green, and Captain Henrie as inter- 
preter, being kept in advance as hostages for the good be- 
havior of the others. When considerably advanced in the 
country, he found means to communicate with the command, 
and enjoined upon them to make a break if opportunity 
occurred, without regard to himself and the other two. This 
they did at Salado, overpowering and disarming a guard of 
more than twice their nuifiber, and started back for Texas. 
Subsequently they were recaptured in the mountains, in a 
starving condition and perishing of thirst. Then ensued one 
of the crowning infamies of Mexico's President — the tyrant, 
Santa Anna. By his bloodthirsty order, every tenth man of 
that little band of heroes was, by lot, taken out and assassi- 
nated. Upon receipt of news of it, a halt was called and the 
hostages told to dismount in order to carry out his orders to 
shoot them. 

All preliminaries to the command "Fire !" being arranged, 
the captain, who was a devout son of the Established Church, 
bethought himself of one oversight. "Gentlemen," he said, 
through the interpreter, "would you not like priestly consola- 
tion before we part company ?" "Tell him no," was my 
father's rejoinder; "that we belong to a race that knows but 
one Father confessor, and He seems to be unknown in this 
God-forsaken country." 



Being then asked if he would like to niake a dying speech, 
the reply was : "Tell him yes, Dan, I have a dying speech to 
make ; that I had begun to think we were in charge of a gen- 
tleman and a soldier, but now discover the mistake ; that, like 
most of his mongrel race, he is only a d — d cowardly assassin 
and hireling butcher." 

Poor Dan, who taught me Spanish a little later on, and 
who was by act of the United States Congress a little later 
recognized hero of "Encarnacion," was of incalculable ser- 
vice to General Taylor on the eve of Buena Yista, by informa- 
tion conveyed by him by means of one of the most reckless 
escapes ever made after that surrender. The incident de- 
serves more than passing notice. Captain Henrie (Dan) was 
an ex-midshipman in the United States navy, and laughed 
at danger as he did at most other things. He was amongst 
the first to volunteer in the Mexican war, giving as a reason 
that he intended "to get even with the green-backed mulattoes 
over the Grande." "When Colonel Clay's command, on ad- 
vanced service, was surrounded and captured at Encarnacion, 
Dan was of the number. General Ampudia, recognizing him, 
remarked: "And so, Captain Henrie, we are to have the 
pleasure of your company back to Perote !" "Excuse me, 
General," was the saucy reply ; "when I travel I generally 
select my own company." The Colonel, who was riding a 
high-mettled thoroughbred by courtesy of the captor, rode up 
to Dan shortly after the march was begun, and told him in 
undertone that it was all-important that General Taylor 
should be advised that the enemy were concentrating in over- 
whelming force in that quarter. "Get me in your stirrups, 
Colonel, and I'll take it to him, or die," was the prompt reply. 
This was effected on the plea that he, the Colonel, would like 
for one of his men to tone down his charger. Dan, of course, 
was the man selected. As soon as he was in the saddle he 
began to make the noble animal restive by a sly application 



of the spur, and then suddenly driving them both in to the 
rowels, he rode through and over half a dozen mustangs and 
their riders, and, though a thousand "escopitas" were emptied 
at him, he and his horse escaped without a scratch. Waving 
his hat, he yelled back: "Adios, Ampudia; tell old Peg-Leg 
(Santa Anna) we'll give him hell." In briefest time possi- 
ble the news was conveyed to "Old Zack." In recognition of 
the feat, Congress voted the hero six thousand dollars 
($6,000) and two thousand (2,000) acres of land (if I am 
correct as to quantity), and Dan lived upon it like a fighting 
cock for three whole months, and a little later on died in the 
Charity Hospital, St. Louis, true to the last to man's noblest 
instincts and to all of his host of friends, except himself. 

Captain Henrie, I say, used laughingly to remark that 
whilst the General's "dying speech was rendered in my best 
and most expressive Castilian," I took the liberty of adding 
on my own hook : "Captain, them's not my sentiments ; I 
know you to be muy valiente." Dan further added that the 
effect produced by the "dying speech" was electric, and just 
the reverse of that anticipated. "Tell him," exclaimed the 
Mexican officer, "he is not mistaken. If General Santa Anna 
requires paid butchers, he will have to find a substitute for 
me. Mount, gentlemen, and let's push on." 

Close shaving, that ! Finally, the whole party were locked 
up in Perote's dungeon keep. Before they had well gotten 
their new quarters warm, objecting to the cold comfort they 
afforded, sixteen of the most resolute determined to vacate 
them and re-immigrate to Texas. To do this they had to cut 
through an eight-foot wall composed of a volcanic rock harder 
than granite, and with most crude and indifferent utensils to 
work with. It was a conception sufficient to have appalled 
even Baron Trenck, whom all the State prisons of Prussia 
could not restrain. It required weeks and months of unremit- 
ting work to do it, but finally it was done ; and on the night 



of July 2, 1843, they crawled through the narrow aperture, 
which six months of starvation made easier for them, let them- 
selves down by means of a small rope to the bottom of the 
moat, some twenty or thirty feet below, scaled the opposite 
side and a "chevaux de frise" beyond, and stood up free once 
more, but carrying their lives in hand. Here they separated, 
by preconcert, into parties of two ; General Green and our old 
friend, Captain Dan Henrie, going together and striking out 
for Vera Cruz. Eight of them, after incalculable sufferings, 
hardships and hairbreadth escapes, including the two last 
named, got back to Texas. The other eight were recaptured. 

All of the special details, incidents and anecdotes connected 
with these splendid achievements were graphically told by 
General Green in "The Texan Expedition Against Mier," an 
octavo volume of some five hundred pages, published by the 
Harpers in 1845, a work extensively sold, which many of 
your older readers will doubtless recall, now out of print. 

Shortly after his arrival at home, he was returned to the 
Congress of Texas, where he was unremitting in his efforts 
to effect the release of his unfortunate comrades whom he 
left in Mexican dungeons. This was finally effected, some 
twelve months later on, after some of their original number 
had paid the extreme j)enalty that cowardly tyranny can 
extort from freedom's champions when the opportunity offers. 
This imperfect tribute to their valor and endurance is being 
penned on the forty-ninth Christmas anniversary of that won- 
derful fight. 

During his legislative service he introduced the bill making 
the Bio Grande the boundary line between the two contending 
countries, which became a law, the "Neuces" being the ex- 
treme limit that Mexico would either directly or indirectly 
recognize. It was upon the basis of claim then set up that 
President Polk, after annexation, ordered troops under Gen- 
eral Taylor to the mouth of the first-named river, which 



resulted in the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca and the war 
ensuing. That the acquisition of the vast and indispensable 
territory by the treaty of peace was worth hundreds of times 
more to the United States than the cost of the war amounted 
to, is now generally conceded. 

On the eve of annexation he returned to the United States, 
and shortly after married the widow of John S. Ellery, of 
Boston, a lady of rare worth and manifold attractions. 

Four years later (1849) we find him journeying alone 
through Mexico, from Vera Cruz to Acapulco, on his way to 
California, which was just then looming into consequence by 
reason of large gold discoveries. After working in the mines 
for a while, he was elected to the first Senate of that State 
and served out one term, being a prominent candidate for the 
United States Senate in the ensuing year. 

While in that State he projected and laid out the towns of 
Oro and Vallejo, the last for a while the recognized capital, 
and both now places of considerable repute. During his citi- 
zenship in Texas he, in connection with Dr. Archer and the 
Whartons, had purchased and laid out Velasco at the mouth 
of the Brazos, now of recognized importance, owing to recent 
deepening of water on the bars. 

During his sojourn in California he was made major- 
general of her militia and sent with an adequate force to 
suppress Indian disturbances in the interior, which was done. 
But a greater work was the defeat of what was known as the 
"Divorce Bill" in that first Legislature, which authorized 
absolute separation upon mutual request of man and wife. 
Unless mistaken, this infamous measure, making marriage a 
practical nullity, had passed the House and was about to be 
brought up in the Senate, with every indication of an almost 
unanimous vote, if taken on that day. At the time, there 
being few women in the State, the far-reaching and pernicious 
effects were not duly weighed and considered. Senators 



Green and McDougall (afterwards Governor and United 
States Senator) were amongst the very few in opposition to 
the measure ; but they were earnest, and, after exhausting all 
the devices of parliamentary strategy possible, succeeded in 
postponing a vote, thereby defeating the measure. 

During the same session he introduced and had passed a 
bill for the establishment of a State University, which has 
grown to be one of the most flourishing and best endowed 
schools on the continent. That world-renowned scholar, Pro- 
fessor Daniel C. Gilman, was called from its presidency to 
fill the same position in the Johns Hopkins University, which 
he has done in a way to elicit the admiration and astonish- 
ment of the scholastic world. 

The reader will, I trust, pardon a personal reminiscence in 
this connection of the narrative. Shortly after Mr. Polk's 
inauguration as President, General Green returned to the 
United States, and taking me, then a small boy, with him, 
repaired to the Hermitage and passed the greater part of the 
day with his old and honored friend, ex-President Jackson. 
It was a visit ever to be remembered. Although but six 
short weeks intervened between that day and the one that saw 
him borne to the corner of his garden for interment, his old- 
time vigor of expression and enthusiasm seemed in nowise 
abated. The old hero had himself lifted out of bed, and, 
whilst sitting upright in an easy chair, entered warmly into 
conversation with his visitor upon the current topics of the 
day, upon men and upon horses. Upon the question of Texan 
annexation he said : "Let me live to see it, and I can truly 
say 'Let Thy servant depart in peace.' ' As we were leaving, 
he arose with an effort, and placing his hand upon my head, 
gave me his blessing. 

Some four and forty years thereafter, almost to the day, 
antedating dissolution, it was my singular good fortune to 
have been present at the death-bed, as it were, of another 



patriot hero, sage, and statesman. Some six weeks before his 
death, and by his invitation, I passed three or four days with 
ex-President Davis in his quiet and lovely retreat of "Beau- 
voir." It was indeed a personal privilege to have seen and 
heard those two immortal men at the same stage of their sun- 
set. In grand heroic qualities they were of kindred type, and 
cast in kindred mould. Self-reliant conviction, and devotion 
to conviction pedestaled on high principles, was the ruling 
trait of each. It was the ruling trait of Csesar, and, in lesser 
degree, of Cromwell, of Frederic, and of Napoleon. Coupled 
with high genius, and the hero is the inevitable outcome. 

In those two old men I see, and methinks posterity will 
see, the two most pronounced and Titanic figures of this 
country during the century. But a truce to digression, and 
return to our subject. That he was the friend of such, and 
of Calhoun and Albert Sidney Johnston, is a no mean letter of 
credit of itself. 

During the pending annexation negotiations he was ten- 
dered by Mr. Polk's administration the post of confidential 
agent in that matter, but declined on the ground that he was 
then a citizen of the other contracting power. Later on, he 
was indirectly offered by President Pierce another important 
diplomatic appointment, but again requested that his name 
might not be sent to the Senate. 

In his declining years he returned to his native county and 
settled on a plantation on Shocco Creek, known as "Esmer- 
alda," and passed his remaining days in the cultivation of 
corn and tobacco, old friendships and old-fashioned hospi- 
tality. He had long foreseen and foretold as inevitable the 
great political crisis which resulted in the clash of arms be- 
tween the sections in 1861. Whilst devoutly attached to "the 
Union of the Constitution," nevertheless, when he saw the 
trend of events and could deduce therefrom but the one alter- 
native of sectional domination or sectional assertion, he did 



not hesitate which to espouse. In fact, he may be said to have- 
been what few now are willing to confess themselves to have 
been — an "original secessionist," a secessionist per se. He 
reasoned that the solution of the dread question "by wager 
of battle" was unavoidable, and each recurring census told 
him that the longer it was deferred, the worse it would be 
for the assertive and weaker side. The unceasing regret of 
his latter days, and hastening cause of his death, was that 
when the mighty crisis came he was debarred by chronic dis- 
ease (the gout) from taking part. 

He died, as some have said, from a broken heart, sequent 
upon a succession of disasters in 1863, including Gettysburg, 
Vicksburg, Port Hudson, and operations incident to these last. 

He died on the 12th of December, 1863, and was buried in 
his garden whilst the writer was a prisoner of war on John- 
son's Island. 

In manner he was suave, gentle and polite, although stran- 
gers might have thought him a little brusque. In form and 
feature, one of the finest specimens of physical manhood ever 
seen. Simple and straightforward in his bearing and inter- 
course with all, he loathed duplicity and hypocrisy in others. 
Especially did he hold in unutterable abhorrence vulgar up- 
start pretension and pretenders, whether of the purse-proud, 
official, or any other variety, mattered naught. Had he made 
accumulation and money-making the primary object of life, 
he had died wealthy, for few ever had such opportunities. 

This poor notice of a pronounced and historic character and 
gallant gentleman cannot be more fittingly closed than by an 
excerpt from an address of a gifted young friend, Mr. Tasker 
Polk, of Warrenton, ]^"orth Carolina : 

"Among all her illustrious sons of the past, there is not one 
at the shrine of whose memory Warren County looks with 
greater love and reverence than at that of General Thomas J. 
Green. He was generous to a fault, noble and grand, fiery 



and impulsive ; heard the Texan cry for freedom, left a home 
of luxury, sought the field where blood like water flowed, and 
unsheathed his sword in defense of a stranger land, nor 
sheathed it till that land was freed. The cry of the oppressed 
reached his ear, and was answered by his unselfish heart — 
that heart which gave the first beat of life 'neath Warren's 

''Bravely and gallantly he fought. His blood stained the 
plains and broad prairies of Texas, the cause for which he 
fought triumphed, the "Lone Star State" was saved from 
Mexican persecution, and his chivalric nature was satisfied. 
Years passed, but the memory of old Warren still remained 
fresh in his mind. 

"He returned to spend the remainder of his illustrious life 
among his people, and many yet there are who remember with 
pleasure how 'Esmeralda's' door, whether touched by hand of 
rich or poor, ever swung on the hinges of hospitality." 



To return from this digression. We reached Nashville two 
hours later, and, after a week's delay, continued on north by 
steamboat, stopping over in Louisville a few days. At that 
time and place was being held a religious council, conference, 
convocation, or whatever the appropriate designation may be, 
which was pregnant with most momentous consequences a 
little later on. 

It was beyond my ken to grasp its import at the time. My 
father did, and remarked to me, when the decision was 
announced dividing the great Methodist Church into two 
bodies on sectional lines : 

"That, my son, is the entering wedge which is destined to 
split this Union asunder and to deluge the country in blood. 
Yankee bigotry, impudence, and numerical count with each 
recurring census, have long held the hellish purpose in con- 
templation, and only bides the odds that cowardice demands 
to set about its execution. Whilst it will prove (whatever the 
issue) the greatest calamity that ever befell a free people, 
nevertheless, if they will have it, let it come, and the sooner 
for us the better, owing to the aforesaid census-taker of suc- 
ceeding decades." 

Was he a prophet? 

The question at issue on that grave occasion, as it recurs 
after a lapse of intervening years, involved the right of a 
bishop of that persuasion holding slaves, whether hereditary 
bondsmen or otherwise. The verdict rendered on that occa- 
sion by that oracular body was reproof, reprimand, insult, 
not only to that high dignitary, but to every subordinate 
canonical who might aspire to that high pinnacle. ISFay, 
more ; the vile insult reached out by implication and included 
every member of the laity who was or might be possessor of 



a "chattel in black," either by ancestral devise or by purchase 
from New England "negro-traders," ab initio, or later on. 
Every other church, except two, I believe, soon followed the 
pernicious example set. 

Thus, these in alliance with a cackling flock of fussy old 
maids, some in petticoats and some in breeches, with a lot 
of old Congressional emasculates thrown in for seasoning, was 
set a-boiling this hell broth of brotherly hate, which required 
sulphur and saltpetre, and most plethoric supplies of the com- 
bination, to tone it down. Moral : Let the church or churches 
attend to legitimate duties, and let extraneous ones severely 
alone; let the class of nondescript sex just named forswear 
political meetings as above their reach and comprehension; 
let them stay at home and rock the cradle, not of home- 
production contents, which nature, with wise forethought, has 
denied that unfortunate class, but let them borrow of their 
more fortunate neighbors. The advice is well meant, and if 
adopted will keep that whole tribe out of political pow-wows 
and caterwaulings, and check their insatiate and insane crav- 
ing for notoriety. Let us give gratitude that our section is 
not favorable to such noxious, hermaphroditic, fungus growth. 

In due time — that is, about four times what it now takes — 
the Federal Capital was reached. Barring the public build- 
ings, which were even then creditable to a new country, de- 
spite later-on comparisons, when they stand, as to-day, the 
finest in the world, the city of Washington gave little promise 
of its subsequent marvellous development. Muddy and un- 
paved streets, dwellings and stores of common structure and 
two or three stories in height, vacant lots almost reaching out 
to the dignity of corn-fields, sloshy crossings between streets ! 
A sluggish, murky creek ran, or rather crept, through the 
town, euphemistically or derisively called "The Tiber." Gar- 
bage heaps and cesspools there were on all hands. Such was 
a most uninviting village, as seen by me and the snob Dickens 



much about the same time. It was about midway between 
this day and the one on which President Washington and his 
Trench protege, L'Enfant, first began work on the metropolis 
that was to be, half a century intervening. 

What a contrast between the straggling village and the city 
of to-day ! What a contrast between then and now ! Except 
in numbers, rivaling the proudest capitals in the world to-day 
in grandeur and magnificence, and suggesting those of ancient 
fame on the banks of the Tiber and Tigris. What it is des- 
tined to be at the middle of the dawning century baffles the 
imagination and "must give us pause." For the past last 
half its growth and artistic developmeut have kept pace with 
the material progress of the country, which, until lately, was 
bounded by oceans on every cardinal side save one, until in 
an evil hour, lust for more land and imperial sway made 
oceans far too contracted for our boundary lines. The "mad 
sons" of Macedon and Corsica were actuated by the same 
boundless outreach of desire. May not republics profit by the 
outlined warnings of tyrants and would-be all-ruling and out- 
reaching despots, wearers of purple and crowns though they 
be ? Our tribe are mighty good imitators on that line, as is 
now being developed. 

It has been said that only three men in recorded history 
have essayed the task of building a big city by systematic plan 
and method, who succeeded in the undertaking. These, I 
believe, are Alexander, Constantine, and Peter of Russia, 
each of whom left a monument behind adding to the immor- 
tality of its builder, whose name it bore. Here stands cata- 
logued a fourth ! Each was built by the pride of men, by 
subsidies and largess out of the public coffers. 

While I was in Washington I was introduced by my father 
to President Polk and most of his cabinet, as well as to numer- 
ous prominent gentlemen in both houses of Congress, amongst 
them being Hon. Robert J. Walker, Secretary of the Treasury, 



who, by common consent of most competent judges, is held to 
be the ablest financier who has ever held that high position. 
Ten years later he did me the honor to take me in his law 
office as junior associate with himself and Mr. Louis Janin 
in the capital city, having just been admitted to practice 
before the Supreme Court of the United States. 

From Washington the journey was continued to Bidgeway, 
North Carolina, to make the acquaintance of my paternal 
grandmother, then eighty years of age. This venerable lady 
impressed one from the start as one born to command, and 
such was the reputation that tradition gave her, after raising 
a dozen full-grown boys and girls. Her right to command 
was recognized of all, and most of all by the old campaigner 
who had just returned after a ten-years runaway. I am per- 
suaded that in the even tenor of her way she instilled a 
wholesome respect for petticoat government on all of her im- 
mediate offspring, omitting not a progenitor of the masculine 
gender, who enjoyed the singular felicity of being my grand- 
father. And yet she was a very little woman. 

Here I remained for the next few months, studying Spanish 
under my father's old prison-mate, Captain Dan Henrie, and 
indulging my fondness for miscellaneous reading, besides get- 
ting acquainted with my paternal kindred, none of whom 
were previously known. As a rule, they turned out to be, 
like those on the maternal side of the house, a very creditable 
connection. Then returned to Washington and passed the 
winter at the old "United States Hotel," at the time one of 
the best caravansaries in the city, but in the march of subse- 
quent progress now difficult to find. It stood on Pennsyl- 
vania avenue, near Four-and-a-half street. 

During that time I had for room-mate one of the most 
remarkable men of his age, Dr. Branch T. Archer, to whom 
allusion has already been made. He was the admitted first 
instigator to revolt against Mexican tyranny in the newly- 



fledged commonwealth (Texas), and that in a town garrisoned 
by a thousand Mexican soldiery. He had sent out circulars 
to every American settler, within a radius of thirty miles, to- 
be on hand at appointed time with rifle and bowie knife. 
Some three or four dozen of the sturdy fellows were there to 
meet him. In burning words he told of the wrongs and out- 
rages to which the young colony had been subjected by irre- 
sponsible satraps and their minions, and appealed to their 
Anglo-Saxon manhood to rise on the spot and put an end to 
the crying shame of white men longer submitting to the sway 
of mongrels and mulattoes. 

His words went home, the little band rose to a man, and 
killed, captured or expelled the entire garrison, and Texas 
thence on was to all intents a free, sovereign and independent 
State. Never was more daring experiment tried by a single 
man for grander purpose. It might aptly be termed a single 
handed hero lynching a Regiment, or rather, as results prove, 
an Empire, and for the only cause that justifies lynching. 
Let Horatius take a back seat. Fearless as he was by nature, 
he could but realize the apparent foolhardiness of the venture, 
and had a fine thoroughbred saddled and ready at hand in 
case his appeal failed to strike fire. Strike it did, and won 
for him the proud title which he ever wore, and wears, of 
"Father of the Texan Revolution." Gentle and kind-hearted 
he was to a degree ; but proud, haughty, and punctilious to a 
fine point, in the face of unwarranted and arrogant assump- 
tion. He was, on the whole, a sort of living embodiment of 
Lever's inimitable character, Count Considine, barring his 
superior culture and refinement. He and my father had been 
for long like twin brothers, living under the same roof, and 
the love he bore the father was naturally continued to the 
son. His society was ever more congenial to me than that of 
younger person^ of more suitable years. Although he could 

4 ["49] 


have had the entree to any society at the capital, I was vain 
enough to think that he preferred mine, as I did his. 

In one of the evening chats over the fire, conversation lead- 
ing thereto, he remarked with much feeling : 

"Jackson, never step on any man's toes ; but be equally 
careful, my boy, that no man steps on yours. It has been my 
rule of conduct through life, and I have never regretted it." 

The remark is given for a purpose. Id earlier manhood 
he had a close kinsman and bosom-friend, though differing in 
politics. In an evil hour a deadly insult was passed, which 
only blood could atone. With high attainments, keen sense of 
honor, and blood the bluest of the blue, it was well under- 
stood that one or the other had to die. Dr. Archer, as was 
well known, made every possible effort to avert the inevitable, 
even apologizing on "the field" and imploring his kinsman 
to pause and consider. The first shot settled all difficulties, 
and somJ there were who felt inclined to envy the man who 
had caught the bullet, for thence on the other was rarely 
known to smile; and yet it is hard to believe that the con- 
science of the survivor reproached him for what was done. 
The remark given above is in support of that conviction. The 
necessity of the act, doubtless, embittered his subsequent life, 
"grand, gloomy, and peculiar" as it was. 

Such was the man whom my father selected for my mentor 
at a most impressionable period of young life, while he was 
in New York superintending the publication of his book, 
"The Mier Expedition." I honored him then, and honor 
him dow, for one of the bravest, straightest and brainiest 
gentlemen whom it has been my good fortune to know. Per- 
haps he was not a shining light, according to the modern 
acceptation of the term. He could not have made his million 
or millions, for the simple reason that he despised super- 
fluous wealth and its possessors, and was essentially a high 
type of God's noblest handiwork — an honest man. It was 



not in him to attain high political preferment, because he 
would have scorned policy &«. too near akin to falsehood or 
subterfuge. "He would not flatter Neptune for his trident, 
or Jove for his power to thunder" ; far be it from pot-house 
politicians and self-constituted village Warwicks His was 
a plane far above the reach of such things as these. 

Upon Dr. Archer's departure I was transferred to a board- 
ing-house nearly opposite (a Mrs. Porter, unless mistaken), 
mainly taken up by members of Congress without their fami- 
lies. One of these kept a sort of supervisory outlook over me, 
at my father's request. He was then in the prime of life, 
about thirty-seven years of age, and a widower — a new mem- 
ber, and comparatively unknown. Before two decades had 
rolled around, his name and fame were resounding around 
the world. He was my friend then, as he was ever after. 
More of him further on. Suffice it now that his name was 

It should have been said that before quitting the United 
States Hotel I had been brought to know one of the most 
remarkable men — it is needless to add greatest, when his name 
is called — of this or any preceding century. Mr. and Mrs. 
Calhoun had rooms on the same floor, and only two or three 
doors from ours. With loving womanly impulse, the good 
lady took me in hand and would have me in her parlor every 
evening or two, whilst her grand husband would be looking 
over his papers. Notwithstanding the weighty matters with 
which he was always burthened, he usually found time during 
the course of my stay to address a few kindly remarks to me, 
and yet he was, as I have since learned, the biggest man in 
the world. Intercourse with others of high kindred nature 
has led up to the conclusion that simplicity is ever one of the 
predominant attributes of the loftiest natures. Reading and 
reflection confirm the conclusion. 

In the galaxy of immortals with whom it has been my 



proud privilege to be brought into casual contact, and the 
friendship of some of whom I have enjoyed, I place unhesi- 
tatingly the last two, Calhoun and Davis, as easily first in 
profundity of political thought and lucidity of expression and 
inculcation. Their great preceptor, Jefferson, was, of course, 
the equal of either, as he was the superior of all their prede- 
cessors in these high attributes. Patriotism, purity of life, 
and self-abnegation at the mandate of principle, were the 
other crowning life jewels in the two I knew. Of course, the 
estimate formed of these illustrious men is derived from sub- 
sequent reading and reflection. Their teachings and moni- 
tions have been the political vade mecum of my life. Jack- 
son and Calhoun constituted, beyond a doubt, as long as it 
lasted, the strongest and most marked presidential combina- 
tion that the country has ever known, each conspicuous for 
strong, unbending will-power and native intellect of the high- 
est order, the last but partially cultivated in the first, but 
carried to a pitch of refinement and absolute governmental 
brain culture in the other. It is not strange that it proved 
an incongruous and ill-assorted team, in spite of the superla- 
tives ascribed to each. Paramount intellect and lofty patriot- 
ism were neutralized by unyielding self-will in both, greatly 
to the cost of constitutional government ever since. Calhoun 
was superseded and set aside — tell it not in Gath, publish it 
not in Askelon — by Martin Van Buren, as successor. 

Such is my deliberate estimate of those last two great 
moulders of political thought, John C. Calhoun and Jefferson 
Davis (omitting Thomas Jefferson), whom over-cultured and 
dogmatic New England would fain consign to the lumber- 
room of political failures. Possibly, in the thousand years 
to follow, that complacent section may be able by strenuous 
effort to evolve one such. So far, she and her congeners have 
not approximated in production either of the immortal trium- 
virate of political thinkers and teachers. Nay, more : it h 



doubtful whether Old England, in her palmiest period, the 
closing half of the eighteenth and first half of the nineteenth 
century, can furnish such a historical parallel of transcendent 
genius in the most exalted field of intellectual development. 
This marvelous outcrop, of itself, should forever shame and 
silence the scoffs and sneers of witlings and fools as to the 
demoralizing effects of African slavery on the moral and 
intellectual outcome of the ruling race — stereotyped absurdity 
of assinine assumption and self-satisfied stupidity. 

In Mr. Davis the world recognizes the efficient actor, as 
well as the profound thinker — the grandest Revolutionist of 
all time, according to the Honorable Mr. Roebuck in the 
House of Commons. 

It was no mean privilege to have had this grand man for 
friend in my boyhood days, and to have that friendship con- 
tinue to the end of his life. As proof of this, he bequeathed 
me his ink-stand as memento in the closing hours of his well- 
rounded life. From its sable contents were transmitted to 
paper the emanations of his glorious soul. It is a priceless 
heirloom to me, as I trust it will be to my grandson and his. 
The best wish that can go with it is that he and they, in suc- 
cession, may take the donor for model and exemplar, and 
make their lives conform as near to his in aim and lofty 
aspiration as may be. Let it be a stimulus ever to noble 



In the early part of 1846 I was entered at my first board- 
ing school, Georgetown College (now University). From the 
first it was evident that the strict monastic rule and ritual of 
that institution did not comport to my taste and the genius 
of a peculiar constitution. And yet, at the expiration of six 
months, I was very summarily transferred therefrom by 
paternal mandate in apprehension that a longer continued 
stay might lead to counter-bias, to the point, in fact, of becom- 
ing a novitiate in the noble order of Loyola. Looking back, 
after the lapse of time, methinks his apprehensions were 
entirely groundless. 

Be that as it may, the "governor" (if the Lord will forgive 
me the use, for the first and last time, of the low, vulgar, 
slang expression of mannish young America as applied to the 
author of their being) was scared, and issued unmistakable 
orders to "pack up my traps and get out of that den of 
Jesuits." The order was most acceptable, and was obeyed 
with alacrity. It is written, the school was not to my liking. 
In justice to the school, and in perfect candor, it must be 
confessed that after sampling some half a dozen others, it 
was not my good fortune to acquire a hankering for any. 

Possibly my rough initiation in the rudimentary branches 
of education, to which allusion was made in passing, is mainly 
responsible for deep-seated antipathy to pedants, pundits, and 
high scholastics later on. Of course, such a confession is dis- 
creditable, but it is honest truth, and that passes, without 
question, as better far than a gilded lie. In extenuation, will 
add that, whilst an enforced curriculum of cut-and-dried text- 
books went ever against the grain, I have, nevertheless, been 
through life an unremitting student and investigator, based 
on solid, not superficial, research, history and its concomi- 



tants — biography, travel, essays, memoirs, approved poetry, 
and an occasional dip, by way of interlude and recreation, 
into the great romancers of the stature of Thackeray (greatest 
of them all), Scott, Fielding, Boccacio, Cervantes, Bulwer 7 
Dickens, Lever, George Eliot, Hawthorne, Poe, Lesage, 
Cooper, and a few others of kindred calibre, not forgetting 
dear old Miss Porter of blessed juvenile days. Of course, 
the list would be incomplete if it did not embrace the old, 
now almost unread English classics. Some of these must 
needs come in. What 1 Leave out ''The Vicar" and "Rasse- 
las" ? Why, I would as soon leave out Colonel Esmond, 
Colonel Newcome, Captain Shandy, the old convict in Les 
Miserables, or Captain Crusoe. Have rarely taken much 
stock in the so-called "current literature of the day," unless 
kidnapped into something of the sort by my good wife, who 
is not only the best woman in the world in all other respects, 
but one of the most omniverous readers and judicious critics 
whom I have ever known. "Just let me read you a page," 
she begins, and that always means the book. Have gotten 
much mighty good reading that way. 

There was drilled into my noddle at school, or rather 
schools, the usual amount of stereotyped pedagogic pabulum, 
including the preliminary classics and higher mathematics, 
belles-lettres, ethics, political economy, French, and the law 
courses, etc. Upon such an incongruous foundation it was 
mine to build the superstructure of an imperfect education, 
after closing the academic doors behind. That there were 
glorious opportunities neglected shall not be denied, but that 
there were shoals that were shunned can be truly claimed. 

After being given the whole scope of schools from which to 
make choice, and tried many, too many, it can be truthfully 
said that whilst rarely classed amongst the "first mite men" 
in any study, having by instinct a no exalted estimate of col- 
lege honors, I, nevertheless, escaped with but slight attaint or 



suspicion of college contamination, and ever of low or un-> 
worthy association. This last I have tried to keep up through 

^Neither dicer nor drinker did I learn to be in that ordeal 
period of life, although inducements were not wanting. For 
the last I have ever felt the keenest pity. For the other class 
(yclept, the gambler) loathing and scorn, far surpassing that 
entertained for the "gentleman-highwayman." Nor is such 
contempt confined to the "professional," the sleight-of-hand 
man who is up to little tricks, like slipping a card up the 
sleeve, or loaded cubes accessible. The thimble-rigging fra- 
ternity is but the parent stock of a kindred class a thousand 
times more baneful and pernicious, the light-fingered brother 
who can on the Stock Exchange despoil thousands to swell 
his plethoric horde of millions. Yes ! give us bold Turpin 
every time to the wheedling rogue, who mercilessly despoils 
widows, orphans and confiding friends by superior sharp 
practice. This class may have its utility in the public weal, 
just as the small-fry jeremy-diddler, the centipede, the vam- 
pire, and the bed-bug may have in the animal economy, but 
there are some folks who cannot exactly see it. 

Recurring to foregone estimate of college honors, the sub- 
sequent may as well be here premised. From candid state- 
ment here given, and further to follow, it can hardly be in- 
ferred that I have ever set undue value on such puerilities, 
or kindred trivialities later on, all of which, at the turning- 
point of "life's fitful dream," have been, and are still, held 
in due subordination. Reason for contempt of academic lau- 
rels has already been forecast in part, viz., instinctive repug- 
nance to pedagogic tyranny and assinine assumption on the 
part of the wielders of the ferule, both of high and low de- 
gree. Perhaps, the feeling was intensified by comparison oft- 
times between the winner of school-boy honors in the curricu- 



lum and the champion of those later on in the hard tussle of 
actual life. 

Perchance such sentiments may be deemed heterodox and 
ill-advised, especially by those of the professor-torial frater- 
nity, whose name is legion, beginning with the old-time domi- 
nie, puffed up with a little brief authority, and the learned 
Doctor Profundus LL.D., of the University of all the Ologies. 
Professors all they are to-day, from the imp who shines your 
boots to the other artist who lathers your face. The learned 
Porson was nothing more ! 

I believed then, and know now, that in natural ability I 
was the match, and more, of most of my school-mates, but 
realize, in looking backwards and taking a retrospective glance 
over the sad field of "might-have-beens," both then and since, 
that many of them possessed an attribute far more essential in 
the long race, known as stability, as contradistinguished from 
ability. Bear it in mind ever, O son, both in the class-room 
and in the far more important struggle to follow. 

Father ^Esop was right in one of the many instructive sto- 
ries he tells — the one about the foot-race between the tortoise 
and the hare. Slow-plodding perseverance is almost sure to 
tell against rabbit-foot, if not in a quarter race, in the elonga- 
ted life race, which is most unerring test of "bottom." Stick 
to stability, and cultivate -'bottom," my boy, if you would win 
success in life's handicap or the globe-trotter's merry-go- 
round. Or, if you are of sporting proclivities, back the terra- 
pin every time for his staying qualities — slow, but sure. 
Close observation has led unerringly to that conclusion, de- 
spite celerity and scintillation of start on the part of com- 

Although laying only moderate claim to "Molly Hare's" 
facility of getting over ground, it will nevertheless be borne 
in mind that a modest arrogance has been set up on claim of 
average ability. And yet in the metaphorical scrub-race re- 


ferred to, candor compels the admission that I have seen the 
veriest mud-turtles, creepers and crawlers, give me the go-by 
and grasp the puny prizes most excitant to mundane effort 
and emulation. And so, if you would carry off the "Grand 
Prix," my boy, on which your heart is set, be it professional 
or political fame, accumulation of useless horde, or sublime 
official head of "My Lord High Executioner," or, descending 
from the sublime to the ridiculous, "My Lord High Village 
Patronizer," who, like inflated Malvolio's "I extend my hand 
to him thus" (every little town has one such factotum), exult- 
ing in the serenity of his sublimity. Young man, whichever 
of these Himalayan altitudes you propose to climb, follow 
the recipe here enjoined, and you will be apt to reach it, be it 
the pinnacle of President or patronizer or moneyed potentate. 
First, make deliberate selection of the cloud-capped summit 
you would scale, and then fix an eye single on the topmost 
peak, and go for it with the tortoise for exemplar. Crawl 
and creep, and on occasion cringe, and you will get there. 






ach it, be 



In the latter part of the last-named year, or, to be precise, 
on the twenty-fourth day of October, 1846, occurred an event 
which has had the most material and important bearing on 
all my subsequent life. On that day my father was married 
to his second wife, Mrs. Adeline Ellery, of Boston. She was 
the widow of John S. Ellery, of that city, who was one of the 
most successful business men of his day. A woman of re- 
markably fine personal appearance, and of the kindliest, gent- 
lest nature that I have almost ever known. For eight and 
thirty years thereafter, she was my mother, not only in name, 
but in maternal love and all else, barring the ties of nature. 
She was ever indulgent to the follies and foibles of her self- 
willed step-son, and ever ready with motherly judicious coun- 
sel. The only compensation in my power was paid to the 
full, — in filial affection to this noble woman. 

Although much given to society, her charity was universal 
and unbounded, but not always judicious. While of ample 
means, her pension list was ever disproportionate to income, 
and yet she was not a religionist in the ordinary acceptation 
of the term. Such as it was, I would not exchange it for 
that of the Sorbonne or an ordinary Consistory or College 
of Cardinals. 

She and my father were almost of the same" age (forty- 
four), and of remarkable congeniality of tastes. Most of 
the time was passed in travel and at hotels. They were a 
remarkably fine-looking couple, and always moved in highest 
circles, not of the dollar-and-cent variety as standard. 

The wedding took place in Grace Church, New York, Rev. 
Dr. Taylor officiating. By inadvertence or oversight, the 
stereotyped head-lines of the modern newspaperial chronicler 
are omitted, to-wit, 'the large and fashionable audience,' 'the 



grande marche from Hohenzollern and hautboys/ and ushers 
of the blackrod, and all of the other et ceteras and concomi- 
tants on such occasions essential. Any village newspaper 
nowadays can supply such material and all-important omis- 

A gawky country lad of fifteen can hardly be thought to 
have been "au fait" in dilettante literature of this high order 
over half a century ago. All that comes back now is that the 
aforesaid lad and a sweet, spoilt little blonde girl of seven 
walked just behind the high contracting parties, as quasi "con- 
sentors and givers-away." Ten or twelve years later on the 
performance was repeated, but the performers were re- 
versed, — the boy and girl taking the leading roles. Each was 
an only child. 

Between the two weddings I saw little of the family thus 
augmented, except for brief space at long intervals. A child 
was the result of the first marriage a year or so later, but 
died in infancy ; and so there was no additional connecting 
link between the little girl and the boy until the second event 
came on, each being much over-spoilt by respective step- 
parent, the girl especially by hers. If she had been his own 
flesh and blood, he could not have indulged her more. Every 
wish, whim and caprice had to be gratified, regardless of con- 
sequences. The result, as might have been foreseen, was 
a very deficient and imperfect education, with a no hesitating 
assertion of self-will in dealing with others. How she and I 
got along as well as we did in after life can only be explained 
upon the principle of mutual forbearance and concession, su- 
perinduced in each by the recognized necessity of it. 

I was fully conscious that she had been gratified and 
indulged to the extreme limit, and felt the propriety of its 
continuance in all rational regards, believing then, as I do 
now, that she loved me with her full and entire heart. As 
illustration of this, let it be mentioned to her eternal credit 



that when the immediate forecast of coming events pointed, 
unmistakably, to war between the States, she urged her hus- 
band to obey the call of duty and his sense of honor in 
espousing side, clearly giving him to understand that in her 
belief he had resolved on the right course. She further pro- 
claimed her willingness to put up with plantation provision 
as long as he could remain in camp. 

But two or three years later on came the supremest test of 
inborn truth and wifely devotion. On the eve of the mighti- 
est of all conflicts precaution was taken to retain two or three 
of the very ablest lawyers in Boston to look after her interests 
and guard against the possibilities of confiscation. In the 
latter part of 1864, while a prisoner of war on Johnson's 
Island, I received what might be construed into a conjoint 
letter from these three distinguished and most worthy gentle- 
men, in effect as follows : "Urge your wife to come on at 
once, if you wish to stave off threatened, if not imminent, 
danger." Well I knew the portent of that dread message, 
but followed the wiser course, as it turned out, in responding — 
submitted it to my little wife. 

Conscious I was that her re joiner would be in accord with 
my desire, as it proved. It was to all intents, slightly ampli- 
fied, that of the lovely and poetic Ruth — "His people shall be 
my people," etc., and "we'll live on hog and hominy awhile 
longer whilst patriot heroes are battling for their rights." The 
grandeur of her resolve rises into the moral sublime, when it 
is stated that it was taken entirely of her own volition and 
that the estate involved was close to a half-million dollars 
and, as I learned later, proceedings of confiscation had actu- 
ally been begun, which, through the instrumentality of my 
honored friends, General Caleb Cushing, Judge Levi Wood- 
bury, and Hon. Benjamin Dean, were continued from term 
to term, and never reached judgment until it was too late for 
it to be rendered. 



An anecdote leading up to this result may, perchance, be 
introduced further on. Let it be added, that all this while 
she was like all of her neighbors practically destitute of the 
commonest comforts, if not necessaries, of life, such as tea, 
coffee, sugar^ salt, calico, etc. Such was the outlook on the 
plantation ! Ease and affluence and boundless luxury across 
the Potomac ! 

Without my knowledge she had previously disposed of her 
wedding jewels in order to bridge over pressing necessities 
and make both ends meet at home, whilst extending a helping 
hand to her still more needy friends and neighbors. All 
this was done in the seclusion of quiet country life, and with- 
out the slightest attempt at parade or ostentation. It may 
well be questioned whether in those dark days of long suffering 
by our brave, noble, heroic women, any bore the inevitable 
hardships of the dread ordeal more uncomplainingly than 
she ; and yet she was, as it then stood, of foreign and hostile 
lineage, inured to all the comforts and luxuries of life, within 
her reach at any time to resume. If marital veto had been 
interposed, ground would have been broken for ninety-and- 
nine full-fledged divorce suits in the regions of thoughtless 
marriage and loose morals. God bless her innocent, simple 
soul ! She never thought of availing herself of such a glori- 
ous opportunity. In her plain and simple faith, vows were 
vows to her, whether pledged to an unworthy husband or to 
the God of John Wesley, in whose faith she lived and died. 
She died June 15, 1883, having been the mother of four 
children, three of whom still survive her. 



In the beginning of 1847, I was placed at the school of Mr. 
J". M. Lovejoy, known as the North Carolina Military 
Academy, located in Raleigh, to be put in a state of prepara- 
tion for one of the leading universities of this country or 
England. It was then one of the most flourishing schools 
in the South. Mr. Lovejoy was a ripe scholar, supported by 
competent assistants, a worthy man in the main, and a rigid 
disciplinarian of the 'old school.' It was an unseemly boast 
of his that he had never promised a boy or a full-fledged man, 
of whom there were many under his sway, a flagellation with- 
out inflicting it, and tradition of the boys bore him out. 
There was one boy, however, to whom that promise was 
unfulfilled ; he very courteously told the promising party that 
he had for long had a lurking suspicion that in his day and 
generation he had been the recipient of an overplus of the 
extract of birch, and did not propose to take another dose. 
Am glad to say the good man held a restraining hand. 

It may thus be surmised that too much congeniality of tem- 
perament was not conducive to long protracted relationship. 
Still there was a sort of mutual forbearance maintained for a 
year and a half, when another transfer took place, this 
time, to a select preparatory school four miles from Boston, 
Massachusetts, kept by Mr. Stephen M. Weld, limited to 
thirty students. He was a man of thrift and large wealth, 
and would seem to have chosen the profession of pedagogics 
more as a whim or pastime than from choice or necessity. 
He was a man of refinement, judicious reading, and correct 
conclusions, barring a pronounced drift to Federalism. For 
this political indiscretion, however, there was. the extenuation 
of his being a native of Boston and an eleve of Harvard. 
Natural sequence, as all good Bostonians go to Harvard 



before they die, and, as a rule, emerge therefrom thoroughly 
tinctured with Hamiltonianism, Blue Law intolerance, Hart- 
ford Convention indoctrination, and other kindred fallacies. 
Such political heresies may do for boys before they die, but 
how after ? It makes me tremble in advanced age to think 
what a narrow escape was mine in escaping this one college, 
before death, by a lucky concatenation of circumstances, 
later on to follow. 

Omitting the rationale of political beliefs, in which I was 
vain enough to think, and to still think, myself magister, he 
was the best instructor that ever had me in hand, and instilled 
more from text books than all the others combined. This 
was not due so much to his depth of research as to non- 
assumption and faculty of explaining. A stupid ignoramous 
assumes that the boy should comprehend by intuition all of 
the whys and wherefores of the parroty lesson recited, because 
forsooth it is now plain to his comprehension after days, and 
maybe weeks, of study and secret investigation on his part to 
master; and so, perhaps, the boy makes a perfect recitation 
of words as Poll the parrot does, and comprehends about as 
much of the underlying meaning. 

Intellectual teachers argue otherwise, and of that class 
was Stephen M. Weld, who recognize the transcendent 
importance of their calling and discharge it accordingly. 
License 'the fool-killer' to ply his vocation on the rest of the 
fraternity, from the horn-book consequential, who teaches 
reading writin', spellin', and 'rithmetic, to the learned Dr. 
Profundus of the Faculty. Many of these know what they 
do know or profess to know, but do not know how to impart 
it — logarithms without the key. 

Mr. Weld had the faculty of instilling into others what he 
knew himself, as proof of which, he had me thoroughly pre- 
pared for the entering class at Harvard in a little over a year, 
and it was a moot question between us, never decided, whether 



not to apply for entry into the class above, then known as the 
sophomore. He inclined to think I was - prepared for the 
higher. The simple fact is stated more as tribute to a worthy 
man and competent and conscientious instructor, than any 
claim to readiness of inception on the part of the pupil. He 
understood his calling and knew how to impart what he knew, 
and hence was an efficient teacher. Would there were more 
of that sort in the world ! 

His mode of instruction was no less oral than textual. At 
table, where he usually occupied the place of honor, it was his 
custom to start a discussion on some interesting or intricate 
topic with a view to ascertain and develop the extent of and 
line of thought of the boys around him, inviting free and 
untrammeled interchange of sentiment and opinion. Being 
of an argumentative and inquiring turn of mind, he and I 
were not infrequently the disputants on opposing sides, for I 
was silly enough to believe that he attached considerable 
weight to my views and judgment. And so he and I ofttimes 
had a monopoly of forensic disputation during the entire 
meal to our mutual delectation, if not always to that of the 
two dozen other boys sitting around. I am fain to believe that, 
for a wonder, I was his favorite pupil. The novelty of the 
thing made me more considerate in preconceived hostile bias. 
While undergoing collegiate preparation, he and I would 
take after-breakfast walks through the village to a little grove 
a mile out, where taking seats in the shade he would produce 
a small Greek or Latin Classic, and put me through a rigid 
reviewal to judge of my competency. 

While so engaged, news came that a much coveted cadet 
appointment to West Point was within reach. Forthwith 
the classics were discarded and all of our efforts turned to 
mathematics, which had ever been my bete noire, or stumb- 
ling block, from the multiplication-table to conic sections and 
analytical geometry. An ugly outlook ahead that ! 
5 [65] 


Entrance to the Military Academy had long been the cher- 
ished wish of my young life's dream, but had been virtually 
abandoned, for a double reason; the first being my father's 
strong antipathy to the step, and the other, my having no 
fixed home and habitation or State from which to set up right 
of claim. And so all thought of it had been given up. 
Suddenly, the hope revived again ! 

My father, in his various meanderings and State-building 
migrations, had drifted out to California with the Forty- 
niners, on the gold quest of the year so indicated. Shortly 
after arriving, he was elected to the State Senate of the first 
Legislature of that incipient State, and was prominently 
spoken of as likely to be one of the first two United States 
Senators, withdrawing, however, on the eve of the election in 
favor of his friend Dr. William M. Gwin, who was elected 
with John C. Fremont as his colleague. 

Here was my opportunity. Father at last consented to 
oft-repeated request, and the entire Congressional delegation 
backed the application for my appointment. But here a new 
obstacle arose. Up to the June examination of candidates for 
admission California had not been admitted into the Union. 
There was the chance of its being before the September 

By way of explanation, be it understood that there is 
usually a small per centage of every class of candidates 
(usually about ten) who, from unavoidable cause, having been 
prevented from putting in an appearance in the June trial, 
are permitted to stand test in September. These are, with- 
out disparagement, ever after known as "Septs." 

Inasmuch as my State was not a State in June, I was 
necessarily relegated to the "Septs," three months later on, 
and barely saved distance then. September was drawing on 
apace, and yet my State was still not a State. At that crucial 
stage came in illustration of the old saw, a 'friend at court', 



freely rendered a friend at the head of the War Office. Gen- 
eral Winfield Scott was, ad interim, Secretary of War, and 
he and my father fortunately at that time were in close social 
relationship. The old General was then, on emergency, what 
might be termed a modified 'strict Constructionist.' Whilst 
too much of a stickler for the 'Articles of War,' even in incon- 
sequentials, to furnish shadow of excuse for breach of their 
slightest infinitesimal in his subordinates, he did on special 
occasion know how to 'whip the devil around the stump.' He 
might be supposed to have said, in effect: 

No. Inasmuch as young hopeful cannot claim a State as basic resi- 
dential, and there is but slight prospect of his having one before exam- 
ination day ( September 1 ) , he is, therefore, unavoidably debarred. But, 
hold, a thought strikes me. As California will probably be admitted 
into the sisterhood of States within a week or two, I will add a marginal 
line here. 

And this is what he wrote : 

If California is not admitted by the tenth of September, this appoint- 
ment to be null and void. Winfield Scott, 

Acting Secretary of War. 

I was admitted on the first of September, and California 
on the ninth of the same month, A. D. 1850. A close shave 
that ! 

And so I was admitted into fellowship to the most glorious 
brotherhood of boys that the world has ever known — the class 
of 1S50. There were one hundred and six (106) in the 
start, but from one cause or another the number grew small 
by degrees and beautifully less, until a bare one-third came 
out with a commission four years later on. Be the cause 
what it may, I never knew a black sheep in that flock. High- 
toned, truthful, and honorable they all were, as if by instinct 
Intellectual it was, beyond all predecessors, by well understood 
consensus of opinion of old graybearded predecessors running 
back nearly half a century. Heroic it was to a high degree, 
as the dozen years succeeding abundantly proved. If necro- 



logic returns of killed in conflict then impending is to be 
taken as criterion, none could lay higher claim to that attri- 
bute. Major John T. Greble the first officer killed in the 
war (at Bethel) on the Federal side, was of the number. My 
friend he was, and a gallant gentleman. How many others 
of them fell on that side I am not fully advised. Many of 
them did, but I will mention only one, and him with much 
sorrow after the lapse of time. 

One of my especial intimates was B. F. Davis, of Missis- 
sippi. When the issue was inevitable, he forgot to resign, 
and reached rapid promotion on the side he espoused. Some 
there were who said that the promise of it was more than he 
could withstand. Far be it from me to impugn his motive 
now; will simply say that his selection of side amazed me 
beyond expression at the time, for on the very verge of young 
manhood he was one of the proudest, haughtiest, most stand- 
off natures ever known, and intensely Southern beyond meas- 
ure. Poor fellow, I loved and admired him for those inde- 
pendent traits that many deemed repulsive. 

As our brigade was going in at Brandy Station (the 
second), General Lee rode up and gave a minute's instruc- 
tions to our Brigadier, General Daniel, than whom a more 
efficient never lived, the purport of which I learned later on : 

Do not unmask yourself unless exigency imperatively demands it. 
This is only a feeler, on the part of their cavalry, to find out whether I 
have broken camp at Fredricksburg. Stuart will drive them back. 

Great man ! he rightly divined, and so kept a crest of hills 
between his infantry and the cavalry fight going on just 
beyond in full hearing. 

While that brief colloquy was going on, a young gentleman, 
Lieutenant Pegram, approached where the head of the column 
was halted with a dead man in front of his saddle. This 
proved to be my old Colonel and Pegram's brother-in-law — 
only three weeks before married to his sister — Colonel Sol 



Williams, only two years out of the Academy. He was shot 
directly through the forehead. lie (Pegram) said we had 
just before killed a General Davis by precisely a like shot. 
On my asking where he was from, he replied, "Mississippi." 
I did not shed a tear or feel a pang at the death of my old- 
time friend. The only reflection was, what a pity that he 
died on the wrong side. 

There were only two others, nonentities they were, who 
elected to take the same course, and to lend their swords and 
services to the foemen of their kindred. 

Twelve of them promptly responded to natural maternal 
call, although with some the decision probably involved bread 
and butter in case of failure. Xine of these gallant true- 
hearted gentlemen died in battle, each wearing the badge of 
Confederate General, from brigadier to the one just below the 
topmost grade. Bear in mind, lords and ladies all, these 
were but. boys as it were, but, oh, such glorious boys! Was 
ever nobler hecatomb of heroes immolated on the altar of 
Country '? I loved them one and all, and honor them now, 
henceforth, and forever. 

Their names are here inscribed for fear of oversight or for- 
getfulness later on. There was Custis Lee, headman of the 
class, worthy son of his immortal sire, although his recogni- 
tion to high merit was not based on class-standing or to line- 
age running back for centuries through an unbroken line of 
gentlemen and heroes. 

There was J. E. B. Stuart, the more than Rupert of later 
wars, the grandest of all cavalrymen of all time, always save 
and excepting Forrest. His pet and loving soubriquet with 
us was "Beauty," though whom they got to put it on nobody 
seems to know. True, he was not an Antinous in form or 
feature, but neither was he the reverse to justify the title by 
way of derision. He was only a lovable man and an 
unfledged hero. 



And so it is beyond my ken to tell why another of kindred 
attributes, William D. Pender, of North Carolina, was dubbed 
"Poll," but so he was. On the fields of glory, with which his 
name became historic, he was wont to make his legions do the 
talking for him. 

Stephen D. Lee, the hero of Vicksburg, was another. Like 
the other Lee, he still survives (long may they both!), and 
wears the honor of being one of the three surviving ranking 
officers of the superhuman Confederate Army. 

Archibald Gracie, a half -Northerner by birth and more by 
interest, but an entire Southerner by political conviction and 
whole-souled devotion, was another. He returned from 
Heidelberg just after graduation to enter the Military 
Academy, and to die on the field of glory a little later on. He 
it was who, when General Lee insisted on getting on the para- 
pet of the works about Petersburg to make a better observa- 
tion and refused to hearken to the prayers of his troops to 
come down, also mounted, and put himself between him and 
hostile bullets. 

John B. Villepigue, of South Carolina, was the highest 
type of inborn soldier that I ever knew in those early days. 
In manly form and physique unsurpassed, as he was not even 
in devotion to duty by Lee the incomparable, or in austerity 
of Christian life by 'Stonewall,' the soldier saint. ISTo won- 
der that his military merits were recognized by the academic 
authorities in each successive cadet promotion, from first 
corporal to first captain ; perhaps, the most conscientious 
young man I have ever known. Those who knew him best 
foretold for him a grade only secondary to the highest, if his 
young life should be briefly protracted in that mighty epoch. 
Alas! the siege of Port Hudson made nugatory the predic- 

John Pegram, of Virginia, gifted and accomplished to a 
high degree, was my honored kinsman. He was struck 



down in the trenches around Petersburg only a few days 
before the evacuation and the final collapse, and but a few 
brief days too after his marriage to one of Baltimore's reign- 
ing belles, the beautiful Hetty Cary. I have heard that the 
young bride met the remains of her hero-husband as they 
were being borne to the rear, and realized that she was a 

John T. Mercer of Georgia was of a most highly sensitive 
and assertive nature, qualities which barred his well-deserved 
promotion, for he was a soldier every inch. He fell at 
Plymouth, in this State. On the eve of Gettysburg, on com- 
ing into camp a little late at a place called Heidlersburg, I 
got a pressing request from him to come over to his camp 
immediately on arrival, on most urgent call. Sumiising its 
purport, I at once rode over, and found him in a very angry 
mood. He at once told the object of his request, which, as 
inferred, was to be the bearer of a peremptory challenge to a 
brother colonel in the same brigade, (Dole's), and from the 
same State. He was one of the boy colonels, being under 
twenty-one when commissioned, and a most gallant and 
efficient one he was (Willis by name), who had resigned his 
cadetship as soon as his State resumed her delegated powers. 
I knew that there was bad blood between them, and that 
neither would be loath to look down the mouth of the other's 
pistol. "State your quarrel !" was my reply. "Is that 
necessary between old friends ?" he retorted. "With me, it 
most certainly is," was the reply. He gave it, and it looked 
like a very pretty quarrel, as Sir Lucius would have said, 
from his standpoint. Not so, however, from mine. 

It was obvious from his own statement that he had been a 
trifle precipitate, not to add, and over-pronounced in the 
interview on the march that day. And so he was told that I 
would not take a hostile message to Colonel Willis, but would 
gladly be the bearer of an apology. This decided declaration 



was near transferring the quarrel from Willis to myself, for 
he bluntly remarked that he called on me for a favor and not 
for a Sunday-school lecture. To quiet him down, I simply 
remarked : 

"Old friend, I might take umbrage at that remark, but will 
let it pass, for let me tell you that this is no time for patriots 
to be cutting each other's throats. I have just heard that the 
foe are concentrating in our front, not twenty miles distant, 
and to-morrow will be, in all probability, the turning point 
of the Confederacy, for we are to march at sunrise to meet 

"Thank Heaven for that," was his reply, "for if oppor- 
tunity occurs, I shall dare him to his face to keep in line with 
me in the charge." ISToble fellows they both were, and each 
died in the line of duty shortly afterwards. God be praised ! 
not face to face, and by each other's hands. 

James Deshler of Alabama, was another of that class. A 
brother had preceded him in the corps, but was drowned in 
the Hudson while swimming. James was earnest but unde- 
monstrative, and beloved by all for solidity, manly bearing, 
and other sterling qualities. The same may be said of Pey- 
ton Colquitt of Georgia, Horace Randall of Texas, and John 
O. Long. The last four also died on the field, but in which 
particular battles I am not prepared to say. Abner Smead 
of Georgia, I think, survived the struggle, but I have lost 
sight of him since. Samuel T. Shepperd and William M. 
Davant, of ^orth Carolina and South Carolina respectively, 
died before the inception of hostilities. Had they lived 
until it came on, it is easy to predict where they would have 
been found. 

If some may deem the panegyric of these early manhood 
friends slightly too ornate and diffuse for good taste, the 
reply is that it is a genuine outgush, and not an overpartial 
estimate. As proof, be it understood that my class-fellow- 



ship terminated at the end of the year, and my remaining 
two-years stay at the Institution was in the class next suc- 
ceeding, that of 1851, in which there were numbers of as 
true and loyal spirits and gallant gentlemen as in any other. 
But my intimates were mainly in the first. 

It embraced a decided preponderance of Northern men, 
many of whom made name and fame a little later on. Prom- 
inent among these were the future generals, Gregg, Weitzel, 
Comstock, Reno, Eliot, Webb, Ruggles, Averill, Vinton, and 
Hazen. Clever fellows and worthy gentlemen they were, to 
the best of my knowledge and belief in those early days, who 
fought for 'what they believed to be right,' I am glad to say 
that, so far as known, none had to pay the life penalty for 
espousal of conviction. A fortunate contrast to the class 

Yes, they should be held extenuate for risking their lives 
for what the}' believed to be right, inasmuch as the Constitu- 
tion with correct annotation by competent commentators was 
a volume virtually of the expurgatorious order, neither to be 
touched, tasted, handled, swallowed, or discussed, for fear of 
dread contamination, subjecting the presumptious culprit to 
social purgatorial penalty. And so the edict went forth to 
all the nurseries, schools and colleges, in the regions where 
they were born and bred ; this thing must be eschewed except 
by prescription of Dr. Story. No wonder that under the 
almost exclusive indoctrination of this immaculate Constitu- 
tion interpreter and amender these honest, but misguided 
youths, like hundreds of thousands besides, were ready to 
risk their lives on what they believed to be right; and as little 
wonder, that the others were prepared to lay down theirs for 
what, under better incultation, they knew to be right. We 
were all good friends then, although there were slumbering 
and latent feeling of distrust and unrest, all realizing that 
ere long they would have to be cutting each others' throats. 



Be it remembered, that those days were in the midst of the 
most exciting period of our political history. The Kansas 
and Nebraska question, the Compromise or Omnibus Bill, 
the Admission of California, etc. It looked as if grim-vis- 
aged war was about to cry havoc, and let loose, eight or nine 
years before the summons came. That it was bound to come 
was tacitly conceded by all who had the glimmer of forecast 
or reflection. Still, controversy on the subject was by inborn 
gentlemanly instinct ignored. The thought with all seemed 
to be, the dread inevitable is near at hand, but why dissever 
friendly relations before it comes ? 

In speaking of these new friends and comrades, it would 
be remiss not to mention a few of them specially. Francis 
R. T. JSTicholls of Louisiana was an inborn soldier and gen- 
tleman, one of most winning ways, coupled with assurance 
that in the race of life he was bound to win. And so he did, 
at terrible cost. In one of his first fights he laid an ampu- 
tated arm on the altar of the cause. Not content with that, 
however, he went back at the head of his brigade almost be- 
fore the sanction of his surgeon could be obtained. Then, 
after glorious service for a brief space, he brought a leg as fur- 
ther contribution. There were some who thought that if 
Johnny, as he was lovingly called, could only have kept sad- 
dle, held rein, and wielded sabre, he would have continued 
the contribution by instalments until he would, at last, fetch 
his head to complete a dismembered man for Judgment Day 
or the anatomical museum. But the rest of him was reserved 
for nobler uses, for when the clash of arms was over, and 
white men were recognized by the powers that then were, to 
be as good as negroes, the Pelicans caught him up and made 
a governor of him, and kept making him one as long as he 
would permit it. And he wielded the staff of state in peace 
(so-called) as efficiently as he would have done the baton of 
the field-marshal in war. 



John L. Black of South Carolina was my roommate during 
the last year, and the only cross words that ever passed were 
at reveille, when patience and ingenuity were solely taxed to 
get him out of bed and down to roll-call. That boy was a 
sleeper; a cross-tie was not a circumstance in comparison. I 
am persuaded that he was in lineal descent from the cham- 
pion of the historic 'Seven.' Absences began piling up so 
fast that he got scared, and in sheer desperation conferred on 
me plenary power to disturb his seraphic matutinal slumbers 
to guard against the dread two-hundred demerit mark. Per- 
haps I did not rejoice with exceeding joy over the prerogative 
thus bestowed. Perhaps my somniferous friend was not in 
line before the last roll of the drum next morning with 
feathers ruffled, with bad thoughts in his heart, and anathe- 
mic English on his tongue. Perhaps he did not insist on a 
revoke before breakfast, and perhaps his plaintive appeal was 
hearkened to. All of these hypotheses are in the range of 
remote possibility, but out of all reach of the probable. How 
could any innocent youth resign such a fund of fun freely 
bestowed and confirmed by the, at that day, infrangible word 
of a cadet? Moral: (Specially addressed to hard-hearted 
mothers of boys who like their morning nap)., Hydropathy 
is the proper treatment, but not in homeopathic formula. A 
douche, a douche all over, ice-water preferred. Not one 
somnolent in ten thousand can resist the call of 'get up !' when 
properly administered. Old Black got up ; he got up in a 
hurry. In fact, it may be added by way of emphasis, he got 
up with alacrity amounting almost to telephonic celerity. I 
would not dare to repeat what that man said in his first out- 
burst of temper, totally oblivious to the fact that it was done 
for his own good. After he cooled off he was more amenable 
to reason, sometimes called the sober second-thought. The 
second morning, the sight of the water-bucket sufficed to 
quicken his rising faculties. Third, he was out of bed before 



I was. And thus he escaped the danger of demerit dismissal 
through the Circean charms of 'Nature's sweet restorer/ all 
owing to my considerate solicitude. Henry Clay, Jr., grand- 
son of the Great Commoner, and inheritor of his genious, ran 
the reveille racket a good deal nearer the danger line than my 
chum, as he had no fidus Achates for roommate to hold the 
nightmare of hydropathic treatment over his somniferous 
and devoted head. Black still survives, after seeing the 
'great war' through as colonel of a regiment of horse. Glori- 
ous old boy, he and I tugged together for three years on the 
treadmill on the Hudson, neither exploiting himself in the 
academic curriculum. When I announced my purpose to 
resign, he at once declared he would too as he was about 
determined to give up school and marry a pretty cousin of 
his to whom he was already betrothed. 

One who has made a world-wide name since then, likewise 
did so about the same time. James A. Whistler, or as he was 
familiarly known at that time, 'Little Jimmy' (not 'Little 
Billie,' as portrayed by Du Maurier in Trilby), occupied the 
room just opposite, across the passage way, and when not 
immersed in a novel in his own room could be found in ours, 
telling of the wonders he had seen, and part of which he 
invariably was. His father, Colonel Whistler, had with his 
friend, Tom Winans, long been one of the two chief civil 
engineers of the Czar of Russia, and under their conjoint 
efforts all of his great works of internal improvement up to 
that time had been begun, profiled and carried out, much to 
their pecuniary profit. His success with the brush has been 
phenomenal, and he is now perhaps the most talked-of living 
painter in the world. 

Junius B. Wheeler of North Carolina was an old friend of 
mine. He was a Mexican war man in his early teens, and 
saw it out. Some ill-natured comment would have been 
spared him had he resumed his war experience when his State 



resumed her delegated powers. Poor fellow, it was a tempt- 
ing bait held out to him to remain — the most exalted profes- 
sorship in America, that of Military and Civil Engineering, 
the successor of the great and lamented Dennis H. Mahan, 
and he but half a dozen years out of the classroom. It was 
said that he remained with the distinct understanding that he 
was not to be ordered on active service. 

In striking contrast was the course pursued by another old 
friend of the same class, whom the year before his entry I 
had left at Weld's school in Boston. James H. Hill was the 
son of an army officer and was born, I believe, at some mili- 
tary post in Maine. Naturally his associations and early 
bias would have prompted him to remain in the 'Old Army.' 
But not so. He remembered that his father was a South- 
erner ; perhaps had imbibed political indoctrination from that 
source, and so he cast his lot, in choosing side in the mighty 
conflict, by blood instinct. He and the brilliant Wniting 
were brothers-in-law and devoted friends, as shown by per- 
sistent refusal of promotion in the 'New Army' in order to 
remain on his kinsman's staff with subordinate rank. 
Greed of gain or professional distinction most assuredly did 
not enter into this man's calculations in the election he had 
to make between the 'Old Army' and the 'New.' Few could . 
have decided either way with less danger of provoking hostile 

A brief allusion to a few of the most pronounced embryo- 
nic heroes in the two upper classes, and we pass on. 

George B. Anderson of North Carolina easily takes rank 
amongst the highest of the 'preux chevaliers' of the first 
graduating class. He received his death wound at Sharps- 
burg, and died the high-toned, refined gentleman that he had 
ever lived. Suave and gentle he was, in the extreme, to every- 
one, but there was the 'lion couchant' beneath that placid 



demeanor. He was lately married to a charming young 

Then there was John S. Bowen of Georgia, who died a 
hero and a Major General Commanding at Champion Hills. 
On the eve of his first commission, he and Philip H. Sheri- 
dan (later on full General U. S. A.) were suspended and 
thrown back a year on account of some pardonable boyish 
escapade. Courts-martial are at times needlessly severe. 

Lawrence A. Williams of Washington was deemed over 
muchadudein the corps, being of remarkably fine appearance 
and unapproachable attire, a kind of nondescript for which 
men of sense, and women too, have but little use. We little 
dreamt in our little day that a hero lurked beneath. The 
Confederate General Commanding thought it most essential 
to get an insight in the enemy's lines before striking a 
crushing blow. In a quiet way he tried to find an emissary 
suitable for the undertaking, for no ordinary one would do. 
Response to request was irresponsive, for well they knew that 
capture meant the halter. In the dead hour of night Colonel 
Williams whispered his readiness to undertake the embassy, 
and to ask for verbal instructions. Upon receipt of these, 
he and a young friend were off in quest, in Federal disguise, 
and on fleetest mount. They struck the Federal left, and for 
twenty miles they followed it, wiring in and wiring out, Wil- 
liams, who was an accomplished draughtsman, all the time 
making notes. Things, were working beautifully until, in an 
inauspicious moment, poor Lawrence was recognized by an 
old acquaintance, and within twenty-four hours thereafter 
he and his friend were hanging as convicted spies. The 
evidence was undeniable, the proof complete, and so by the 
inexorable laws of war he had to die, as did Captain ISTathan 
Hale of the Revolution, and that superb boy, Sam Davis, who 
died in the same locality, Middle or West Tennessee. ISTo 
shame attached to either, but, on the contrary, imperishable 



glory. Men who die as they did, and in such behalf, die the 
death of martyrs and make the gallows more than respectable. 

Slocum, Casey, Stanley, Hartsuff, M'Cook, and others of 
that class, reflected glory upon it and upon themselves. 
They were all on the other side. Jerome X. Bonaparte was 
a man of striking appearance and physique, with more of the 
look of the little Corsican that any other that bore his name. 
Some there were, and are, who would have esteemed him all 
the more had he repudiated that name, which his great uncle 
denied him, and his ignoble grandfather for a petty crown 
permitted. He was neutral in the war. 

The second class contributed three marked historical char- 
acters as its quota to the struggle. James B. McPherson of 
Ohio was essentially a soldier and a gentleman, surpassing 
his immediate chief in both attributes if impartial criticism 
is respected ; undoubtedly, in the last. He was killed as a 
corps commander in Sherman's march to Atlanta, at Resaca, 
I believe. The date ought to be indelibly fixed, for on the 
day that obsequies were to take place at a small town near 
Sandusky, Ohio, the rumor got out that a prison guard in that 
vicinity was to be materially reduced in order to do honor to 
the occasion. On a little island hard by, Johnson's by name, 
were two or three thousand all-the-year-round boarders, who 
were pining for a change of tavern. Here was the opportu- 
nity to throttle and bind the tavern keepers, and sail across 
to the Queen's dominions. It was a beautiful scheme for 
dissevering enforced hospitality so far, 'and all went merry 
as a marriage bell," until the hour preceding the auspicious 
moment for calling on the other gentlemen. Then it became 
obvious that accursed treason had been at work. The port- 
holes of the block -houses were thrown open and the field- 
pieces double shotted, guards doubled, and force kept intact. 
It was one of three or four well-laid plans for 'a break' that 
were nipped in the hour of fruition, evidently betrayed from 



the inside of the prison-pen, and leaves but little doubt that 
Secretary Staunton had his hireling spies and informers in 
our midst in the guise of prisoners of war. 

Oh, for a tongue to curse the slave, 

Whose treason like a deadly blight 
Comes o'er the counsels of the brave, 

To blast them in their hour of might. 

John M. Schofield of Illinois and John B. Hood of Ken- 
tucky were likewise members of the same class, and destined 
to play a most conspicous part against each other at the turn- 
ing crisis of the conflict, making their death grapple at Frank- 
lin the hinging struggle of the war. Hood, who had lately 
superseded Joseph E. Johnson in the command of the Army 
of the West, at once broke camp at Atlanta and moved north- 
ward with his entire force, with the view to recapture Nash- 
ville and penetrate Kentucky in order to strike a counteract- 
ing blow to Sherman in his unopposed progress to the Atlantic 
coast. At Columbia, he came up with his old friend and 
classmate, Schofield, with about one-third of his numerical 
strength. It was self-evident thence on that it was to be a 
foot-race from there to ]STashville, and that whichever got 
into those trenches first would gain the decided vantage 
ground. Almost at the start it became obvious that 'some one 
had blundered,' wofully, egregiously blundered, to call it 
by no harsher name. Seeing his opportunity from the lay of 
the ground, Hood detached one of his hardest fighting divis- 
ions to make a detour, swing around and intercept the retreat 
•from the rear, whilst he with the rest 'of his command would 
assail from the attacking side in pursuit. Prettier plan was 
never devised for the annihilation of an army at most critical 
juncture. It was a repetition, to all intents, of Jackson's 
wonderful flank movement at Chancellorsville. A chance 
bullet prevented the full fruition of the last. Far more cul- 
pable the misadventure of the other in the very zenith of 
success, Who was the responsible party for this utterly 



inexcusable neglect or omission ? The Captain or lieu- 
tenant, for one or the other necessarily was. Each said the 
other, God pity the one that was ! Not for the baton or regal 
crown would I in foro conscientiae assume that dread 

Scofield filed by all night in such near touch to our lines 
that his men would step out of ranks and light their pipes at 
our bivouac fires. That argues that the detached division 
had reached the suitable and objective point for carrying out 
the object designed. Certain it is, the object was not carried 
out. Who was to blame ? In repetition, the Lieutenant 
said the Captain, inasmuch as he was waiting specific orders 
which never came. The Captain claims, and with presump- 
tion of probability, that the other was. As he remarked to 
me some four months afterwards on my way back from 
prison : 

"Do you believe me, old friend, to be such a natural-born 
fool as to have started him on this vital mission without 
definite orders, as far as foresight could reach ? Or do you 
believe him to be one of the sort to undertake such a charge 
without orders ? 

"Besides," (he continued, almost with tears in his eyes) 
"I dispatched three several couriers at intervals later on to 
impress upon him the transcendent, the overwhelming impor- 
tance of intercepting Schofield. They all reported subse- 
quently that the order had been delivered in person." 

Rest the blame on which it may, and I repeat in all 
religious fervor, God pity the culpable ! It was the last 
chance, but a glorious opportunity for the Confederacy. 

The Federal legions quietly moved by the rest of the night, 
and within twenty-four hours thereafter were behind the 
impregnable ramparts across Harpeth River near Franklin. 
What followed was a hollocaust, a wholesale massacre for the 
Confederate Army in pursuit. Without entering into close 
6 [81] 


enumeration, the loss inflicted on the assailants was almost 
equal to the entire force within the works. Eleven of the best 
General Officers were killed or wounded, including Pat 
Clepburn, the 'Stonewall' of the West. Whatever may be 
thought or said of the late culpability of omission, there can 
be no two opinions as to the responsibility of commission here. 
The Commanding General must assuredly bear it. His 
enemies allege that this needless slaughter was the result of 
the miscarriage of his soldierly scheme, just referred to, 
prompted by chagrin, mortification, and disappointment. 
Be that as it may, the actuating impulse what it might, whilst 
it was ''grand, it was not war." 

From there to Nashville, Schofield had a walk-over, and 
later on, as resultant of that wonderful fight, a walk-in to the 
chief command of the United States Army. 

A lot of desultory fighting around Nashville, devoid of 
significance, followed, and that glorious, but shattered, army 
started back to the Tennessee, a mere remnant as it was. 
Lucky it was that on that retrograde march that a Michel 
Xey turned up to save the retreat from a total rout, if not 
extermination. One of the phenomenal men of all ages hap- 
pened to be on hand, as he seemed always to be at the right 
place and at the right time whenever serious work had to be 
done. It was ISTathan Bedford Forrest, who, with none of 
the fortuitous advantages of schools or training, had risen 
from the ranks to the grade of Lieutenant-General, and by 
unvarying success reflected imperishable renown on every 
station. lie was now a sort of independent chief of cavalry, 
barely amenable to any nominal superior; actual he had none 
after the death of Sidney Johnson. In his sublime self- 
consciousness, he felt this then, and the recognized war critics 
of the world have since felt and conceded it, including 
Wolsely, Sherman, Grant, Maury, and others. I for one 
have an undoubting belief that if he could have succeeded the 



great Johnston in command the moment he fell, the Confed- 
erate States would have been a recognized power of the nations 
before six months had rolled around. The crisis called for a 
man, and there he was ; a born soldier, not of the mere dilatory 
or dillettante or martinet or bulldog order, but one who always 
carried a head on his shoulders, brimful of native brain capa- 
city, of far-reaching intuition, grasping the thing to do, and 
never failing to do it. A man of resources and expedients at 
critical juncture approaching the marvellous, with the single 
thought ever in view of success to his side, and all-sustained 
by powers of endurance approaching the superhuman, marked 
the son of the North Carolina blacksmith as a veritable son of 
Mars, surpassing in native, untutored genius for war all of 
his age, if not of all preceding ages. Tennessee owes much 
to her old mother — North Carolina, some of which has never 
been credited, but the deepest obligation of all was in the 
bestowal and adoption of this surpassing son of genius, and 
another of kindred mould — him of the 'Hermitage,' two of 
the most stupendous prodigies of the nineteenth century. 
He saved the remnant of that army as Ney saved that from 
Moscow, the two grandest men in their respective armies, the 
imperial runaway not excepted. Next to self-assertiveness 
in the discharge of duty, modesty was the essential attribute 
of each. Each knew what he could do, but never boasted or 
plumed himself on what he had done. It has been one of the 
regrets of my subsequent life that I did not know him better, 
for our acquaintance was but transient. 

But to return to the West Point of the fifties, on the eve of 
war. Having now paid my respects to the boys of that day, 
I would be derelict to historic memoir to pass by some of the 
Academic Staff who became history-makers in the same 
momentous epoch, older boys by a few years. 

Brevet-Captain Gustavus W. Smith had long since caught 
the discerning eye of President Davis, when the latter was 



at the head of the War Office of the United States Army. 
Recognizing his great merit, he made him one of the five full 
Confederate generals on taking the responsibility of organiz- 
ing the new army on the brink of hostilities. He proved 
himself well deserving the confidence of his great Chief at 
Seven Pines later on, until struck down by paralysis. 

First-Lieutenant Joseph J. Reynolds was Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Philosophy, and a philosopher he was. He it was 
who enunciated the great dictum collateral with the great 
Dean's two blades of grass truism ; 'it costs less to feed two 
than one; I know, for I have tried them both.' Encourage- 
ment that to a subaltern connubiality, with proviso prelimi- 
nary of dainty appetite and Mrs. Gilpin's "frugal mind 
intent' Gallant gentleman that he was, he died in front of 
our brigade at the deep railroad cut at Gettysburg, after 
inflicting a loss of some nine hundred on us. He died a 
Major-General, United States Army. Note corrective of 
mistaken identity as to the last-named. In a recent two-days 
drive over the field (Gettysburg) with my old friend and 
classmate, General O. O. Howard, he told me that I was mis- 
taken in inference as to initials. Instead of J. J., it was J. 
P. Reynolds who died that day. As Howard was his succes- 
sor in command the rest of that eventful day, the presumption 
is that he reported correctly. As Byron says : "Such is fame ! 
your name misspelt in a bulletin, or a bullet in your body." 
Long may the other live to prove his theroy of economy in 

Pirst-Lieutenants John M. Jones, David R. Jones, and 
Henry B. Clitz, were Assistant Instructors of Infantry Tac- 
tics, and teachers and gentlemen all. The first two died 
General Officers in the Confederate Army, and the last 
attained the like rank in the Pederal, and, I trust, still sur- 
vives, for all who recall him when he was in charge of one of 
the military departments of the South, in the early days of 



'reconstruction/ speak of him in affectionate and loving 
terms, as one who never took advantage of his power and 
position to ill-use or maltreat those then at his mercy, and a 
beautiful epitaph it would be for this good soldier and worthy 
gentleman. All who were puffed up with a little brief 
authority in those dark days, which gave an insight into 
character and inward nature, were not always so considerate. 
What is said of Clitz applies with equal force to General 
Milton Cogswell, at the time referred to a Second-Lieutenant 
and Assistant Professor of Mathematics. 

Lieutenant Andrew J. Donelson of the Engineers, though 
of a later date, must not be given the go-by. His Corps indi- 
cated his class standing; his brief graduate army record, his 
merit. He died at Memphis, a First-Lieutenant of Engi- 
neers, on October 20, 1859. His brother, John S., a Yale 
graduate, and my very particular friend, was killed at Chick- 
amauga, a promoted captain after five wounds antecedent. 

Brevet-Major Fitz John Porter became a distinguished 
Major-General in the Union Army, and made a name for him- 
self, until in an evil hour a ranking incompetent, much famed 
for modesty and veracity, became conscious that he needed a 
scapegoat to take off the blame and responsibility of a most 
ignominious defeat. And so, for twenty years, this true 
soldier and unblemished gentleman had to bear the soldier's 
dreaded stigma of being derelict and behindhand in the hour 
of emergency. Eor twenty years he had to pay this dread 
penalty to graded imbecility. One of the pleasant recollec- 
tions of my life was helping to undo this greivous wrong 
by a vote in Congress. 

That outrage is suggestive of the judicial murder by court- 
martial of Admiral Byng, and that, nearly a century later, of 
that poor lad 'Spencer' on the brig Somers. Scapegoats 
these to ranking incapacity, imbecility and cowardice. Ap- 
posite to these, the most glaring instance of injustice, not to 



say national ingratitude, was the virtual humiliation of a 
later-on and valued friend, then Major, later on Major-Gen- 
eral, Don Carlos Buell. This grand soldier and true gentle- 
man turned an overwhelming defeat, or more appropriate 
rout, of a grand army of one day into a glorious victory the 
next, and such was his recognition. 

First-Lieutenant and Brevet-Major George H. Thomas 
was instructor of Artillery and Cavalry, and Porter was his 
assistant. A cold, phlegmatic, unimpressionable man he 
always seemed to me, but a born soldier, as the near future 
proved him to be. Had he been bom a hundred miles nearer 
the North Pole, it might be added, one without taint or 
blemish. Unfortunately however, for his good name and 
historic reputation, he chose to be swaddled and cradled on 
this side of the Potomac, and when it came to taking sides he 
chose to espouse that of those on the other. At Chickamauga 
he struck his native section and maternal State the heaviest 
single blow that had fallen up to that time. It was a crushing 
blow to his natural and territorial instincts, and a most telling 
one for the side of his choosing. It was a heart-rending 
reflection to the embattled South that the two most terrible 
strokes dealt her, up to that period, were by two sons of hei 
own nurture, the one on land, and the other on the water. 
Here was one. Farragut was the other. Ought it not to be 
an equally mortifying reflection to the victorious side that, in 
spite of her overwhelming preponderance in numbers and re- 
sources, her undersized competitor had to furnish her with 
the sledge-hammers to crush her ? The gratitude of the bene- 
ficiary was fully shown to each, both by permanent promotion 
and post-mortuary memorials. But 'marble shaft and monu- 
mental brass' only impress the more indelibly the 'damned 
spot, which will not out.' Both have my pity with all of 
their grandeur and equivocal honors. Such as they are, let 
them wear them in peace. 



More agreeable the task to speak of another Virginian, 
against whom the breath of calumny or detraction has never 
been heard, and in whose behalf encomium and panegyric 
have been so utterly exhausted that nothing in the way of 
novelty or originality can be uttered. Were I called upon to 
designate the highest tribute ever penned in his praise, it 
would be that of the learned Englishman, Professor Long, if 
memory is not at faidt. He was about to publish his life of 
Marcus Aurelius, whom he assumes to have been the grandest 
and most perfect man in the annals of time. An American 
friend stated in print that the work was to be dedicated to 
General Grant. This he emphatically denies, adding, in 
effect, that he had never dedicated a book to any man in his 
life and did not propose ever to deviate from his rule. "If I 
could get my consent so to do," he adds, "this life of the grand- 
est man would be inscribed to the next grandest before or since 
his time, the modest unpretentious schoolmaster in the hills 
of Virginia, who rounds off his matchless war record by a 
sublime example to the young men of his land." The quota- 
tion is from recollection, and not from text, but the substance 
is in it. Already he had been by concensus of the world's 
unbiased verdict pedestaled in the then recognized group of 
the five greatest captains of all time. This estimate puts him 
above them all, as the unmatched man in history with but a 
single exception. Include Saul of Tarsus, better known as 
Saint Paul, and the standing assigned him by this impartial 
critic is not extravagant. At the time of his becoming Super- 
intendent of the Military Academy (1852), he was in the 
prime of life, only forty-five years of age, although he had but 
lately emerged from the Mexican war with the distinction 
surpassing all perhaps, except the two commanding Generals. 
He came to us at the Academy as a Captain of Engineers and 
Brevet Colonel. Never was brevet rank more worthily won, 
for by planning the campaign from Vera Cruz to the City of 



Mexico he made it one of the most famous in the annals of 
war. When he came, he was one of the finest looking speci- 
mens of high manhood, both a-foot and in saddle, but especi- 
ally the latter, that mortal eye ever rested upon. 

The first time that I ever had the honor of colloquial con- 
verse with this man of men was on occasion herewith to fol- 
low. In the ranks one day my friend, Archie Gracie, one of 
the heroes already alluded to, concluded to have a little fun, in 
a quiet way, all to himself, by planting his hoofs, not of the 
feminine Chinese pattern, upon my heels. This he persisted 
in doing, despite a gentle remonstrance, possibly a little 
emphasized. Job had patience, but he was never subjected to 
such an ordeal as this, and so the gentleman in the rear was 
quietly notified, perhaps with a slight additional inflection of 
emphasis, that he would get a drubbing as soon as ranks were 
broken. To which he impudently retorted : "not from you !" 
Here was a dare and a take-up that no boy of spirit could 
resist. It was the 'chip on the shoulder,' and he dared to 
knock it off, and so in point of honor there had to be a fulfil- 
ment of promise. 

This duty was being discharged with unction, when an offi- 
cious individual of muscular proportions, Patrice de Janon 
by name, then master of the foils, and later on Professor of 
Spanish, had to interfere and break up the fun. I thought 
at the time it was a mean thing to do. Perhaps friend 
Archie was of a different opinion, for, though I say it myself, 
I was getting decidedly the best of it when old 'Smallswords' 
had to intermeddle in the scrimmage. Long years later on, 
when he called on me in Washington, I reproached him for 
his officiousness on that occasion, and so, methinks, did his 
conscience, for both by instinct and profession he ought to 
have known better than to intermeddle in a good square 
stand-up fight between two worthy gentlemen. A fight to the 
finish would have done me lots of good, and Gracie but little 



hurt, for he was a much more powerful man, and, besides, it 
would have inculcated au object lesson, or rather a moral, on 
his young, impressionable nature never to be forgotten: 
namely, never to step on a man's toes, or his heels either, 
without good and sufficient provocation. Be that as it may, 
when "the mill," to use a vulgar slang expression, was called 
off by the master of fence, I declined the introduction re- 
quested, and walked off to the barracks. 

Not so, dear old Gracie, who, in addition to his name and 
surname, his patronymic and matronymic, perhaps, gave him- 
self completely away. When asked for my name, however, 
he replied, like the sterling gentleman that he was, "you will 
have to ask him, for I'm no informer." In consequence, he 
got all the penalty, and a very heavy one it was, for fighting 
on the parade ground, and I came off scot-free for the time 
being. A good joke that, on dear old Gracie ! 

The next morning I called upon the Superintendent at his 
office, and the purport of the interview follows. I opened it 
thus : 

"Colonel Lee, Mr. Gracie was yesterday reported for fight- 
ing on the parade ground, and "the other fellow' was not." 

"Yes, sir," (was the reply), "and I presume you are the 
other fellow." 

"I am, sir, and I wish to submit the case in full for your 
consideration. Don't you think it very hard on him, Col- 
onel, after getting the worst of the fracas, to havo to take all 
of the penalty incident ?" 

"Admitted, what then?" (was the reply). 

"Simply this, sir. Whatever punishment is meted out to 
him, I insist on having the same given to me." 

"The offence entails a heavy penalty" (he said). 

"I am aware of the fact. Colonel, but Mr. Gracie is not en- 
titled to a monopoly of it." 

(Then he replied with that gentle, benignant smile which, 



once seen, could not easily be forgotten), "No, sir; you will 
get neither report nor penalty for this, and neither will Mr. 
Grade get the last. I will cancel his report. Don't you 
think, Mr. Green, that it is better for brothers to dwell to- 
gether in peace and harmony ?" 

"Yes, Colonel, and if we were all like you, it would be an 
easy thing to do." 

A few minutes later, while looking out of the window, I 
saw Gracie pass with Colonel Lee's orderly following behind, 
and whilst still thinking of the coincidence, the door opened 
and the dear old boy entered and seized my hand without 
uttering a word, and the breach was closed, and thence on 
until he poured out his heroic heart's blood, a rich libation 
on the altar of liberty, there was never a harsh word or an 
unkind thought passed between us. Is it hard to divine who 
was the blessed peacemaker on that occasion ? 

This is the same young general previously referred to, 
who, when General Lee ascended the earthwork in front of 
his brigade to make personal observation of the enemy's with 
a view to some contemplated strategic stroke, and would not 
hearken to the plaintive appeals of the men below to come 
down, — "For God's sake, General Lee, come down !" The 
incident as detailed was in the closing days of the Anaconda 
grip about Petersburg and the last days of the Confederacy. 
It was then that Archibald Gracie proved himself the hero 
that nature moulded him. Rushing up the parapet whilst 
minnies were buzzing like bumblebees about the "Great Cap- 
tain," he stepped between him and the hostile sharpshooters. 
"Back to the trenches, General Gracie !" came the sharp, 
command, — and the cool reply, "After you, General Lee. I 
never expected to disobey an order of yours, but here I do 
until you first obey an order of mine. Tumble over there, 
General, and I'll follow, but not a step before. I can catch 
a ball as well as you, and better a thousand, than you one." 
For once insurbordination was justifiable. 



As tradition runneth, in order to save that bull-headed 
Brigadier, there was a momentary reversal of rank, the Lieu- 
tenant maintaining the upper hand of control, and so to para- 
phrase the nursery rhyme: "Old Marse Bob came tumbling 
down, and Gracie came tumbling after !" I tell the tale as it 
has been told and repeated to me, for I was not an eye-witness, 
but it was so in keeping with the noble nature of these two 
gallant gentlemen that it is accepted without the usual cum 
grano under such circumstances. 

These references to a few of the recognized heroes of that 
memorable epoch might be much extended were it not for 
fear of being thought over diffuse in laudation as well as a 
little prolix in recital. Others will probably appear- later on. 

And so for three years, that is to say from 1S50 to 1S53, 
academic life flowed on in its quiet, limpid stream with but 
little to vary the usual routine of parades, guard mountings, 
and drills of various kinds, and kindred duties. True, dur- 
ing camp season the Point was besieged by city belles and 
other fair harpies, who then did, and still do, congregate to 
whet their beaks on unsophisticated squabs simply to retain 
normal appetites, cultivate the lures and wiles, and keep their 
hands in for the winter campaign for larger game on their 
return to town. They always seemed to relish the fun, little 
caring for the havoc of young hearts that they were to leave 
behind, as later on indicated by lugubrious looks and furnace 
sighs. Poor fellows ; it did them no hurt in the end, and 
did the dear creatures lots of good. 

Concomitant to these love episodes and summer cooings 
were the cadet balls, with dulcet strains discoursed by one of 
the finest orchestras in the world. The dances were almost 
exclusively of the good old-fashioned "square" English sort, 
with an occasional waltz by those well acquainted, and almost 
always winding up with the ever-to-be honored old Virginia 
reel. The later-on abomination of French invention and 
high Dutch cognomen had not then crept in, thank the Lord. 



At the end of the time named I handed in my resignation, 
having no desire to enter and remain in the army in time of 
peace. My stay at the Academy was, on the whole, the most 
agreeable connected three years of my early life inasmuch as 
it brought intimate association with a band of the noblest 
gentlemen that I have since known, as an aggregate, with but 
few frictions resulting from contact. Coming from one of 
my unfortunately assertive nature, it is a no mean compli- 
ment to pay to the friends and associates of that interesting 

I parted from the dear fellows with mutual pangs of regret, 
unless I am greatly mistaken. One little incident may not 
be out of place in that connection. The afternoon before 
leaving, while sitting on a rock overlooking the Hudson, in 
melancholy reflection, Phil Sheridan, later on Commanding 
General U. S. Army, happened to be passing, and asked per- 
mission to join me. The request was a surprise, as he was in 
an advanced class and there never had been any intimacy be- 
tween us. In fact, the poor fellow, for reasons needless to 
mention, had hardly an associate, let alone an intimate, on 
the place. He began: "I hear, Sept., that you have re- 
signed. Is it so ?" "Yes," was the reply. "Is it too late 
to recall your resignation ?" was his next query, with evident 
concern. "But I have no desire to," was my reply; and so 
we parted, after a few more words. 

If, at that time, I had been called upon to designate the 
man on that historic spot who would later on reach the high 
rank Sheridan attained, he would probably have been one of 
the very last to have come under consideration, and such, me- 
thinks, would have been the almost unanimous forecast of all 
who knew him. Proof that is, that the boy is not always 



father of the man, gauged by the world's criterion — success. 
That he developed into a superb cavalry leader, doubtless un- 
equalled by any other on the Federal side, stands confessed. 
That he is entitled to place on the same professional plane 
with Forrest, Stuart, or Hampton, is far more debatable. 
Whatever his status may be on that line, I for one maintain 
that it had been far better for his historic fame had he died in 
battle before the end of the struggle came. Had he done so, 
he would have been spared the horrible reproach, which per- 
haps none has borne since Alva, of needlessly desolating an 
utterly defenseless country, occupied only by old men, women 
and children, wiping out every vestige of mill, granary and 
smokehouse, in his terrible path ; and his still more brutal 
boast — that the crow that followed in his wake would have to 
carry his rations along with him — not surpassed even by that 
of Attila the Hun — that where his horse planted his hoof, 
grass never grew again. 

This historic march, more appropriately Hunish foray, 
had counterpart later on in the virtual extirpation of the en- 
tire tribe of Piegan Indians, regardless of sex, infancy, or 
decrepitude. The last is paralleled in recent English story 
only by the massacre of Glencoe, so far as reading recalls. 
Neither is worthy of imitation henceforth and forevermore. 
Allusion is made to the two incidents in his life story to show 
how easy is the transition from racial nobility to barbarian- 
ism when instinct points the wa\. 

Perhaps a more flagrant disregard of inherent rights and 
Anglo-Saxon liberty than his forcible arrest of five members 
of the Louisiana Legislature in their seats, for partisan pur- 
pose, cannot be cited. True, the same identical outrage was 
attempted in the House of Commons some 250 years ago, 
even down to the self-same number of five, by one Charles 
Stuart; 'By the grace of God, etc., King of England, etc.' But 
our cranky old progenitors, always serious at serious juncture, 



did not laugh at this culmination of the sportive tricks of the 
aforesaid Charles Rex, and so thej turned about and arrested 
him, led him to a block, and chopped off his head, and the 
better thinking portion of mankind have ever since ratified 
the regicide verdict with: 'served him right.' So should it 
be with those in authority, who disregard the natural, no less 
than the legal limitations and restrictions against abuse of 

In striking contrast this man's career to that of his class- 
mate and immediate successor in the chief army command, 
John M. Schofield, of whom it can be truly said : "A soldier 
in war, a citizen in peace, a gentleman always." Fortunate 
would it be for Sheridan's immediate predecessor, as well as 
for himself and his successor one degree removed, if they 
were entitled to wear the same proud badge of honor without 
abbreviation. Alas ! due regard for historical truth, and 
what should be our national standard, forbids it. Schofield 
filled the bill. The others had their ephemeral honors and 
emoluments in this life. Let them pass on to their allotted 
place in Dante's dream ; they have had their prize rewards on 
this side of Charon's creek, to the cost of others. 

I do not forget that I am stepping on new made graves, nor 
have I forgotten the point of the Latin apothegm — a De mor- 
tuis nil, etc." If so, let it be borne in mind that history has 
been equally oblivious in handling the post-mortem reputa- 
tions of certain worthies with whom she had to deal, notably, 
Nero, Caligula, Commodus, and Domitian. She and her 
scribes have not been tender-footed or mealy-mouthed when- 
ever it was necessary to call a spade a spade, or a tyrant a 
tyrant. When a people grow too squeamish for such good old 
.English, pure and undefiled, they have grown to be too deli- 
cate and refined to be fit conservators of English liberty. 

Leaving the Military Academy, which was done with sin- 
cere regret at having to sever congenial ties, I next turned my 



steps to the great school founded by the immortal Jefferson, 
and, like everything that he ever did, on the most rational 
basis of any other. Educational tyros and moneyed mag- 
nates have tried in vain to eclipse his handiwork by lordly be- 
quests of millions and tens of millions on the gorgeous mauso- 
lea which they reared, ostensibly dedicated to learning, but 
with the unmistakable tombstone inscription paramount, 'to 
mortuary vanity and vainglory.' Well be the motive of 
ground foundation what it may, they doubtless have their 
utility, even if learned faculties must now and then keep 
their tongues and thinking functions under curb in deference 
to foundational mandate, when trenching on topica-inter- 
dicta, as Galileo did. Jefferson's school was on the model 
of his State — no undue restriction on thought or inculcation. 

Before matriculating, I had passed the summer with my 
father and family at the White Sulphur Springs, Vir- 
ginia. There I imbibed many of his beneficent precepts. 
Handing me one day a case of superb duelling pistols, which 
had been in service in the 'ould country,' where such play- 
things had whilom been deemed an essential adjunct to a 
polite education, he gave me his paternal blessing and parting 
admonition — -"Learn to use them, my son. but be mighty 
careful that you never do, at ten yards off or so, without just, 
ample and sufficient provocation." Like a dutiful son, I 
have heeded his injunction in both regards. Occupying a 
two-room cottage in a retired grove all to myself afforded 
excellent opportunity for varying Chitty on Contracts with 
Sir Jonah on Hair-triggers. I soon became a famous expert, 
and although my nerves are not steady as they then were, still 
my right hand has not yet lost its cunning. 

God be praised, I never have had to use them in the man- 
ner intimated, but, on the contrary, have prevented others 
doing so in my confidential capacity of 'friend,' when called 
on for their loan, never compromising the honor or good name 



of those who did me the honor to request the unwelcome ser- 
vice. And so I have long since had serious misgivings 
whether the duello is an unmitigated evil under proper condi- 
tions, a judicious and well-selected adviser, or friend if you 
will, always being the primary one. Under this, and other 
proper limitations, both reason and recollection tell me that it 
might be a very salutary check on bullies and blackguards, 
who prefer the revolver-drop, unawares, to a fair stand-up 
fight where neither has the advantage. As proof of this, we 
have only to instance the overwhelming preponderance of 
foul and cowardly killings that have succeeded the old and 
honored mode of settling personal difficulties in the earlier 
part of the just expired century. 

The next morning, while still in bed, I was honored with a 
visit from my paternal ancestor. He left me not long in 
doubt as to the motive of such an unusual matutinal call. 
After due preface and preamble, he began much on the ex- 
cathedra ic strain, which was his usual style when wishing to 
be excessively persuasive or rather impressive. "My son, 
after getting your law license, of course you would like a 
year or two of foreign travel to complete your education, and 
such is my intention." After thanking him for this fresh 
proof of his fatherly regard, he continued : "'Yes, travel ex- 
pands the ideas, but, of course, no man of sense cares to go 
abroad to gaze at the monuments of man until he has first be- 
held the great natural curiosities of his own land, especially 
Niagara, the Natural Bridge, and the Mammoth Cave. Now, 
you have two or three weeks, before the University opens, to 
run out to Kentucky and take in the last, and then drop down 
to Nashville and pay a brief visit to your maternal kin." 
"But, father," I put in, "I do not care to see the old cave ; I 
am very well satisfied here." "Yes, a little too well satis- 
fied," was his sarcastic rejoinder. "The stage for Guyandotte 
leaves at 12 o'clock. Here's your ticket on a back seat, and 



here's a hundred dollars for the trip. Have jour trunk on in 
time." Be sure, after such an injunction, that trunk was 
aboard betimes, for my slight acquaintance with General G., 
had long since convinced me that when he imparted his orders 
with marked emphasis, he always meant what the words im- 
ported. But why that stretch of emphasized authority ? 
After much subsequent cogitation on the subject, it has 
dawned on me that he had gotten the idea on the brain that I 
was falling in love injudiciously, and he resolved to blast my 
incipient affection by a dose of enforced absence. The rem- 
edy proved effective in the end, if, indeed, the malady had 
really set in, but its ministration made me think at the time 
that the General was a hard superior, and unfeeling man. 

As now recalled, the trip to the Ohio then took two days 
and nights, now as many hours ; and a most disagreeable one 
it proved, melting all day and freezing all night. The change 
in that altitude was intense, but that was not the worst of it. 
The recollection of that first night on the bleak mountain-top 
sends the cold shivers over me whenever it obtrudes itself. 
A hold-up by a lone highwayman, do you ask ? ~No, nor by 
a dozen. Better had it been for my future peace of mind. 
But the story calls for full recital, after getting thus far in 
the blood-curdling preliminaries. No, it was not a hold-up, 
or a turn-over either. Worse than the combination. But, 
ab initio, to make a connected narrative. 

When the stage left the 'White,' there were two ISTew York 
men of maturer years than mine occupying front seats, be- 
sides four unmentionables, including two ladies, one of whom 
sat by me on the rear seat, leaving the middle seat to the 
three others. It was my misfortune to have that brace of 
Manhat-islanders for travelling companions for many days 
thereafter. Not that a tragedy ensued. ISTo, owing to my for- 
bearance and sweet disposition, neither of them died on the 
trip. They were, on the whole, good fellows, but a little 
7 [97] 


over-given to levity and frivolity. Knowing that we were to 
be close-mewed up together for a long time to come, we all 
soon became acquainted ; in fact, might be said to be on 
a friendly and familiar footing. At a stopping-place two or 
three hours from the start, an old gentleman of about seventy 
and a young lady of perhaps twenty got in, he taking the va- 
cant front seat, and she the vacant rear, the other one by me. 
They both looked mighty spank and spruce in new duds, and 
with my natural precipitancy in coming to conclusions, I said 
to myself: the old gentleman is taking his pretty grand- 
daughter on to a finishing-off school. The damsel was ex- 
ceedingly fair to look upon, and so, extending the unvoiced 
monologue, the next remark was — here's consolation for you, 
my boy, for the paternal tyranny to which you have just been 
subjected. And so, beginning an acquaintance on platitude 
and commonplace, as moonshine tipped the mountaintop, I 
was floating in moonshine and syllabub and spouting the love 
poets in her seemingly willing ear. In extenuation for such 
precipitancy on the amatory line, let it be said that the situa- 
tion and the subject were conducive to it, and that I had just 
emerged from semi-monastic durance, during which for nine 
months in the year the dear creatures were regarded as curi- 
osities, and to be caught by a bob-tail lieutenant talking to or 
'walking with a stray specimen was out of sheer envy regarded 
as a dereliction almost tantamount to a visit to Benny 
Havens, whose acquaintance I am proud to say I never 
made. Furthermore, I was young, simple, unsophisticated, 
and since getting the better of normal and inborn dread of 
them, of a most impressionable nature. Besides, had not my 
maiden affection just been crushed by an arbitrary exercise of 
power ? 

All went merry as a marriage-bell until there came a por- 
tentious caution from the front. "Young man, when you get 
through) with that nonsense, we would like to go to sleep." 



There came a suppressed double chuckle from the New York 
corner of that vehicle in response to that broad ill-timed per- 
sonality. But after such a hint, from one seeming to be in 
authority, all nonsense ceased for the rest of that night. At 
the breakfast house the next morning, two of our fellow voya- 
gers stopped over. She did not even say goodbye to me at 
parting. But, oh, the scream that went up from the others 
as we were leaving that hashery. "Jones, that beat the 
Bowery all hollow." "Well, I should say so," came the re- 
ply; ''the idea of making love to a bride of twelve-hours- 
standing, in the very teeth of her husband, beats bob-tail as 
well as the Bowery." "It's not so," I cried ; "she is his 
granddaughter." With that, there was another wild explo- 
sion of guffaw, in which I grieve to say the ladies were the 
loudest. Then followed lame imitations from Annabel Lee, 
Maid of Athens, Lalla-Rookh, etc., etc., all horribly mutilated 
and murdered. 

The stage was stopped and I got out with the driver, hop- 
ing to find more congenial society, which came to wish. The 
scenery from the box was grand, especially the far-famed 
Hawk's Nest, a precipice of 1500 feet, apparantly perpen- 
dicular. Bill was communicative without being at all offen- 
sive. As an instance, he called attention to an over-turned 
stage some hundred yards down the mountain side, which 
had brought up against a sapling. "Was any one killed ?" I 
asked with bated breath. "Well, that's just what Jim asked 
from up here," having jumped off as he saw it was going 
down. "Well, what was the answer ?" "]SFo, but there will 
be up there as soon as I get to the top," replied a Kentuckian 
as he started up with a revolver. "Did he wait ?" "Not 
Jim, he was too smart for that; he took to his heels, and left 
them all to shift for themselves, and they had to walk five 
miles to the next station." 

Although the river was exceptionally low, a crippled old 



stern-wheeler picked us up about midnight, and in due, or 
rather it should be said undue time, landed us in Louisville. 
The New Yorkers and I called to see Porter, the Kentucky 
giant, during the afternoon. In bulk he was much bigger 
than John C. Calhoun or Andrew Jackson, but there all- 
comparison ended. The next day, I took stage for Nashville, 
via the big cave.. At the stopping-place, seven miles short, I 
tried to find out something about it from the old landlord. 
His reply was, "You will have to ask some one else. I have 
lived here all my life but have never been there." Here was 
curiosity for you, not to take a morning's walk to see one of 
the world's greatest wonders, for so I found it in all verity. 
The Grotto of Adelsburg, which I saw later on, may surpass 
it in scenic effect, but falls far short in grandeur and immen- 
sity of dimensions. A second visit, long years subsequently, 
only strengthened first impressions. 

After a week's sojourn on old familiar tramping ground, I 
started back to the University, this time by steam. On the 
train, came up with an old cadet friend with a funny reminis- 
cence. Daniel was of a social turn and prone to drop in 
on his friends, whether in or out of study hours mattered 
little, and he was usually a welcome visitor, for he was brim- 
ful of Georgia scenes, far surpassing Judge Longstreet's in 
pith and point of narrative. Of course, no door, even of the 
most studious of us delvers after the unfathomable, could be 
closed in the face of such a one as he. Now, there is, or 
was, a ridiculous rule or regulation prevailing in that school, 
restricting social interchange of jokes and anecdotes. No 
visiting between certain hours, it read, and certain penalties 
for infraction, or words to that effect. Now, it so happened 
that at this particular juncture, the inspecting officer, or 
scooper-up of culprits, was Lieutenant Baker, who still wore 
his cadet soubriquet of 'Betsy Baker,' a worthy gentleman as 
I see him now, a veritable sleuth-hound as then. Now, Betsy 



had a knack of making his tours of inspection at the most 
unreasonable and unexpected hours, when ingenuous youth 
was least on the lookout, and as it turned out, on the inaus- 
picious occasion to follow. While Daniel was in the midst 
of a lovely recital of some particularly laughable incident, 
located of course down in Georgia, the jingling of Betsy's 
sabre was heard entering the opposite room. It took but a 
moment for Daniel to jump in the fire-place and to have the 
screen closed behind him. Quick as it was, however, the 
commotion within doubtless aroused Betsy's suspicions, as he 
had probably been along there himself in the recent past 
After making the usual cursory and perfunctory look around 
to satisfy himself that we were in and everything in place, 
he opened the door, but closed it again, leaving the impres- 
sion on the man in the fire-place that he had made his egress. 
After waiting a few moments for developments, we heard a 
voice from the mural tomb: "Say, Sep., hasn't 'old Bets' 
gone yet?" The reply came from our visitor: "ISTo, Mr. 
Daniel, 'old Bets' is still here, waiting to take your name and 
measure." As poor Daniel emerged from the chimney, a 
veritable conglomerate of Santa Claus and his namesake of 
the lion's den, three of us exploded, but the fourth one 
couldn't see anything to laugh at. 

Arrived at Charlottesville, I at once entered on my new 
course of study, taking the two tickets of law and belles lettres 
with political economy interjected in the last. The Law 
School was presided over by Professors Minor and Holcombe, 
and the other by Professor McGuffey, the famous author of 
the series of school readers, which in their day were read in 
most of the elementary schools of the land, and which prob- 
ably have never since been improved upon. They were 
erudite, not to say recondite, teachers, and all attained celeb- 
rity in their new sphere of action, and later on. 

It was a standing charge in derogation by the opponents 


AN auto of half a century and moke. 

of the institution, that few young men, and in that day they 
were usually such, and not boys, ever took the two courses of 
lectures without coining out thoroughly imbued with 'States- 
rights' indoctrination, and of such I was no exception, 
although paternal precepts had made the way easy to that 
rational and orthodox line of political faith. And yet, Dr. 
McGuffey, who was the brainest schoolmaster that I have ever 
known, after a somewhat varied and diversified acquaintance 
with the brotherhood, was decidedly Federalistic in his lean- 
ings and line of thought — if the expression may be used — a 
Whig of Whigs. But, like the wise and conscientious teacher 
that he was, he would give the arguments pro and con dispas- 
sionately on great governmental questions, such as the Bank, 
the Tariff, Internal Improvements, etc., and leave conclusions 
to the judgment of his hearers. The usual result of this 
Socratic mode of indoctrination was a brood of unfledged 
States-Rights Democrats at the end of the term. For all 
that, I owe dear old 'Guff' a grudge for forcing a class dis- 
tinction on me in spite of myself. 

All three of the gentlemen named were an honor to their 
profession, and supplied cud to chew upon from that day 
to this. This was in great measure due to freedom from 
schoolboy espionage and insensate restraint. The sort of 
young men then at that school required no such juvenile res- 
traint, curb, and oversight. They were as a body well born, 
high bred, and cultured to a high degree, before applying for 
admission into the characteristic institution. As a rule, they 
had reached years of ordinary discretion, and leaving their 
boyish tricks and sportive tendencies behind them, had come 
there with fixed purpose to absorb the modicum of erudition 
within range of reach, before entering the great arena which 
they saw just ahead. They buckled down to their work in 
good earnest, and I with them, a creditable commonwealth 
for an older community's imitation. 



Speaking of college honors, I trust my vanity may be ex- 
cused for brief reference to one which was barely missed, 
and which would have been most highly prized, though it 
came not through the Faculty. At the time of which mention 
is made, and presumptively ever since, there were two lit- 
erary, or more properly speaking, debating societies at the 
University. In christening these, it is highly probable that 
the primary matriculates of two generations antecedent were 
as little familiar with high Hellenic as scores of country 
high schools have been ever since, which usually prefer euphe- 
mistic Greek compounds at the baptismal font on such occa- 
sions, as for instance, 'The Deniosthenian," 'The Euphema- 
sian,' and the like, to their good old honest mother-tongue 
nomenclature. Not of that ilk were Mr. Jefferson's boys 
some hundred years ago, as the two societies were duly dub- 
bed 'The Jefferson,' and 'The Washington,' in honor of the two 
biggest men that the great mother of big men had up to that 
time produced. There were disputants in each who would 
not have shamed Parliamentary bodies of a far more preten- 
tious standard, as many have since electrified senates and 
shaped governmental polity, while not a few fill heroes' 

Preferring the political tenets and tendencies of Monticello 
to those of Mount Vernon, I was soon enrolled in the ranks 
of 'The Jeff,' numerically about three to one in excess of 
the other. On second or third appearance in that forum, I 
was assigned to the discussion of the question at the next suc- 
ceeding meeting. It was a fundamental political question, 
and one fraught with momentous consequences thence on for- 
ever, as it had been from the adoption of the Federal Con- 
stitution the most vital of all. It involved, or rather brought 
into bold relief, the legitimate relationship between the State 
and General Government, naturally trenching on the right 
of resumption of delegated powers. Recognizing the trans- 



cendent importance of a true conception of the mighty issues 
involved, then and thence on to Appomattox, where the 
glaived hand of overwhelming force gave the ' Constitutional 
Federative' system its quietus forever, I was as full of the 
theme in preparation for that mimic senate as if the forensic 
tilt was destined to come off in the Capitol before one of 
Catos. Goodbye to text books for the week to follow. I was 
too full of the fate of Rome, and more especially of another 
great kindred Republic, to give time or thought to trivialities 
or puerilities. Page after page, if not quire after quire, of 
foolscap was spoiled to connect the line of thought. The 
Madison papers were analyzed and dissected by paragraph in 
order to give the true intent of the 'Framers,' and so the 
'Resolution' of '97 and '98, the Missouri Compromise and 
its legitimate offspring in base bom bastardy, fitly dubbed 
the 'Omnibus Bill,' were torn into tatters and scattered to the 
four winds. Then long walks were taken morning, noon, and 
at nightfall, memorizing the sublimity of thought on paper. 
Finally, as the eventful night drew on apace, I felt confi- 
dent of reciting my little piece with the unbroken fluency 
of a juvenile Demosthenes, tackling Cassabianca for the first 
time. Alas ! the best laid plans of mice and men, etc., etc. 
I was hardly twenty words deep in a telling exordium before 
floundering beyond mental depth. In this initial effort on 
any stage, that terror of the tyro or debutant, known as stage 
fright, had hit a stunning blow between the eyes. All con- 
nectedness of preconceived words and phraseology vanished. 
I felt very much like our imported French riding-master did 
at West Point when he lost his saddle in an incipient charge, 
or the General commanding the army when he imitated the 
trans-Atlantic charlatan by falling off his horse the other day 
in the presence of the Presidency and the other assembled 
magnates of the nation. The business of each was to ride, 
and not to fall, p.nd each doubtless objected to being the 



special spectacular of a reversal of the program. Trenchy' 
confessed as much in saving: 'Gentil-honinies, I did vish that 
the ground vould open ven I fell off that tarn horse !' 
Probably, so thought too the Grand General of the U. S. Ar- 
my (Miles) as he felt himself doomed to such ignominious 
exit from the admiring gaze of that grand assemblage on that 
giand occasion. If such was the thought at that terrible 
moment, it is safe to say that if it had been put in words, 
it would today meet a hearty 'Amen' response in the past pre- 
dicate, from an overwhelming majority of his countrymen, 
inclusive of the best element of those under his immediate 
command. Be that as it may, there was a new-fledged as- 
pirant for histrionic distinction about that time, who may be 
supposed to have felt as the Count felt 'ven he was falling 
off that tarn horse!' Of course, it goes without question that 
the transplanted master of horse was a count and grand le- 
gionary, or something of that sort, as Uncle Sam has as little 
use for untitled pretension of the foreign sort as have our 
moneyed belles of the shoddy variety. 

At the awful juncture referred to, when vainly essaying to 
catch on to the connection in the manuscript, and when being 
guyed unmercifully by some three or four hundred new-made 
friends, scarcely a dozen of whom were known by sight, it 
became evident that a crisis was imminent and a change of 
base essential. Grasping at the traditional straw of the 
drowning man, there was a hurried colloquy held in another 
debating society whose hall was in the garret of an individual 
cranium. The question flashed with electric thrill: Why con- 
tinue to make a ninny of yourself by trying to recite your 
memorized parroty lesson word by word ? You are reason- 
ably master of the subject and know what you wish to say. 
Say it. And so I did, and made the hit of my life on the 
oracular line, as then felt, and ever since known. Before pro- 
ceeding five minutes on the new lino. e;ibes< and sneers had 



given way to pretty continuous applause and cries of 'Go on/ 
when time was up. But higher proof was forthcoming at the 
next succeeding assembly when a President for the year had 
to be chosen. To my extreme surprise my name was placed 
in nomination for that high and much coveted distinction, as 
tradition averred that at least two years membership was in- 
dispensable to justify a presumptuous eye on the Chair. I 
failed to reach the goal by a single vote, the successful com- 
petitor being the grandson and namesake of America's most 
famous orator and himself not one of a common order, being 
the acknowledged champion disputant of the society, a claim 
which he made good on the wider arena for the few eventful 
years preceding his untimely end. He had been at the Uni- 
versity, as I was told, six or seven years battling for that 
recognized highest academic prize, Master of Arts of the 
University of Virginia. That year he was one of the half- 
dozen aspirants who won the coveted degree of A. M. 

Recurring to that adverse majority of one, it has been a 
fateful numeral for me in many, if not most of my electoral 
contests. By one vote I lost the colonelcy of the Twelfth 
North Carolina Regiment in the early part of 1S63; by one 
vote, failed to take seat in the North Carolina State Senate, 
although conceded even by my opponent to be entitled to it 
by two or three hundred majority. (ISTote. In the first of these 
I was not aware that an election was pending. The other 
was in Avar times, when not hankering after political prefer- 
ment.) Nevertheless, it was a remarkable coincidence, which 
has never probably befallen another with my limited appetite 
for promotion. 

It has been a standing regret in later life, that I did not 
profit more from the obvious teaching of this maiden effort, 
namely, that in all subsequent ones I had not placed less reli- 
ance on 'the letters Cadmus gave/ and attached more impor- 
tance to clothing ideas in less finished phrase, and in more 



honest, manly, homespun garb. Or to change the metaphor, 
that manuscript had never been relied upon as crutch to 
help a treacherous memory, if not a lame and halting argu- 
ment. ISTo, take my advice and follow example mentioned, 
oh ! sophomores ; first master your subject and then get mad 
and go it blind, regardless of meliferous phrase or stilted ex- 
pression. I have seen many a self-complacent sophomore 
(Anglicized 'wise fool') fool a crowd of bigger fools with 
words only, barring a due infusion of rant and fustian. 

After a scholastic year at this model institution, during 
which let us hope a due proportion of intellectual pabulum 
fell to my share, the spirit of change or unrest came over 
me again and prompted fresh pastures green for omniverous 
browsing. In my boyhood town in Tennessee, there had 
lately sprung up a law school which, for the time, had grown 
into celebrity overshadowing all the others. Although only 
the adjunct of a country high-school, modestly dubbed Uni- 
versity, it became almost from its birth a recognized foun- 
tain-head of legal lore throughout the land, rivaling, if not 
eclipsing, the older and far more famous schools of the East. 
This phenomenal development was doubtless due to its being 
under the auspices of three of the most learned judges in 
that State or any other, namely, Greene, Caruthers, and 
Ridley, whose personal and professional repute gave their 
school name and fame far and wide, suggestive of that of 
the famous Abelard, most renowned teacher of his time. 

I was prompted to give up the University for this new- 
fledged candidate for forensic fame by the reflection that 
the succeeding course of lectures would in the main be but 
a repetition of those just heard, and the hope of imbibing 
a fresh infusion of thoughts and ideas by a change of in- 
structors. Without the slightest reflection on the others, can- 
dor compels the admission that to the best of belief, I was 
not mistaken. A two-mile walk before and after was perhaps 



conducive to reflection and inward digestion of the truths 
enunciated in previous lectures. 

Here I continued about five months, when it occurred to 
me that enough of my life had been spent in class rooms, 
then in mj twenty-fourth year. 

[108 J 


A few days later I was back with my father and family 
at the old St. Nicholas Hotel, New York, then the leading 
caravansary of the New World, which goes, without saying, 
of the entire world. What a wonderful transformation has 
since taken place in this field, as in every other. Gorgeous as 
it was in its time, it would still hardly be ranked today as 
fit intermediate halting place on the stage-road of time be- 
tween old Sam Johnson's revered taverns and the palatial 
publics of the close of the century, rivaling the homes of roy- 
alty in their get-up and concomitants of splendor and mag- 

A few days later, after having been admitted to practice 
before the Supreme Court of the United States upon appli- 
cation of the Hon. George E. Badger, perhaps at the time 
the leading practitioner before that august tribunal, I waa 
duly inducted into the office of Walker and Janin, to which 
reference has already been made. Well do I recall a remark 
of the great North Carolina jurist at the hotel that night: 
'Young man, I have made a novitiate of you ; you'll have to 
make a lawyer of yourself.' Perhaps, had home manufacture 
been left to myself, the outcome might have turned out a 
fairly reasonable success, for I would have put the bottom 
rung in the ladder before putting in the topmost one. 

My judgment would have enjoined an initial before a 
village Dogberry, like other legal aspirants in the chrysalis 
state, instead of taking the remote and improbable chance of 
riveting the attention of America's greatest Chief- Justice, 
for so I hold Roger Taney to have been, despite a world's pre- 
conceived opinion. Not so my father, who believed that 
altitude in start would be conducive to prolonged flight, 
oblivious to the fact that not every year or century can turn 
out a Tom Erskine. My progenitor was of far-reaching ideas 



and comprehensive grasp, but withal somewhat visionary in 
evolution. I once laughingly told him that if he had antici- 
pated Fulton's great problem, he would have required a new 
born ocean-liner to demonstrate its utility. That perhaps 
was a fraction far-fetched as well as unfilial ; but still I be- 
lieve that he had a lurking hope of springing a full-fledged 
jurisconsult before the eyes of an astonished world by favor 
of adventitious beginning. 

Feeling myself wofully handicapped from the start in 
being thus entered unheralded in an arena of world-known 
legal gladiators, it was not calculated to inspire confidence, 
but still feeling a well-grounded reliance at bottom of being 
reasonably well posted in the rudiments, I strove on in the 
hope that Erskine's opportunity might repeat itself in order 
to show the world what a mass of erudition and legal light 
was being hidden under a bushel. All speculations on that 
score, however, were brought to an abrupt conclusion of self 
and friends, supported by high medical authority, that my 
mundane career was about to be brought to a sudden termina- 
tion by a brief winter's sojourn at the Federal Capital, which 
was confirmed a few days later by the celebrated Dr. Stone, 
of Xew Orleans, who prescribed horseback, ten-pins, and 
active out-door exercise generally, to the exclusion of drugs, 
nostrums, and medicated cure-alls of every kind. 

Believing that he knew what he was talking about, I 
took the first boat for Shreveport, bought a horse and began 
an extended ride through Texas, which with the branch-offs 
to the right and left covered according to note-book at the 
end upwards of 1,500 miles, and consuming nearly two 
months in making it. The first two or three days out were 
slow progress, scarcely averaging fifteen miles a day, owing 
to weakness and physical breakdown. In fact, had it not 
been for Dr. Stone's forecast to that effect, it is probable that 
after the second day I would have gone back, laid down, 



and died. But pride was aroused and I kept on, soon over- 
lapping thirty or forty miles a day with less and less tax 
on the powers of nature. Later on I told the dear old gentle- 
man, whom I have since regarded as one of the brainiest of 
his profession, and despite his rough speech and at times 
uncouth mannerism, one of the best of men, that nothing but 
that prediction kept me in the saddle with face to the setting 
sun, and thus saved a life of but little intrinsic value. To 
the end of his, we were friends and cronies whenever chance 
brought us together. Perhaps identity of political faith had 
something to do with cementing the tie. Though born and 
reared in the heart of jSTew England, it was not in him to 
espouse the political opinions of that dogmatic section. He 
had well-matured convictions of his own in diametrical clash 
to his immediate surroundings. 'States-rights and Strict- 
Construction' was the shibboleth of his creed; Jefferson and 
Calhoun its exponents. 

It was a bleak and dreary ride with not a traveling com- 
panion a mile of the way, and most of the distance not the 
sight of habitation between the morning start and the evening 
let-up. The unvarying bill of fare was substantial, but crew 
to be slightly monotonous after the first month, namely, corn 
bread and fat middling drowned in its own gravy (so called) 
and a bowl of coffee black as Tartarus, sans milk, sans sugar, 
and almost sans the berry that o-^ve it name. Still, know- 
ing that it was the daily diet of the entertainers, the inva- 
riable charge of one dollar for man and beast was paid after 
breakfast without cavil or complaint; but the thought forced 
itself, why, in a country replete with game and the streams 
with fish, and no scarcity of cows in milk with fattening 
calves attendant, can there not be a little diversity in the 
menu by way of variety ? Reckon they never thought of it. 
Still, a good appetite after a long day's ride rarely failed me 
at table, and perhaps that was one of the most efficacious in- 



gredients in old Stone's prescription. Be that as it may, at 
the journey's end I had left an ugly graveyard cough far 
in. the rear, and was some twenty pounds plus in avoirdupois. 
The recipe is given for the benefit of others like inclined, or 
rather predisposed. 

But despite the monotony of the journey, there were occa- 
sional interludes of variety, amusing it may be to the reader, 
if not always agreeable to the writer, or rather the rider. 
A few such episodes are given by way of variety. 

One day about noon I watered and staked old Jim, ate the 
usual lunch of fat bacon and corn-dodger, stretched out and 
took the usual hour's siesta, saddled, and resumed the road. 
Let it be premised, it was a cloudy day. Towards the close 
of it, half familiar landmarks began to appear in view, and 
soon the countenance of my late host was seen over the 
fence. Then the awful truth became manifest that the mid- 
day nap had lost a day by turning me on the back track, and 
cost me a laugh. 

Jim was an equine of unusually amiable traits, but he was 
not cut out for the cavalry, for he had an unconquerable aver- 
sion to the detonation of fire-arms, and a jaw that a Mexican 
curb could scarce control when once aroused. I had a kindred 
aversion to rattlesnakes, and whenever I came across one 
of the vile creatures coiled up and sunning himself on the 
roadside, the temptation to try a shot was too great to be 
withstood. On the instant, 'James' was off like a cannon-ball, 
and lucky it was if he could be brought to a hold-up under a 
mile. Then followed a more deliberate ride on the retro- 
grade to recover lost possessions, a hat here, an overcoat be- 
yond, next a saddlebag, and perhaps Jim's obnoxious revolver 
near the starting point. After two or three runaways for like 
needless cause and provocation, I came to the conclusion that 
the game was not worth the cartridge, and did my best to 
call a truce by withstanding temptation, but it took time to 



eradicate a settled conviction in the head of that idiotic 
quadruped, namely that rattlers got in the road on purpose to 
be shot at, and so, for a long while, he was off as soon as he 
saw or scented one of the vile things. 

A couple of days later on, Jim's pyrotechnic nerves were 
near being tested on larger and ignobler game. After a lone- 
some day's ride with scarcely a cabin in sight on the route, 
I struck a fence enclosing an improved plantation. My 
mouth watered at the prospect of anticipatory good cheer 
for the night, and suitable the time and occasion for just 
about that time an 'incipient 'Norther,' as it seemed, put in 
an appearance, accompanied by the most terrific rainfall that 
I have ever known, with one exception and that on the 
Nile, where a drop of water was reputed not to have fallen 
for seven years antecedent Commend me, or rather com- 
mend some other, to those arid lands where it rains only with 
the advent of the census taker. 

Following the fence for a mile brought rne in front of a 
neatly framed house, whose piazza was almost on the road. 
I had heard of a drowned rat; I felt like two, with icicles 
trickling from collar to boots. Almost without waiting to 
ask permission I proceeded to dismount, and then came the 
ominous veto: 'Don't get down ; you can't come in.' Almost 
dumbfounded with surprise and indignation, I reached over 
and unbuckled the right flap of the saddlebags, and proceeded 
to read the cur a moral lecture, more emphatic than unctious, 
on the recognized laws of hospitality. Before the lesson was 
well under way, he remarked, with a profane prefix, that 
he had heard enough and that I had better move on, adding, 
by way of stimulus, perhaps that double-barrel behind the 
door may expedite your movements. Now that, under the 
circumstances, was more than my grandfather, 'the man of 
Uz,' who was reputed one of monumental patience, could 
have borne without losing his equanimity. It can not be 
8 [ 113 J 


truthfully alleged that I, who came by descent into possession 
of much of that commendable trait, preserved it unscathed 
under such a threat with preliminary provocation. I was 
mad from the start, and kept on getting madder until he 
dared this cowardly bombast. 

Then he was admonished not to move out of his tracks 
until he heard a homily on courtesy and good breeding, under 
penalty of never laying hands on a double-barrel again. Am 
glad to say he heeded the fatherly counsel thus given, and so 
obviated the necessity for a more heated altercation. In re- 
sponse to his platitude that a man's house is his castle, as 
much was graciously conceded, but a counter claim was in- 
terpolated, namely, that the king's highway is common to all 
men, and for the time I held the highway. The use of the 
ambiguous term may have induced the belief on his mind 
that he was having to do with one of Dick Turpin's sort. Be 
that as it may, it gladdens an old man's heart to report that 
the claim to respective suzerainty was mutually acquiesced 
in. During the interesting colloquy Jim was remarkably 
quiescent for one of his restive nature, and seemed to say 
as plainly as a horse could say 'If you would like to take one 
shot at the thing, old man, I'll try and stand it.' 

A mile or so further on we reached an unpretentious cabin, 
whose occupant was an inborn gentleman. He put me in 
front of a rousing fire, gave a drink of new corn whiskey 
to thaw me out, went out and groomed Jim, and then came 
back and did the same for me, rubbing me down in no gentle 
currycombing, for well he realized that I was on the verge 
of physical collapse. Then he wrapped me up in his old over- 
coat, made me take another stiff drink of the best tipple he 
had to offer, and then ushered me into the next room, where 
I sat down to the most enjoyable meal that has ever passed the 
lips of man, and that is a no small compliment from one 
who has since eaten hash at many of the most renowned hos- 



telries on the civilized globe. Imprimis, a queenly welcome 
from the lady who had prepared it, then a venison steak prop- 
erly gotten up, supplemented with biscuit, fresh butter and 
buttermilk, and to cap the climax, a cup of good honest hot 
coffee with concomitants of milk and sugar. Rest assured 
that, like 'Dalgetty of Drumthwacket,' full justice was done 
to a spread like that after a month of unwelcome deglutition. 
That dear dame had evidently spread herself on that get-up, 
and I have loved her ever since, platonically, for doing it. It 
was evidently designed as a pure charity entertainment to a 
half frozen, half drowned, half starved poor devil, who had 
been unexpectedly cast upon their bounty. They were people 
who had evidently known better times, but, better far, knew 
how to adapt themselves to the reverse of fortune. 

While discussing his neighbor's contemptible conduct over 
the after-supper pipe, I remarked that I offered to bet him 
ten dollars to a postage stamp that he wasn't born and bred 
in our Southern regions. "And you would have won the 
wager if he had taken you up," was the reply, 'for he saw 
first daylight nearer the St. Lawrence than the Potomac." 
A good night's rest, a hearty good-morning, and a good 
breakfast, gave me a morning start in a good humor, en- 
hanced by the parting injunction — ''Call again and stay 
longer, whenever you are in these parts." 

Falling into a meditative mood, I said: Why the antipodal 
dissimilarity between these two men living within a stone's 
throw of each other, the one churl, pure and simple, and 
the other the chevalier, fresh, refined, from nature's mould ? 
The answer came : the better kind, like the poet, is born, not 
made ; the baser sort is ubiquitous and ever reaches his legiti- 
mate level in spite of birth and fortune. Here in this 
sparsely settled country was illustration. But there is too 
much thought wasted on the churl. 

A little later on I arrived in the historic and picturesque 



town of San Antonio, destined to be my abiding place for 
many months thereafter, most of which was agreeably, if not 
always profitably, spent. Even at that early day, it gave 
promise of soon becoming what it has since attained to, a 
populous and elegantly built and beautiful city, in place of 
the straggling village of a few thousand inhabitants, as it 
then loomed up. Still I do not think I would enjoy denizen- 
ship within its gorgeous borders now, as then, when composed 
in the main of modest two-story structures and Mexican 

It was then the most unique, whole-souled and interesting 
place that I have known before or since, and like an honored 
avuncular of mine, some three or four generations anterior, 
ISTatt Macon by name, I have never taken much stock in big 
towns, holding with him in an expressed opinion in Congress, 
to all intents, that they foster a greed of pecuniary gain 
conducive to selfishness and subversive too of patriotism and 
most other heroic virtues, and thanking Heaven that he rep- 
resented a State that was not blessed, or cursed, accordingly 
as viewed, with any big towns. Query : Does that fact account 
for his State having the lowest criminal record up to the 
Avar, and the highest war record for the four years to follow ? 
Or may not those two blessed deterring agencies, the gallows 
and the whipping-post, have had a hand in the first, and in- 
herent love of liberty, due to pure and unmixed cradle milk 
from Anglo-Saxon fount, have had much to do with the last 
statistically established fact? But I am anticipating. To 
come back. 

This primitive town, even then surpassing in natural at- 
tractiveness any within memory's recall today, was suggestive 
of and conducive to the Italian's 'dulce far niente' or 
Lethean dream life. Mere respiration in such a climate and 
such surroundings was such a luxury that it was prone to 
make one, and especially one barely out of the jaws of the 



grim monster, supremely oblivious to all sublunary things 
beyond. The two chiefest charms of this ideal spot were the 
San Antonio and San Pedro Rivers, two lovely pellucid 
streams, having their source a short distance above the town 
from immense springs, and rushing through it almost with 
the velocity of mountain torrents. The population was of a 
heterogeneous type and varied character, running through 
all gradations, from the lowly 'greaser' to the refined and 
cultivated gentleman, with the intermediate interstices filled 
in with a motley crew of professional horse thieves, swagger- 
ing ruffians, and riff-ran" generally, whose constant study 
seemed to be to bully their betters, as far as a discreet regard 
for their own precious carcasses would permit them to go; 
a class sui generis. 

One of this last-named sort had attained to State celebrity 
in the annals of crime and blood-thirstiness before my 
arrival. His name, unless mistaken, was Bill Johnson, and 
he enjoyed the enviable repute with his fellows of having 
killed seven men in street brawls before reaching the voting 
age. Bill was a hero in his own conceit and proud of 
his early acquired honors and incipient fame, as subjoined 
illustration will show. It is almost a verbatim sketch of a 
preliminary trial in which he was the principal party and 
I an interested looker-on. It was so unique and peculiar that 
it is reproduced in full as to essentials. 

It took place in the court-house in Seguin. The charge was 
petit-larceny, brought by a little Irish bar-keeper, who alleged 
that Mr. Johnson had made over-free with his 'till.' "Have 
you counsel ?" the magistrate asked. <f No, and I don't want 
any," was the impudent reply ; "I always attend to my own 
law business." Continuing, he added with insolent bravado, 
walking about the bar in his shirt sleeves, "This is not the 
first time, your Honor, that I have had to stand trial 
at the bar of my country; but I am proud to say, it is the 



first that I have ever been called upon to answer contempti- 
ible, lying charge of that dirty Irish rascal. Heretofore, it 
has always been for killing my man in fair and honest fight. 
I have laid out seven of them, and there stands the eighth, as 
soon as I am out of the clutches of the law." 

"Sure, and it's meself will look after that," was Pat's 
cool rejoinder. That night a revolver was emptied into Bill's 
sleeping apartment in the county's free boarding-house; but 
the fellow's time had not yet come. The next night he was 
out and off again. A few weeks later he "laid out' his num- 
ber eight (not Pat) in Waco, and the citizens concluding 
that he had had his full complement of fun, tied a rope 
around his neck and dropped him out of second story window, 
and so final exit of this unmitigated young demon. 

Another incident, a little later on, showing the efficacy 
of assertive right in checking unsanctioned wrong, and I 
give the go-by to the whole brood of law-breakers of the most 
villainous class, believed to be an organized gang of mur- 
derers, horse- thieves, etc. Indictments, arrests, and legal 
trials, were regarded by the culprits with comparative indif- 
ference, knowing the saving grace in packed juries with one 
or more of their pals ever in the panel. 

Such was the state of affairs at that time, when the cor- 
respondent state followed, usually termed self-protection. 
Events had culminated to the point of clash, law or no law, 
and none of our blood can doubt, when reduced to that fine 
point, what the rendition of verdict would be. Immunity 
from control had made the law-breaking class presumptuous 
and over-bold, until one fine day they saw themselves con- 
fronted by a published black-list, containing a few score 
names of their number, with due caution to keep out of the 
corporate limits of the town thence-forward, under penalty 
for infraction. The next day about half their number, armed 
to the teeth, rode through the streets and with whoops and 



yells bade defiance to all authority. The preconcerted signal 
soon brought the better elements together, and a squad of 
volunteers quickly dislodged them from a house of low repute, 
in which they took refuge behind barricades. Four or five 
of their number, I believe, paid the penalty of their fool- 
hardiness. The next morning seven more were found sus- 
pended from a live-oak, just below the town, the coroner's 
verdict being, "did it themselves ;" probably the most remark- 
able instance of infections felo de se on record. Thence on 
during my stay, at least, San Antonio was virtually the 
synonym of law and good order. Comment : Nothing like 
drastic remedies for deep-seated disorders. 

In those days it was not deemed a prudent thing for a 
man to pay an evening call without his faithful revolver, as 
I had reason to know on more than one occasion. But rele- 
gating the class to which reference is had to the rear, I come 
now to speak of a different order of beings, men who in the 
next half-a-dozen years had made and were making imperish- 
able history. 

San Antonio was at that time the headquarters of the 
Department of Western Texas, and such a brilliant galaxy 
of high-toned educated men and lovely and accomplished 
women has rarely, if ever, been congregated in a frontier town 
of the same proportions. There was Irvin McDowell, a little 
later on Commanding General of the Army of the Potomac, 
where he was overmatched and sent to the rear in hot haste, 
as was his successor later on, the redoubtable John Pope, of 
veracious memory, almost on the self-same spot. John was 
not a fixture on the Staff, being engaged at the time in boring 
wells on the "Llano Estacado" ; but, to relieve the tedium of 
such dry monotonous work, he would occasionally run down 
to the city, where he was always welcome, owing to his geni- 
ality and gift of gab. 

It will be recalled by some that he usually began his bul- 



letins to the War Office with the grandiloquent caption — 
"Headquarters in the saddle/' until a witticism of old Jubal 
Early made him the butt of both armies. "Old Abe," quoth 
that man of emphasis, "must be getting to have a low opinion 
of our fighting qualities when he sends down a prefixed fool 
to whip us, one who locates his headquarters where his hind- 
quarters properly belong." Up to that time he had placed 
General Lee and his army hors de combat two or three times 
over, according to his own reliable reports. The whole North 
went wild over his marvellous achievements, and he to well- 
deserved destruction for trying to scale an insurmountable 
"Stonewall," which had mysteriously appeared to the rear of 
his "hindquarters." For all that, he was not a born soldier 
in the broad acceptation of the term; he was a fellow of in- 
finite jest, and quaint conceits; probably, the only man who 
ever attended his own funeral as a frolic. In his days of 
drink and youthful indiscretion, (both of which he bravely 
overcame,) the odd fancy struck him to see how big a mor- 
tuary turn-out his death would call forth. With the assist- 
ance of a brother officer, not exempt from the like amiable 
weaknesses, all of the ante-mortem preliminaries were duly 
arranged and the corpse and the chief -mourner were duly in- 
stalled in the hearse, minus the two boxes, with curtains 
down, before the other carriages began to arrive. By precon- 
cert with the final officiate, the procession began to move 
on time, and tradition (from which veracious chronicled facts 
are collated) doth aver that it was one of the grandest 
affairs of the sort ever seen in St. Louis up to that time, but 
the line of march set at naught the geometrical definition of a 
straight line. Right angles were made every square or two, 
for John wanted to see the town and he wanted the town 
to see him. After pursuing this zig-zag course for some 
time, a halt was called in front of a saloon by the occupants of 
the dead-wagon for a little refreshment. As soon as it 



leaked out that the whole thing was a sell and a put-up job, 
the question was raised amongst the pall-bearers and chief 
mourners whether it would not be a pity to spoil such a 
beautiful burying ground for the lack of a real dead man or 
two. The story continueth that the two funny-fellows came 
very near supplying the desideratum, and no small amount 
of diplomacy on a matter of fact, old fellow in Washington, 
to prevent the removal of two pair of epaulettes from their 
shoulders. So ran the story five and forty years ago. 

Major Don Carlos Buell was another member of that staff, 
and doubtless one of the brainiest of them all. He it was 
who, at critical juncture, did the Confederacy most grievous 
hurt of any other. It has persistently been claimed by one 
side, and generally conceded by the other, that Grant's army 
was utterly routed and demoralized when the great Confed- 
erate commander fell at Shiloh at the moment of supreme 
and decisive victory, thus devolving the command upon an 
utter incompetent, who obligingly called a halt and awaited 
the arrival of Grant's indispensable reinforcements during 
the night. These under Buell, then a Major-General, duly re- 
ported before daybreak and in a trice undid the magnificent 
work of the previous day, turning a glorious victory into an 
ignoble defeat. Wellington might have finished his work at 
Waterloo without Blucher. The possibility of such an out- 
come for Grant on the sequel of Shiloh without Buell is an 
over-tax on human credulity, even overweighted as the Con- 
federates were in their new Commanding General. Weighed 
by results, it was the most portentous night march in the an- 
nals of war. Imprimis, as given above, resultant effects, the 
conversion of the badly beaten general of one day into the 
over-towering hero of the next, as he continues to be, judged 
by results. 

Lieutenant Kenner Garrard, adjutant of the post, as he 
had been of the corps of cadets in his graduating, and my ini- 



tial year, was one of the finest specimens of physical develop- 
ment that I have ever seen. Standing bare-foot above six feet 
in stature, and duly proportioned, he seemed of a verity a 
modern descendant of Mars or Apollo, or a combination by 
transmission of inherent traits. His internal organism 
seemed to be in entire accord with the physique, suave, gran- 
diose, gentle, straight, and straighforward. Our relations on 
the Hudson were barely of the speaking order; on the San 
Antonio, they soon grew into intimacy, owing perhaps to a 
kindred soul. He loathed pretension and sham, as I have 
always tried to do. As his next friend, I required him to 
cane his man in public, in order to place the onus of challenge 
where it properly belonged, and like a man he did it, thus 
reversing an overwhelming popular sentimental verdict, and 
better still, eliciting the commendation and approval of the 
great war secretary of that day, Jefferson Davis by name. 
Hesitancy in decision would have given the other party 
choice of weapons, which owing to his mastery of one was 
tantamount to one-side shooting. The sequel to the story is 
given in the annexed excerpt from General Johnston's biogra- 
phy of his son, Colonel W. P. Johnston. He became a Major- 
Gen eral of Cavalry, U. S. A., as he would in C. S. A., had 
he been born a mile southwards. 

Albert Sidney Johnston, Colonel of the Second Cavalry 
and in command of the Department, Western Texas, was even 
at that day a recognized soldier of the highest order of merit. 
In face, physique and mental acquirement, rarely matched in 
his own or any antecedent age. Mild, modest, gentle and 
reserved, he was, to a degree almost phenomenal in one of his 
transcendent worth. A fuller synopsis of my estimate of this 
superb, or to make it stronger, almost matchless character, 
was published twenty-five years ago in the great biography by 
his worthy son, Colonel William Preston Johnson, then and 
to his death, the President of Tulane University, which is 

herewith reproduced. 



It was my proud privilege to be the friend, or rather to be 
repeatedly befriended by such a man as he was. I loved and 
revered him next to a father in life, and the admiration 
grows continually since his heroic, but most unfortunate and 
ill-fated death. I can but repeat as undoubting what was 
written a quarter of a century since, that had his priceless life 
been spared one brief hour longer the Confederate States 
would have taken their place at the Council Board of nations. 
Almost as much can be said of the greatest of all lieutenants, 
Thomas J. Jackson. If the end of these two irreplaceable 
men was ordained above, let us not repine, but who can know 
until the dark river is crossed and shadows are commingled. 




"General Johnston's influence with young and ardent men 
was very great. Two illustrations of this are given by a de- 
voted friend and admirer, whose terms of laudation I have 
sometimes omitted, though I have naturally accepted them 
as genuine and just. He was the son of a friend of General 
Johnston, and having settled at San Antonio as a lawyer 
while the latter had his headquarters there, was at once put 
upon familiar terms with him and his family. He says : 

"I regard the hours spent with them as among the happiest 
and best improved of my life. I have long since recognized 
that his interest was purely the result of a desire to guard the 
son of an old friend against the temptations of youth incident 
to a frontier town. During the two years that I was a con- 
stant visitor under his roof he could not have been kinder or 
more considerate if I had been his own son, as the incidents 
alluded to will go to show." 

The writer goes on to narrate how, a personal altercation 
having arisen between an officer of the Second Cavalry and 
another person,, he was engaged to act as the friend of the 
former. Unfortunately the correspondence passed to such a 
point that he felt constrained to advise his principal that, in 
the event of an anticipated contingency, he must kill his an- 
tagonist on sight, pledging himself to do the same to any 
other man who should interfere. 

"That night between ten and twelve o'clock, General 
Johnston entered his room, and enquired whether he had 
given such advice. Before answering, my informant asked 
General Johnston whether he proposed to take official action 
in the premises. On his replying that he did not propose to 




avail himself of his position to interfere officiously in the 
affair, he was told that such had been the advice given. Gen- 
eral Johnston then asked whether he had counted the cost 
and weighed the possible consequences ; and was told that he 
had, and that he had advised the course that he himself 
would have adopted if principal, though he knew it must lead 
to a bloody street brawl. To General Johnston's expressed 
hope that he might convince him that his action was, to say 
the least, precipitate, he replied, that he feared the task was 
hopeless. 'But,' to use the language of my informant, 'he 
did, at length, succeed, by the mathematical argument of 
honor and the inexorable logic of the code, in inducing me to 
withdraw my counsel and leave my friend free to act after 
a plan which he, General Johnston, suggested. I now know 
that it was the wisest and best that could have been adopted, 
and that by its substitution for mine I have been saved a life- 
long term of remorse and self-reproach. . . Xot for world's 
now, would I have had my advice followed. General John- 
ston was probably the one man in the world who could have 
prevented it, and his arguments were the only ones that 
could have proved effectual.' Both of these young men at- 
tained high rank and distinction in the Civil War ; the writer 
of the above in the Confederate Army and his principal in the 
Federal Army. 

"The other incident occurred at the crisis of the Nicara- 
gua fillibustering fever, and is narrated as follows by my in- 
formant : 

" 'A battalion was raised in and around San Antonio to go 
to General Walker's assistance, and I was waited upon 
by a committee to know whether I would accept a command. 
1ST othing could have been more consonant to my feelings at 
the time; but, for some reason, I demanded until the next 
day before returning an answer, suggesting, in the mean- 
time, to swell the numbers by additional recruits. 



While that was going on that night quite briskly in the 
plaza, General Johnston came along, and, taking me by the 
arm, asked me to accompany him out of the crowd. 

" 'Then turning to me, he desired to know whether it was 
true that I proposed going on such a wild-goose chase. On 
being told that such was my intention, he replied : 'My young 
friend, think twice, and think seriously, before taking this 
step ; because, in all likelihood, it is the turning point in 
your life.' " 

Admitting that in youth the impulse was natural, and re- 
ferring to analogous cases in his own career, he continued : 
"The days of Quixotism are past, and with them the chance 
for name and fame in all such enterprises as this. 

The age is materialistic, and he who goes about in search 
of windmills and giants is apt to be considered a fit candidate 
for Bedlam. 

The question, however, wears a moral aspect, which should 
be duly weighed and considered. Is there any material dif- 
ference between the filibuster and the buccaneer ? Tell me 
not of philanthropy as a plea. I say of it as Roland's wife 
said of liberty : 'Alas ! how many crimes are committed in 
thy name !' Beside, if you are pining for adventure, you will 
not have long to wait. Liberty and Philanthropy are at work 
and in a broader field than yours. Fanaticism will soon 
bring on a sectional collision between the States of the Union, 
in which every man will have to choose his side. When it 
comes there will be no lack of blows, and may God help the 
right ! Then give up your present project, and wait. Go to 
Austin and enter on your profession there. "I will give you 
letters which will insure you advantageous business connec- 
tion there." 

By these arguments, here given almost in his very words, 
and similar ones, he again induced me to defer my wishes to 



his judgment and I have never regretted the decision. The 
letters I have now. 

"Permit me to say, in conclusion, that I have never known 
the man who held in such nice equipoise qualities akin and 
yet in a measure antagonistic — the genial and reserved, the 
gentle and the grand, the humane and the historic. He would 
have gone a day's journey to reclaim an erring brother, and 
would have turned out of his path to avoid crushing a worm ; 
and yet he would have sacrificed his life and all he held 
dear in it rather than deviate one hair's breadth from the 
strictest line of right and duty. 

"There was no cant in his composition, for he was a cava- 
lier of the straightest sect ; but I have never met the man who 
combined in himself more of the elements of a follower of 
the Unerring Teacher. In his company the humblest felt at 
ease, and yet a crowned head would not have ventured upon 
a freedom with him. In the course of an eventful life and ex- 
tensive travel, I have come in contact with many of the his- 
toric personages of the day ; and yet I scruple not to say that 
of them all, but three, to my thinking, would stand the test 
of the most rigid scrutiny.* Of these by a singular coinci- 
dence, the Colonel and lieutenant colonel of a cavalry regi- 
ment in the United States Army, afterward respectively the 
ranking officers of a hostile army, Albert Sidney Johnston 
and Robert E. Lee, were two ; the third was Mr. Calhoun. 

*" 'No time-serving or self-seeking entered into their cal- 
culations. Self-abnegation at the bidding of duty was the 
rule of their lives. Could our much maligned section lay no 
further claim to the consideration of mankind, the fact that 
it produced almost in the same generation, such a triumvirate, 
typical of their people, is enough to place it among the fore- 

* Ex-President Davis being still in the flesh, prevented this number 
being extended into a quartette. 



most nations of the earth in the realms of thought, honor, 
patriotism, and knightly grace. 

"Colonel Wharton J. Green, of North Carolina, some an- 
ecdotes from whose pen have already been inserted in this 
memoir, in a letter to the present writer says, in regard to 
General Johnston: 

" 'Portray him as he was — great, good, single-minded, and 
simple. He was the devotee of duty, but disposed to soften its 
asperities to others. His was a character with few counter- 
parts in ancient or modern story. It has been said that the 
noblest eulogy ever written consisted of a single word — 'the 
just.' All who ever knew General Johnston will confirm that 
he was as well entitled to that epithet as the old Athenian, 
and, coupled with it, to another, 'the generous.' 

"Talleyrand's saying, 'jSTo man is a hero to his valet,' is 
true in the main; but General Johnston would have been a 
hero to his very shadow. Those who knew him best admired 
him most. His peerless, blameless life was long enough for 
glory ; and but one brief day, perhaps one hour only, too 
short for liberty. One hour more for him in the saddle, and 
the Confederate States would have taken their place at 
the council board of nations." 



One of the most marked and remarkable characters of that 
time and section was my honored old friend, "Bigfoot Wal- 
lace." The presumption is that that was not his Christian or 
baptismal cognomen, if he ever had one, but it was the only 
one by which he was known throughout western, if not all, 
Texas, and universally respected wheresoever known. 

Peculiar and sui generis he was, above all men that I have 
known in life. Uncouth in garb and oft in speech, his simple 
word was more than tantamount to hosts of sworn witnesses 
in rebuttal. Get drunk he would occasionally, it grieves me 
to say, but drunk or sober, he could not tell a lie, or act one 
either. Essentially peaceable by nature, there was not a blus- 
tering bully in all those parts who would venture to encroach 
upon his inherent rights. Living ten or twenty miles from 
other habitation, hostile savages would give his cabin twice 
that space to shun its lone occupant, for well they knew bv 
hearsay that in it hung a score or more of their scalps as wit- 
ness of his prowess and unerring aim with the finest make of 
rifle then known. They soon learned to regard him as the 
bearer of a charmed life, as the wiliest of their tribe laid down 
theirs to compass it. He was as foreign to fear as to false- 
hood, avarice, or duplicity. He was one of my father's old 
campaigners, and ever held him in special regard, which was 
transmitted to the son upon first acquaintance. 

A distinguished legal friend of the place, Hon. John A. 
Wilcox, told me repeatedly that from extended correspond- 
ence with parties in Virginia he was absolutely convinced that 
"Old Bigfoot" had a fortune awaiting him in that State, 
ranging from fifty to a hundred thousand dollars, only requir- 
ing proof of identity and a few technical formalities to place 
him in possession, and yet for the life of him, he could not 
9 [129] 


induce the bull-headed old fool to go out and take it. Intimat- 
ing that perhaps I could succeed better, I tried my powers 
of persuasion on old "Bigfoot" but with like result. Here is 
the purport of his reply : a Yes, I know it was there, waiting 
for me to go and take it, long before Colonel Wilcox told 
me about it. Why don't I go and get it % Simply because 
I don't want it. What use would it be except to make 
me miserable ? I'm tolerably well satisfied over yonder, be- 
yond the Medina, by myself. My rifle and traps furnish all 
I need for meat, and the peltries my other little wants, such 
as powder, lead, coffee, salt, and a little dram when I run 
down here every month or two to see you town fellows. What 
more does a man require to make him happy ? And yet you 
and Jack Wilcox, both my friends, would have me break 
up a life that suits me and take to one that I hate and despise. 
A big house, a big drunk, and a big fool all combined, with 
lots of pretended friends as long as the money held out. 
Wouldn't I be a pretty d — — n fool to make the swap ?" I 
was compelled to assent Let others regard him as an unadul- 
terated fool, to me it seemed then, as it does now, that he 
had in his mental make-up many of the essential elements of 
the true philosopher — a true copy of Byron's Boone, one of 
the gems of true poetry. 

Of all men, saving Sylla the man-slayer, 
Who passes for in life and death most lucky, 
Of the great names in which our faces stare, 
The General Boone, back-woodsman of Kentucky, 
Was happiest amongst mortals anywhere ; 
For killing nothing but a bear or buck, he 
Enjoyed the lonely, vigorous, harmless days 
Of his old age in wilds of deepest maze. 

Crime came not near him — she is not the child 
Of solitude. Health shrank not from him, for 
Her home is in the rarely trodden wild, 
Where if men seek her not, and death be more 
Their choice than life, forgive them, as beguiled 


By habit to what their own hearts abhor, 
In cities caged. The present case in point I 
Cite is, that Boone lived hunting up to ninety. 

And what's still stranger, left behind a name 
For which men vainly decimate the throng, 
Not only famous, but of that good fame, 
Without which glory's but a tavern song — 
Simple, serene, the antipodes of shame, 
Which hate nor envy e'er could tinge with wrong ; 
An active hermit, even in age the child 
Of nature, or the man of Ross run wild. 

And so on through four or five additional stanzas. Such 

It was current report about that time that, single-handed, 
he once took the trail of a band of hostiles returning from 
one of their periodical forays in the white settlements, and 
after following it for days like a sleuth-hound came up with 
and panicked their bivouac at the dead of night, killing and 
scalping, the last a point of conscience with him, three of 
their braves and capturing a half grown buck, whom he tied 
to himself, dos a dos, on horseback, and took home with 
him, assigning as motive that he needed a young nigger to 
"tote" wood and water for him in his old age, but was too 
poor to buy one. On being cautioned as to the risk he ran 
in sleeping in the same room with a young rattlesnake, he 
quietly replied : "Yes, I know the vermins never go to sleep ; 
but I always do with one eye open and my "bowie" for a bed- 
fellow." Wonderful to tell, this implied claim to superiority 
of race was tacitly admitted by the improvised "nigger" be- 
fore he gave Marse Bigfoot the slip and went back to his own 
people, probably to exploit his educational progress in civili- 

The thought has forced itself both then and since that 
this simple, confiding soul, who, to my honest belief, had 
never done aught to injure either, had himself in early man- 
hood been victim to over-confidence in man or men, or most 



likely to woman, and so in sheer distrust of all had resolved, 
from over sensitive and high-wrought nature, to cut aloof 
from mankind and betake himself to the wilderness. Church 
history leads to inference that if so, he was not the first to 
seek heritage under kindred impulse. 

A word by way of explanation or apology. It has been in- 
timated that when my old friend came to town, which was 
usually every month or two, he sometimes forgot himself by 
taking an extra potation or two during his brief sojourn, but 
he never forgot that he was the inborn gentleman that every- 
body believed him to be. But once in the saddle, and his 
face turned homewards, and after getting there, no powers 
of persuasion could induce him to touch the bottle. To all 
such solicitation, his invariable reply would be: "No, Big- 
foot's got a scalp on his head, and he's got to keep a level head 
to keep it there." That argued that he carried a well-balanced 

The last I have ever heard of this eccentric, but most 
remarkable man, was his presence as an honored guest at a 
banquet of his old San Jacinto comrades and compatriots, al- 
most in the shadow of the Alamo, I think about fifteen years 
ago. He must even then have been hunting up to ninety. 
If, since then, he has passed over the river into the happy 
hunting-grounds beyond, let us trust that he and his life-long 
foemen of this side, the Comanches and Apaches, left their 
animosities behind them, and are now smoking "the pipe of 
peace" together over the river. 

Without any intimation to bear it out, it is my belief that 
he was a trusted scout of that congenial spirit and highest type 
of the natural soldier in all history — Bedford Forrest. It 
would have been a suitable culmination for loftiest heroism 
to have had Bigfoot for his ferret on the trail and movement 
of hostile leaders, whom he utilized as stepping-stones for the 
attainment of his heroic ends. 



Apropos, an anecdote of that phenomenal leader of heroes, 
which comes well authenticated. In Wilson county, already 
mentioned, there lived in war-times a worthy old lady by the 
name of Whitehead, who, gauged by the Napoleonic standard, 
was probably the greatest woman in the world. She had nine- 
teen sons under the greatest of cavalry leaders, and would 
have made the twentieth of the tribe by her own voluntary 
enlistment had she not been debarred by age and sex. On 
being asked by the parson, on her thought-to-be death-bed, 
if she didn't want to meet her Saviour, she replied with 
honest simplicity : "Yes, I don't mind to, but I'd rather meet 
Old Forrest." That evidenced the hold and confidence he 
had upon the people of his State. It has ever since been 
one of my regrets that our acquaintance was but casual. 

A hunting excursion on which we were together, just be- 
fore quitting Texas, calls for a passing notice. Lieutenants 
Chambliss and Van Camp, old acquaintances, who were sta- 
tioned at Camp Verde, a frontier post some hundred miles 
northwest, were in the city for a brief visit on official duty. 
They insisted on my returning with them, holding out as 
inducement a big hunt and good fishing . Of course, there 
was no resisting such arguments. So one fine morning we 
started betimes, the two dragoons in ambulance and I in the 
saddle on old Jim, of rattlesnake and run-away recall. We 
were hardly on the road before Chambliss, who was a superb 
horseman, began insisting on our swapping locomotion. Of 
course, the fear expressed that he couldn't ride Jim only 
made him the more pertinacious for display of his horseman- 
ship. At last, the wished-for and suitable time for gratifying 
the young man arrived. In the dim vista ahead a long dark 
moving line appeared in view, like a wounded snake drag- 
ging its slow length along, and sympathy went out forthwith 
toward that ambitious cavalryman, for well I knew that it 
was one of Mr. Secretary Davis' camel trains returning to the 



post with supplies, but Jim didn't take it in, and neither 
did the man in the wagon. Waiting for it to come up, I told 
Chambliss that out of pity he should bestride Jim for a 
few hours. Easier said than done, for that equine kept peer- 
ing up the road as if looking for a mighty python, all the 
time snorting like a porpoise, and like that would-be amphib- 
ious fish, trusting that its name and attributes are correctly 
catalogued, making constant and futile efforts to quit his nor- 
mal element by repeated plunges into the one above. "What's 
the matter with the fool ?" came the inquiry. "He thinks, 
old boy, you do not know how to ride one of his mettle." 
"Well, I'll undeceive him," came the reply, as he at last got in 
the saddle and drove the spurs up to the rowel. "Keep a 
taut rein, Cham, but give him his head," was my parting 
injunction as the noble animal darted off like a Congreve 

Horse and rider had nearly all reached the tail end of the 
caravan, united as one, when on the instant came a halt which 
came near dissevering their mutually repugnant and enforced 
connection. Each was covering himself with glory until such 
proximity was reached, and Jim's organs of eye, ear, nose, 
brought him to a full and momentous stop. Fortunately, his 
long mane saved his upper-story companion from a fall and 
enabled the equine to take in a momentary survey of the sit- 
uation, and plan his sequent course of action. With a loud 
snort and a fresh accession of crazified panic, he darted off 
at right angles to the road, and made such time over that 
prairie as Flying Childers the Godolphin, or Timoleon, could 
not have matched over the same course in their palmiest days. 
Those uncouth creatures with jingling bells and waddling 
locomotion, and their attendants, no less strange and more 
weird when singing one of their monotonous love-songs in 
chorus, were too much for Jim's nerves, and hence the sequel 



In fact after much reflection on the subject, I have come 
to the conclusion that that animal was subject to fits of tem- 
porary emotional insanity, as the lawyers call it, and hence 
wasi in no wise responsible for what he did at such times. 
Chambliss was evidently of the same opinion, barring the 
extenuating clause, and further, that this was a very acute 
and aggravated attack, for when Van and I came up with 
them an hour or two later, he had dismounted and was read- 
ing Jim a moral lecture on immoral depravity, or vice versa, 
savoring more of the reputed emphasis to which our army 
in Flanders' was addicted, than of the euphonic modulations 
of Attica. His last remark of expostulation that reached us 
as we came in ear-shot to that interesting colloquy between 
him and that hard-mouthed, self-willed brute,, was, in effect, 
if not in words, as followeth : "You are the blankedest blank 
fool that I ever saw in my life," which showed that he too 
regarded Jim as non-compos. In response to protest against 
his having overtaxed poor Jim in his mad ride over the 
prairie, he replied with acerbity: "Well, unless Van is fool 
enough to try him, you'll ride him yourself from here to 
Verde. I wouldn't back him again if you'd give him to me 
as inducement for doing it." 

In due time we arrived at our destination, and were warmly 
welcomed by Major Innis Palmer, commandant, then Major 
by brevet, and later on a Major-General of "the blue," and 
his accomplished wife. Subsequently I rented his lovely 
home for a year or two while in Congress. In hot haste 
a big lump of cold substance was unblanketed from the wagon. 
Palmer had a green vegetable in his garden and the other 
concomitants in his closet. Surgeon Smith was as high au- 
thority on juleps as on jalaps, and for long had filled the 
learned professorship of intermixture in that quiet, secluded 
institution. ]STo vile new-fangled heresies, such as crushed 
mint, lump ice, shortage of "poteen," found favor in his eyes 



or place in his brew. Like Father Tom, of blessed memory, 
he held with autocratic tenacity, "that after the other compo- 
nents of a hot punch were duly compounded, you add the 
wather, and, may it plaze your Riverence, every drop of 
superfluous wather you add spoils the punch." Perhaps we 
youngsters, Chambliss especially, didn't relish that Olympian 
potation, see !N". P. Willis for origin of the adjective, and 
North Carolina for its nativity, after our long, dry, hot ride. 
A replica, however, failed to evoke a health to his John Gilpin 
charger referred to. 

One day as we were all sitting on the piazza, one of the 
Arabs came up and announced with the nonchalance of a 
canine obituary: "Doctor, me kill Yuseff." The tour of in- 
spection which we made with the Doctor to the camel-yards 
showed that the swarthy Ishmaelite was not yet "kilt entirely" 
by his numerous and well meant knife thrusts. Whether he 
lived to see the sands of Syria again is more than I can say, 
as we started on our big hunt next day — big in preparation, 
but little in results. 

Besides the officers of the post, the party embraced Major 
Beall, the paymaster of the department; a man laconic of 
speech he was, but far-famed for emphasis of expression, with 
a liberal admixture of causticity when excited, as the younger 
members of the party soon found out. Two four-horse ambu- 
lances supplied transportation, with an escort of a dozen 
troopers at a reasonable distance to the rear, and Bigfoot as 
guide and provider of fresh meat. The first day out, near the 
ford of a little creek, he rode in and remarked that a big 
fight was going on some where near between a king snake and 
a rattler. Of course, that had to be investigated as none of 
us had ever seen the two in conflict. Although it was fully 
one hundred yards off, one of the combatants made such a 
racket with his tail in the dry leaves that we were easily 
guided to the baltle-field. It was indeed a sight worth seeing. 



The gentleman of the castanets, an immense fellow, whom we 
estimated later on to be over five feet long, was in the death 
grapple of his puny foeman, not over half in length, and in 
girth about the size of my digit finger, and seemed as satis- 
fied with the situation, coiled around the neck of his big an- 
tagonist, as a modern mercenary belle might be supposed to 
show when hustled about the shirt collar of a spindle-shanked, 
vacuous million-dollar dude ; or, to amplify the intensity of 
crushing devotion, a millionaire title-huntress dawdling over 
the frills of a blase Cossack or Italian count, a Dutch, French 
or Spanish baron, or a Turkish vizier with three tails and 
thirty antecedent spouses. Such attachments are, doubtless, 
intense until cut short after closer union in the divorce court, 
or by the tongue of scandal. But here was an absolute em- 
brace for life, on the part of the king-snake at least, regardless 
of the wishes of the would-be divorce. Even now I regret 
to say that a ball from my revolver involved them both in a 
common fate, after enjoying the performance over half an 
hour. It is my deliberate opinion in recalling that combat, 
that the king-snake, man's self-constituted little champion, 
ought never to suffer harm at his hands. 

Bigfoot told us that night over our pipes that the most 
interesting part of such fights, one of which he had seen, is the 
preliminary preparative. "All venomous reptiles," he ad- 
ded, ''have an instinctive terror of the 'king,' while he, regard- 
less of under-size and weight, like a bull-terrier, the gamest 
thing that walks, is all the time on the lookout for a big fellow 
to knock the chip off his shoulder, or otherwise provoke hos- 
tilities. Well, one day when after a buck, I heard a rattle 
near my big toe and stepped back to shoot the 'critter,' when 
a little 'king' darted forward and gave me to understand that 
it was his fight and he didn't want any outside interference. 
So I turned it over to him, and quietly awaited results. I 
have heard of you soldier fellows before a battle trying to 



get the advantage of 'posish' over each each other before hit- 
ting out, but here was what you call strategy of the native 
sort, unlearned from books. It was easy to see that the big 
one was badly hacked from the start, as he raised his head 
about six inches and kept his eyes on the other no matter 
where he'd go. It was no less evident that the 'king' was play- 
ing to throw him off his guard for an instant in order to 
glide upon him at the right moment and take him in his 
deadly embrace before the other could strike. Finally, after 
making repeated circuits about him just out of his reach, now 
at a dead-march gait, and then with lightning speed as if try- 
ing to make him twist his own neck off. In due time the 
opportunity came, and the 'king' seized it and his big enemy 
at the same time. You have seen the battle that followed 
up to the finish, or rather just before the big fellow was 

That evening our camp was pitched on a little stream 
where trout and deer each had the repute of normal habitat, 
but it grieveth me to say that neither the vesperal or matuti- 
nal board gave evidence of either. Milk and fresh butter we 
did have in abundance, and a bit of quiet and perhaps equiv- 
ocal fun supplied by the pay department. Its representative 
prognosticated a dearth of catch and kill and declined to go 
with us, remarking that Bigfoot had told him that a couple of 
old ladies lived hard by, the last on the line of civilization, 
from whom he could procure milk and butter ; but he had for- 
gotten to add that they had two large ferocious dogs, their 
sole protectors. As the good Major approached the cabin 
these bounded out at him, and before they could be called off 
one had bitten him through the left hand. Like the true man 
that he was, he resisted the natural impulse to shoot his as- 
sailants out of deference to importunities of the poor old 
woman. He returned to the camp laden down with the lac- 
teal products that were showered upon him, but likewise with 



ill concealed anxiety for the consequences. Somehow, after 
his wound had been cauterized and dressed, and supper eaten, 
conversation seemed to take a hydrophobiac turn or trend, 
much to the disgust of the man of Uncle Sam's money-bags. 
Each had a gruesome story to tell of the dormant vitality of 
the detestable microbe, or latent mad-dog germ, keeping 
quiescent for months and years before ulterior development. 
Perhaps that paymaster did not anticipate time and go mad 
off-hand. It was a thoughtless cruel jest, and should not 
have been indulged. Of course, though, his madness was only 
metaphorical. Heaven forefend that the last kind has ever 
developed for it has been my bete noire through life, more 
dreaded than upas-dipped arrow, or the tooth marks of a rat- 
tler, cobra, or tarantula, a pitiable admission that — for a born 

In due time we returned to Camp Verde, and I, a day or 
two later, on to San Antonio, where letters were awaiting 
me urging a family reunion for the summer at the White Sul- 
phur Springs, Virginia. 



Taking steamer at nearest point, Indianola, if memory is 
correct, two days later we landed at JSTew Orleans, and the 
next day started up the river on the famous old "Eclipse," 
which then eclipsed every inland steamer afloat. 

It had been virtually chartered by a gay and rich young 
party of Mississippi planters with a corresponding number 
of young ladies with their chaperons and fine band of music, 
likewise on their way to the White Sulphur. Chancing to 
know two or three of the crowd as old University friends, 
I was soon brought en rapport with the entire party and the 
time passed in dancing and jollity all the way to Memphis, 
where I had to leave them, while they kept on to some point 
farther up the river before taking rail to our mutual destina- 
tion. In disembarking an unfortunate mishap befell me in 
full sight of my late compagnons du voyage. Taking a seat 
in an omnibus already crowded to repletion, when it turned 
around, it came near spilling us all into the Mississippi river 
after rolling over two or three times. Perhaps the accident 
did not afford merriment to the merry-makers aboard when 
they saw me emerging from the buss all covered with mud. 

Arriving at the "Old White," I was considerably taken 
back on discovering that my father and family had not put 
in their appearance, especially as I was on my last ten dollars. 
I found a letter, however, directing me to join them at the 
^orth Carolina "White Sulphur," or famous old "Shocco." 

After the summer season was over, my father engaged the 
famous old Montmorenci, belonging to a particular friend, 
Mrs. Mary K. Williams, where the intervening cold seasons 
were passed until my wedding day rolled around on the 4th 
of May, 1858. My bride-to-be was the only daughter of my 
honored step-mother by a previous marriage with Mr. John 



S. Ellery, of Boston, as I was the only representative of my 
side of the house. It was a home affair, and if not a brilliant 
one, it was certainly numerously attended, for father, unbe- 
knowing, had given informal word invitation to all our 
friends and acquaintances around about us, and mother had 
been busy in the culinary department preparing roast turkeys, 
barbecued pigs, etc., so that when the eventful day rolled 
around, we saw Warren County roll up. So, if it was not a 
brilliant wedding, it was one long to be remembered in old 

After the ceremony my wife and self at once took the 
train for New York, with her cousin, Miss Addie Currier, 
accompanying us. A month later we took a steamer, "The 
Africa" for an extended tour abroad. After doing, as the 
modern phrase runs, Great Britain, France, Germany, Aus- 
tria, and Italy, it was determined in family conclave to take 
in the land of the Pharaohs, and so we took steamer at Naples 
for Alexandria, and on arrival, a Nile boat for the Nile 
trip, then something to be talked about, and the most agree- 
able one that I have ever passed. The old monuments, tombs, 
and other reminders of the long-forgotten past, are left to 
other and abler pens. 

The day we started there came a down-pour of rain, such 
as I have never seen before or since, and the concentration 
of the seven years proverbial drought, to which this country is 
subjected from the Hebrew boy Joseph down to that identical 
day, for I was told before starting that there had not been 
a rainfall in Cairo for seven years preceding. As our Nile 
boat had been exposed during that entire time to the scorch- 
ing rays of a tropical sun, it may be supposed to have leaked. 
No ! leak is not the word. It poured down as if there had been 
no sham protection over our heads, and during the entire 
day we were like a pack of drowned rats. 

I shall not undertake to describe the pyramids, obelisks, 



tombs and other monuments of that wonderful ancient land, 
as they have been better portrayed by tourists of a previous 
age and by guide-books of the present. Suffice it to say, that 
all of these were of the cyclopean order, and nothing puny 
except the present. The banks were lined with the villages, 
composed of miserable mud hovels of the fellahs, scarcely 
rising to the dignity of dog-kennels in more favored coun- 
tries, and all along the shore could be seen the poor creatures 
drawing the water with swoops to irrigate the land. 

My crew consisted of fifteen half -clad Arabs, including the 
reis or captain; their gibberish was incessant, and with their 
monotonous songs utterly unintelligible. Let it be here pre- 
mised, that before starting I had observed on the upper 
deck a pile of some twenty or thirty bushels of coarse brown 
bread, and upon inquiry was told by my dragoman that it was 
for the use of the Arab crew. Upon asking what they had to 
eat with it, the answer came: "Nile water." And do the poor 
things never get meat ? "Only when their employers give 
them an occasional sheep." As that animal could be bought 
for only thirty or forty cents, I directed him to give them one 
at the next halting place, and every other place thereafter 
when we tied up for the night. "Senor," came the reply, 
if you do, we will soon be left without a crew, for in a week 
the poor devils will eat themselves to death." Well let us begin 
at the next tie-up. 

On returning from the village, with an Arab leading a full- 
grown sheep with one hand and carrying a large kettle in 
the other, he told the reis that it was a present to the crew. 
He then told me to take out my watch, and see how long 
it would take them to eat the sheep. What ! You do not mean 
to say, was my reply, that they are going to devour it at a 
single meal ? "Si, senor, and if you had not tasted meat 
for half a year, you would probably consume your full share 
at the feast." Upon the signal being given, the animal was 



killed and stripped of his fleece in a trice and thrown into the 
kettle, and shortly after pulled out, and before it was well 
cooled off they began tearing off the flesh in great chunks 
by the handful and devouring it like hungry dogs. To the best 
of my recollection, the performance was over within one hour 
and a half from the time the sheep was stuck, and not a vestige 
of it remained except the bones. But it was not over yet, for 
every one of them, with their faces all smeared with grease, 
had to come up and kiss my hand in token of gratitude. This 
was but one of a dozen of like votive offerings that cemented 
our friendly relations before getting back to Cairo. A dollar 
back-sheesh effectually sealed it. 

It should have been premised, that before separating seven 
of the poor creatures petitioned through an interpreter for me 
to buy them and families as slaves. Surprised at the strange 
request, I inquired the motive in preferring it, and this, in 
substance was the answer: First, to escape the army, of which 
they stand in mortal dread ; second, to have a protector ; and 
next, to have something to eat. We hear that you own slaves 
in your own country, and we naturally assume that if you will 
give us meat, who are entire strangers to you, every two 
or three days, you will do as well or better by us if we be- 
longed to you. ISTothing but dread of the penalty attaching 
to a breach of the African slave traffic prevented my closing 
their voluntary contract for voluntary life servitude on the 
spot at a scudo, a head. After the war, I had a correspondence 
with the State War Department, through the Assistant Sec- 
retary, Mr. Fred. Seward, on the subject, and while he admit- 
ted that it would have been no infraction of the slave traffic 
to have brought them over as represented, still there was no 
telling how soon I might have been required to have retrans- 
ported them, and so he advised against running the risk. I 
thought then, and am sure now, that it would have been to our 
mutual advantage had the trade been consummated. 



To show their dread of the conscription, or forced service 
in the army about every third young man that I met while in 
the land of the Pharaohs was deficient of either their right 
eye, the dexter finger of the right hand, or two or three front 
teeth, each of which barred the 'use for fire-arms in the army, 
and had been inflicted by their own mothers to keep them 
out. The horrible mutilation had reached such a point that 
Mehemet Ali took a very effectual way of preventing it in the 
future by organizing a corps of lancers who, he jokingly re- 
marked, did not require the eye to take aim, the finger to pull 
the trigger, or the teeth to bite the cartridge. It is needless 
to say that the foresight of this illustrious semi-savage had 
the desired effect. 

In due time we reached Karnak, the seat of ancient Thebes, 
and spent a week in exploring the place, making our excur- 
sions on the little donkeys of the country. The heat was so 
intense that although it was only February, starts had to be 
made by day-break, and once upon reaching the necropolis 
we were compelled to take refuge in one of the tombs, Ben- 
zoni's I believe, until near sundown before starting back to 
the boat. These tombs, by the way, cut out of white calca- 
reous limstone in the sides of the mountains, and some of them 
running back for over a hundred yards, are one of the great 
attractions of the whilom hundred-gate city. The grand hall 
of the great temple with its one hundred and twenty stupen- 
dous columns, each carved out of a single piece of granite, is 
another great sight, an imperishable monument. 

Giving the vocal statue of Memnon and its companion of 
the plain the go-by, we made preparations for the return of 
our trip. Before starting a young English nobleman, Lord 
Rendlesham, I think the name, who was traveling with his 
tutor after leaving Oxford, and with whom we had got ac- 
quainted, came aboard and said that he was going to return 
next day, and proposed that we start at the same hour; and 



to make the trip a little more exciting, further proposed that 
we lay a wager of ten guineas upon who should first reach 
a designated point below, Aziout, unless mistaken. To which, 
upon my assenting, he came on my boat the next morning 
and handed me the amount lost, proposing at the same time 
that we double the bet down to Benisoef, I believe, the next 
prominent point below, to which I again acquiesced. On 
reaching there, I had to wait an hour or so for his Lordship to 
come up. Again he handed me the amount he had lost, and 
and asked, somewhat in a spirit of bravado, "Do you dare 
double the last bet, on first arrival to some point lower down V 
naming it. Upon my consenting to do so, he requested that we 
delay the start for a couple of hours, as he wished to go up 
into the village for a short while, Upon his and the parson's 
return, they had a dozen new Arabs at their heels. Seeing 
which, my dragoman advised me to cancel the last wager, as 
it was evident he had a relay of rowers to tire us out. Not 
consenting to this, I went on board his boat and gave him to 
understand that I was cognizant of what was going on, but 
would, nevertheless, consent to the last wager standing — on 
one condition, and that was that regardless of winner or loser, 
it was to be the last bet between us, which he agreed to. Again 
he consented, and again I had to await his coming up. 

I should have said that before starting yesterday, I went 
to my crew and gave them an insight of the whole matter, 
praising their fortitude and endurance, and promising each 
a scudo extra if they should win the race, and a glass of 
Cognac each to brace them up. To a man, they responded 
with alacrity, only requesting, through the interpreter, not 
to pass the grog until the old reis went on the upper deck 
to say his prayers, thus proving that despite the Prophet's 
mandate against strong drink some of his followers are not 
averse to disregarding it. 

I believe that when my Anglican arrived the next morning 
10 [ 145 ] 


he had to write his name on a slip of paper, to be presented 
at the bank of Cairo, and so the cost of my excursion on the 
Nile was virtually defrayed by a stranger. I do not commend 
my example to others, and especially to young men, for I have 
always detested gambling, and despised gamblers, but, like 
Harry Warrington, I was here betting, as it seemed to him 
and to me, for the honor of the country. 

Upon arrival in Cairo, I went to our Consulate and was 
handed a large batch of letters from home, including a letter 
of credit from the Messrs. Baring in renewal. Upon return to 
the hotel, we made inquiry for Captain Marshall, formerly 
of Boston, and were told that he was quite sick but desired 
to see me. Going to his room, he remarked with the languor 
of a dying man: "I have been quite sick since you left for 
your trip up the river, and the doctors tell me that unless T 
can get out of the country before the simoon sets in a week 
hence, my life will be the penalty, but unfortunately I am 
out of funds. Could you, without inconvenience to yourself, 
cash my check for fifty pounds ($250) on Baring Bros., 
which will be paid on presentation ?" As he had previously 
given me satisfactory references as to his identity, I cheerfully 
acceded to his request, and furthermore asked him if he 
would not like to have me sleep in his rooni on a cot, in order 
to attend to his wants during the night. "No," he replied, 
"no, I will not put you to that trouble, but if you wake up 
during the night I would like for you to look in to see whether 
T am dead or not." This I promised to do, and did. 

On arrival in Paris, I enclosed his check to the Barings. 
"No funds with us, and if he is the man we take him to be, 
while he is of a good family he is, nevertheless, one of the most 
unmitigated and systematic swindlers on either continent, liv- 
ing on the credulity of his countrymen." Such I found him to 
be and here hold him up to the scorn and execration of the 
.traveling public as a rogue void of shame and of conscience. 



Shortly after arrival in Paris I had ordered a set of expen- 
sive diamonds for my wife, but as the day of departure of the 
steamer drew near, not receiving a renewal of my letter of 
credit, I felt in an awkward dilemma. The first thing to do was 
to wait on the diamond merchants and state the true condition 
of the case, .adding that I was expecting funds by that mail, 
and asking if they could not turn the jewels over to me in Lon- 
don, offering to pay the traveling expenses of their agent and, 
if necessary, the English customs dues. To my surprise and 
extreme delight, they made not the slightest objection to the 
proposition, but promptly replied that the casket would be 
handed to me at my address in London three days from that 
time, and free from customs duties, as was done. 

Thereupon I telegraphed my old friend Major Leon Dyer, 
a retired banker of large means, living in Frankfort-on-the- 
Main, requesting him to meet me in London the next day 
and let me have a requisite amount, in case of delay in remit- 
tance. His answer was: ''Your telegram found me on a sick 
bed, but I will join you in London as requested." This he did 
but was put to needless trouble, as a letter from the Barings 
was awaiting me at my hotel, stating that they had ascertained 
my identity and that I could get the amount requested by 
calling at the bank. This I mentioned to Major Dyer, but he 
remarked that he had taken the needed securities from deposit 
and that it would be an accommodation if I would take them 
at their market value, which I did and so reported at the 

By the way, a word about this good friend and accomplished 
gentleman. As a boy he had headed the mob which tore down 
Reverdy Johnson's house in Baltimore a few years previously. 
Being compelled to fly to escape arrest, he turned up in 
New Orleans, and although then a man of large wealth he en- 
listed in the army, in order to avoid further trouble with the 
authorities, and with his detachment went to Florida in the 



Seminole war of that day, where he quickly attracted the 
notice of that gallant old soldier, General Gaines, then in 
command of that department, who gave him the highest non- 
commissioned rank at his disposal. When my father was 
raising his brigade in New Orleans for the Texas army, Gen- 
eral Gaines requested him to give him an appointment on his 
staff, which he did, and thereby made a fast friend of the 
young man to the end of his life, as the following incident will 

Computing the interest on his advance and likewise travel- 
ing expenses, with a view to making a draft at thirty days 
to cover the same, I handed it to him for his approval. "What 
is this ?" he said. Upon being told, he tore it up, remarking : 
"I will have you know, young man, that your father's son 
cannot pay me interest. He found me an enlisted man in the 
army and gave me a commission, thus giving me recognition 
among gentlemen, and I have loved him as a father from that 
day to this." 

He further said that he had brought along a landscape 
gardener whom I had engaged on my way through Frank- 
fort, as his body-servant, as he had to smuggle him out of 
Germany because the Franco-Italian- Austrian war was then 
going on and all German subjects were liable to immediate 
conscription. Shipping him to my commission merchants 
in New York, I directed them to express him to me down to 
Warrenton. This they did by sewing a large placard on his 
back. Being at the White Sulphur with my family, on his 
arrival my father turned him over to the 'Duke of Glouces- 
ter,' an old beneficiary of mother's whom she had bought out 
of charity on the death of his old master, Dr. Brodies, met- 
amorphosed from a driver into a gardener. As illustration 
of the old maxim — two of a trade never agree — Gloucester 
was working up in one corner of the garden, and the Dutch- 
man in another as far removed as it was possible to be. First 



addressing Gloucester, I asked him what he thought of the 
new gardener that I sent down to help him. Looking around 
suspiciously and putting his hand up to his mouth, he re- 
plied dogmatically: "Marse Wharton, he is the damnedest 
fool that I have ever seen. Why, sir, he can't talk; I hol- 
loas at him as loud as I can bawl, and he don't understand 
a word I says." In extenuation for Dutchie's colloquial pow- 
ers, be it said that when he and I were signing a life contract 
the previous year, I voluntarily increased his price $50 a 
year on condition that he would never attempt to speak Dutch 
while on my place. But came the reply : "I can't talk any- 
thing else." "Then keep mum until you have picked up a little 
good old-fashioned English." As a consequence, probably no 
son of the 'Vater land' ever made better progress in our ex- 
pressive tongue than did Heinrich. It grieved me much at 
the end of the year to have to cane and dismiss him, on being 
told that he threatened to shoot me if I did not mend my 
ways to suit him. I heard later on that he had gotten to be 
a professor of modern languages in some learned Northern 
college. As he claimed to be a graduate of a famous German 
University, his dismissal was probably tantamount to pro- 

It should have been said that before leaving Cairo, we 
took a day to run out to Suez to see the spot where Moses and 
his cohorts made their famous passage across the Red Sea. 
In the middle of the desert, and at a one-room station, a 
young man, apparently about twenty, got in the compartment 
with us, and spoke to me in orthodox English. On my ask- 
ing where he was from and what he was doing out there all 
by himself, he replied : "I am from Marengo County, Ala- 
bama. When sixteen years of age my father thrashed me, 
as I thought without cause, and I ran away from home ; went 
down to Mobile and shipped before the mast. On arrival in 
London I found employment in the telegraph office, and a 



little later on, when it was determined to send a number of us 
boys to do service in Egypt, I was selected to fill out the com- 
plement. Shortly after, I fortunately attracted the notice of 
the Khedive, who appointed me superintendent of all the tel- 
egraph lines in Egypt." Expressing doubt by a look of in- 
credulity on my countenance, "Indeed," said I, "and what 
is your salary ?" "Five-thousand dollars for the first year with 
a promise of increase at the end of that time, if my work is 
satisfactory." On reaching Suez, he was met at the train by 
about a score of young fellows of his own age, who treated 
him with the greatest courtesy and deference. My doubts 
as to the truth of his story had about vanished. After get- 
ting dinner, he and some of his comrades came around to the 
hotel to escort us to the return train to Cairo, on reaching 
which I ask my landlord 'Who is in charge of the telegraph 
lines in this country V "Why," said he, "a young countryman 
of yours who is but a mere lad." I have frequently wondered 
what was the future outcome of that precocious youngster, for 
that he had a future in store I did not doubt. 

The return trip was far from agreeable, for although there 
were double panes of glass on the windows, a heavy wind- 
storm filled our compartment so full of fine sand that it was 
almost impossible for us to breathe. Before reaching the 
journey's end, a beautiful gazelle jumped up and went bound- 
ing over the sandy waste. We were ensconced on board one 
of the O. & P. steamers bound for Marseilles, after touching 
at Malta. After reaching that place, our vessel was ordered 
into quarantine as it was claimed it was from an infected 
port. While waiting, there was ample opportunity to admire 
the beautiful harbor, including the Chateau d'lf, from which 
State Prison Dumas' hero — Monte Christo — made his in- 
credible escape. The thought of all was that we were in for 
a confinement of thirty or forty days, but we little reckoned 



of what was supposed to be an idle boast on the part of an 
English Baronet, who was on his way home from his regiment 
in India. He persistently said that he would have us admit- 
ted to "Pratique" as soon as he could communicate with the 
Emperor, for he added, while the Emperor was in exile in 
England, he used to pass days and weeks with me at my 
country home, and all who know Louis ^NTapoleon will attest 
that he never forgets a friend or a kindness." Most of us 
had retired when there was a great uproar on deck, and the 
cry spread that the Emperor had admitted our vessel to 
'Pratique,' which meant that we could go ashore whenever we 
pleased. There was no more jest or ribald laugh at the Baro- 
net's expense. He had suddenly become a hero. 

With the rising sun there was hasty disembarking. After 
two days' stay in that city, we turned face to Geneva where 
a week was passed in and around Lake Leman, and then back 
to Paris, which was in a state of frenzied French excitement, 
as the Emperor was to start the next day to take command of 
the Allied Army in Italy. He passed just below our window 
on the first floor with his lovely wife, the beautiful Eugenie, 
by his side, and the procession halted for a minute, which 
gave good opportunity to study his inscrutable face and char- 
acter. It was an intellectual physiognomy, and almost pre- 
pared me to believe what the Hon. William C. Rives told me 
just after his return from Paris, where he had been serving 
as the American Minister at the Imperial Court, that he re- 
garded the then head of France as the brainiest head in 
Erance, if not out of France, he added. Unfortunate, he 
doubtless was, but never a weakling. 

A few days later we saw Her Majesty, good Queen Victo- 
ria, going 1 in royal state to open a parliament of her great 
country. Having previously had, unsolicited, the blessing of 



Pio ISTono, it may be said that we had seen the three Govern- 
ing Rulers of Europe. 

A few days later we were on board the "Persia" in the 
Mersey (a vessel of 3,000 tons) then accounted the largest 
steamer afloat, with one exception. How it pales in the 
shadow of the 15,000 tonners of this day. A pleasant company 
and a delightful passage home we had. Verily, as Parson Jas- 
per so forcibly expresses it, "the sun do move," and he might 
have added- — and so do the earth. 

On reaching JSTew York we proceeded the next day to Bos- 
ton, where the oldest child, Sarah Wharton, now Mrs Pem- 
broke Jones, was born at our country place in Jamaica Plain 
on the 19th of July, 1859, whom, when she was a month old, 
we brought to our North Carolina home, "Esmeralda," in 
Warren County. Everybody seemed glad to see us back after 
a fourteen-months absence, and glad enough we were to get 
back. We all had had a surfeit of foreign lands and foreign 

The next two years gave unmistakable portents of the 
/ great political storm which was brewing. While every one 
felt the gravity of the occasion, few cared to avert it by truck- 
ling submission to dangers more to be dreaded than war. Still 
our fields were cultivated, and the social amenities like- 
wise, as if not realizing that the brink of revolution was im- 
pending. The summer of 1860 was passed at the White Sul- 
phur, Virginia, and never was there a larger or gayer crowd 
at that far-famed resort. It seems wondrous strange, in view 
of subsequent events, that the South should have been appar- 
ently so callous. A strange eventful period it was, on the 
eve of the most momentous epoch in the world's history. 

For the next few months, the South throughout its borders 

was organizing, arming and equipping, for the inevitable 

conflict. With scores of others of Warren's young sons I 

was enrolled as a high private in the Warren Guards, and 



I am proud to be able to state that the gallant company was 
one of the first three to report at the camp of organization 
in Raleigh. Three companies unanimously expressed their 
preference for me for the Colonelcy of the First North Caro- 
lina Regiment, for which I am, and always will be, duly 
proud and appreciative. ' Colonel, afterwards General D. 
H. Hill, than whom a braver, more skillful and tactical offi- 
cer figured not in the war to follow — a few at the top alone, 
perhaps, excepted — received the coveted honor. 

Resuming my place in the ranks, I went with the com- 
mand down to Norfolk, then daily threatened by overwhelm- 
ing odds. While drilling and preparing for the coming 
clash at Camp 'Misery,' as the boys familiarly dubbed it, 
news reached me that I had been designated by General 
Henry A. Wise to be a colonel in his Legion, as then known. 
The appointment was not only unsought but entirely unex- 
pected, yet nevertheless appreciated, for regarding General 
Wise as one of the foremost political thinkers of the time 
I was simple enough to give him the credit of being a great 
incipient soldier. The outcome, like that in many other 
political appointments, proved the prognostic to be rather 

But straighway getting my discharge from the twelfth 
North Carolina Regiment, I set to work to raise one of my 
own. The last official act of North Carolina's initial great 
war Governor, John W. Ellis, was to give me an order for 
seven hundred and fifty Enfield rifles, the only ones that re- 
mained in North Carolina, if not in the Confederate States, 
and, of course, their possession was much sought by com- 
panies throughout the State. I soon had seventeen tendered 
me fi*om which to choose my ten, but while organizing at the 
new fair grounds in Richmond, news came that his successor, 
Henry S. Clark, had arbitrarily taken my guns and given 

them to another. The announcement fell like a thunder clap, 



for there is no concealing- the fact that his action was a death 
blow to my fondest aspirations. There was no resisting the 
impulse of going to Raleigh and telling him, face to face, 
what I thought of his high-handed act. This was done in his 
office, in language more emphatic than diplomatic. There- 
upon appeal was made to the Legislature for the redress of 
the grievance. Not having other guns to give me to supply 
the place of the Enfield's taken, that body unanimously voted 
me $50,000 to purchase arms wherever they could be found. 
The finding, unfortunately, was the chief difficulty, for they 
could not be found. 

Resolved, however, not to be kept out of the unpleasantness 
by the want of shooting utensils, I at once set to work to sup- 
ply the deficiency with double-barrel guns. Fortunately, glo- 
rious old John Letcher, the then war governor of Virginia, 
came to the rescue and gave me an order for three hundred 
old-fashioned flint-lock muskets, which were quickly altered 
by the Government into percussions. So that, if we were not 
armed and equipped after the most approved fashion, we, 
nevertheless, had guns that would kill, and trusted that after 
the first battle our friends, the enemy, would supply us with 
better. I am proud to say that there was no higgling or com- 
plaining on the part of my gallant command on the score of 
indifferent equipment, and furthermore that, after supplying 
each man with a warm overcoat, over one-half of the amount 
advanced me was later on returned to the State treasury. 

Before the regiment was completed, I was ordered to Wil- 
mington to await the arrival of the other three companies, hav- 
ing only seven, numbering in the aggregate about seven hun- 
dred and fifty men. The accomplished gentleman, General 
Anderson, was in command at that place. Shortly after 
arrival I received a long, rambling letter from General Wise, 
telling me to- report at once with my command at Roanoke 



Island, as he was convinced that that would be the next point 
of attack, Hatteras having already fallen. On asking Gener- 
al Anderson when I could proceed to obey the order, he re- 
plied : "If you attempt to do so at all, I will put you under 
arrest. Inasmuch as you came to me by direct order of the 
Secretary of War, no less a power has any right to diminish 
my force by taking you away." I then requested permission 
to despatch my next in command, Major Mark Erwin, to 
Richmond to get the requisite permission to move at once to 
Roanoke Island. His reply was : "Yes, Major Erwin can 
wait on the Secretary of "War in regard to the matter, but he 
will take my protest against your being moved away from 
here, as my force is totally inadequate as it stands." I then 
asked him if I might not prefer a personal request to the 
War Office, to go as directed by General Wise, to which he 

On the third day Major Erwin returned from Richmond 
with an order from the Secretary to proceed at once to the 
designated point. Breaking camp on Masonboro Sound, where 
we were stationed, we proceeded at daybreak the next morning 
to Wilmington to take a special train to Weldon, which was 
as far as could be supplied. Arriving there, I was under the 
necessity of impressing transportation to Norfolk, where we 
reported to General Huger who assigned us quarters, remark- 
ing that it would probably be a day or two before we could 
proceed, owing to the scarcity of transports. On the second 
day we did, the General cautioning me to keep a sharp lookout 
on the captain of the tug, as he was suspected of being in 
sympathy with the enemy, and might give me the slip and 
run over to Fort Monroe and impart dangerous information. 
To keep him in touch and my eye upon him, I went on board 
the tug with Lieutenant B. P. Williamson, now of Raleigh. 
About midnight on the night of the 7th of February, while 



a cold drizzling rain was in progress and the waves run- 
ning high, he rushed into the cabin to tell me that the enemy's 
boats were approaching, having previously called a halt on the 
pretext that he had lost his bearings, was in shallow water, 
and was liable to run aground at any minute, advising me 
to anchor where we were until day-break, and pledging him- 
self to land us on the island in three hours thereafter. His 
fright, real or pretended, called to mind General Huger's cau- 
tion to keep an eye on him, and I exclaimed: "Yes, you 
traitor, and you have signaled them!" As I said so, he 
jumped to the door and made a hasty retreat around the 
side. Grabbing my revolver, I started in hot pursuit, re- 
solved to shoot him as soon as within reach. He rushed into 
the pilot house, and pulled the door after him as I grabbed 
the knob to pull it open. I, fortunately for him, stepped on a 
round stick of wood and fell backward into Croatan Sound. 
The night was dark as erebus, the waves running high, and to 
make matters worse, I had on a thick blanket overcoat and a 
pair of heavy alligator shoes into which I had hastily pushed 
my feet. It seemed as if there was no escape, and no bottom 
to the water. Rising to the surface I dropped my revolver 
and kicked off my shoes as I looked around to catch a glimpse 
of the little steamer, but not a sign of it could be seen as I 
had ordered all lights to be put out on it and the seven trans- 
ports in tow. Then came the rapidity of thought, of which 
we are told, in a moment of extreme danger. Reasoning that 
inasmuch as I went over backwards, the boat must needs 
be in the opposite direction, I struck out at haphazard to 
try and reach it, and was just about exhausted as I did. 
Throwing up my hands, I barely managed to get the first 
joints of my fingers over the sides, but was utterly unable 
to pull myself aboard. Calling for help, the man whose life 
had been saved by the mishap, came to the rescue and took 



hold of both my wrists, after inquiring spasmodically where 
was the revolver. On being told it was at the bottom of the 
ocean, he still evinced no intention of pulling me aboard. Con- 
vinced he was debating in his own mind whether to drown me 
or not, I called to Williamson : "Hurry there, as that Yankee 
dog is about to drown me !" Of which purpose he dis- 
claimed the slightest idea. Getting me on deck, he exclaimed, 
"There is no cause for alarm, Colonel, for they are Confed- 
erate boats." Upon asking how he knew, he replied — "They 
are burning wood, instead of coal," as proved to be the case 
when some six or -eight little gunboats passed within hailing 
distance, but showed no disposition to stop or to heed my ap- 
peal for a pilot, when told who I was and my condition. 

The thought has more than once obtruded itself since, was 
the mishap a providential interposition or otherwise ? It 
probably protracted the creature's worthless life, and saved 
me a lifelong term of self-reproach, but cost the young gov- 
ernment millions of dollars in invaluable stores and muni- 
tions when the evacuation of Norfolk began, as he then desert- 
ed on his little boat and carried the much coveted news to 
the Fort, which necessitated the loss by fire or capture of said 
stores. Still, it would have brought misery home to have shot 
him under premature misapprehension. 

As I learned afterwards, they kept on to Elizabeth and 
burned their boats. After drawing off and begging or buy- 
ing a pair of old shoes from one of the men, I was delighted 
to see daylight appear, and immediately got under way, reach- 
ing the island in the time the fellow said we would. Throw- 
ing the horses overboard to swim to the shore, the men jumped 
in and waded out, when ammunition was at once distributed, 
preparatory to my reporting to General Wise, as was sup- 
posed, but he was over on the mainland at ISTagshead, while 
Colonel Shaw, of the Eighth was in immediate command. 

On reaching his quarters he said everything had been 



lost. Asking how many men had been killed on our side, he 
gave a ridiculously small number. Upon my asking him if 
he was going to surrender the most important point on the 
Atlantic Coast and send in such an insignificant mortuary 
list, he replied: "What do you advise?" I then told him I 
had seven hundred and fifty fresh troops just landed, and 
pledged myself to hold the advancing foe in check if he would 
collect the scattered troops and come to our assistance, which 
he promised to do, and sent Major Webb as guide to point out 
the road that they would be likely to come on. 

Before proceeding a half mile we came in full view of their 
advanced regiments, which were driven back on their main 
support, with heavy loss, as we later learned, and the Sec- 
ond Battalion in that brief space sustained a heavier loss than 
any other regiment had in the two days' fighting. While 
in the line of battle awaiting their return, and looking back- 
ward in expectancy of the promised succor, Lieutenant Col- 
onel, afterwards Governor, Daniel G. Fowle, went by at a fu- 
rious pace, waving a white rag and bawling back, "Don't fire 
any more, the island is surrendered !" Indignant at the 
needless loss to which I had been subjected under the promise 
of reinforcements, I marched my command back to headquar- 
ters and demanded permission to return to my boats with a 
view to escaping to the mainland. The reply came: "If you 
do so, it will be at your peril, as I have sent word to General 
Burnside that the island and all on it was surrendered to over- 
whelming odds." 

A few days later with all the other troops on the island, 
we were marched on board the steamer "Spalding," to be 
carried, as was supposed, to Fort Warren in Boston Harbor, 
but General Burnside, whom I have ever found a courteous 
gentleman, -determined to keep us there in the hope of in- 
ducing his government to consent to a release on parole until 



an exchange could be effected, which was done some week 
or two later. 

Just before leaving the camp a laughable incident occurred 
at my expense. My body-servant Guilford, who had belonged 
to me for years before, and has been with me ever since, be- 
gan blubbering on a high key. In reply to the question of 
some of the Federal officers : "What are you crying about ?" 
he said: "You are taking Marse Wharton off to jail where 
he will have to take care of himself, and the Lord knows 
that he never did know how to take care of himself." A 
few days after that he was a party to an exchange, probably 
the first and last in which two of his race participated. Burn- 
side coming on board one day, sent for me, remarking : "Col- 
onel, your negro man is bothering me to death to let him go 
with you to prison, and to get rid of him I have brought 
him over with me and turn him over to you. I will take it as 
a favor if you will induce your War Secretary to give me up 
mine, who was captured at Bull Run." The arrangement 
was duly effected. I venture to give another anecdote of this 
faithful servant and devoted friend, who was afterwards cap- 
tured with me in the wounded train on the retreat from 
Gettysburg. After General Burnside had returned to shore, 
Guilford requested me to move to the rear of the vessel out of 
earshot of others, which was done. Coming up, he looked 
around suspiciously to see that no one was near by, and then 
began mysteriously: "Marse Wharton, I have a piece of infor- 
mation that might be of great service to our folks if you are 
exchanged before going to prison." He then proceeded to tell 
me that the day before, on his daily visit to the Command- 
ing General to press his request to be allowed to go to 
prison with me, the latter said he couldn't see him then as he 
was busy, but to come back later and we would hear what he 
had to say. Then the following: "As it was rather warm I 
took a seat on the ground, at the back of his headquarters, 



and soon saw a number of big generals coming up and, as 
I supposed, entering. My curiosity was aroused to know 
what was going on, so, shutting my eyes as if asleep, I kept 
my ears open and on the stretch, for I soon gathered that it 
was a counsel of war, as I believe they call it, and were talk- 
ing about where to strike us next. General Foster, as I took 
him to be, was for moving on Norfolk at once and taking 
it on the land side, while their ships should make a pretense 
by water from Old Point. All the small-fry generals thought 
that a good plan, but General Burnside upset it, when he up 
and spoke and said: 'Gentlemen, we have got to starve these 
people into submission, and here's how I think it can be done. 
Eastern North Carolina is the corn-crib of the so-called Con- 
federacy, and if we hold the key, they cannot get into it. 
Therefore, my advice is, let us take Newbern and hold it as 
the base of operations.' It is needless to say his counsel pre- 
vailed." Commending him for his connected story, I told him 
that when we were sent home on parole, as was now pretty 
well settled would be the case, my hands and tongue would 
be tied, but that his would not, and gave him this command : 
"When you get to Norfolk, call on our old Colonel, Sol Wil- 
liams, of the Twelfth, and repeat to him in confidence what 
you have told me, and ask him to take you to General Huger 
and vouch for your reliability ; or if he is not there, to our old 
Captain, Ben Wade, of the Warren Guards." This was done, 
and General Huger praised him highly for his report, saying 
that he would send it at once by special messenger to the War 
Office. I am unadvised if this was ever done, but do know 
that the battles at Newbern and above were fought a few days 
later on. He passed into my possession by purchase from my 
cousin, General M. W. Ransom, who he has ever believed, and 
will die believing, was the biggest man that ever set foot 
in our State, "always excepting Marse General Jackson, who 
everybody knows was the best judge of good horses, good 



hounds, game cocks and game men, that ever lived, llarse Jeff 
Davis, Marse Robert Lee, and General Forrest, coming next" 
Such was the report given long afterwards by one of the 
best men that ever lived in the world, Dr. Frank Patterson, 
as the two old night owls would sit over the midnight camp 
fire discussing men, measures, and metaphysics, when the 
rest of the camp would be wrapped in slumber. It is need- 
less to say that his pre-eminent hero was not he of the foot 
cavalry, but the one of the cotton bales, both being of kindred 
taste and proclivities, that is, he and Guilford. The cham- 
pion of the valley would never be accused of any or either of 
the enumerated weaknesses, always barring the last, for he 
ever held in highest admiration game men, especially if they 
were fleet of foot on the approach of a fight. Therein 'Hick- 
ory' and 'Stonewall' were in such close touch and unity of ac- 
cord, that they might easily have been confounded as double 
first cousins, owing to the identity of family name and the 
significance of nickname. These and other striking traits 
in common were so marked that I can't help believing that 
they must have had a close common grand-father in the 'ould 
country. ' Observe, a common nationality and a common re- 
ligion, hard-shell, hard fighting, imperious, self-willed Pres- 
byterians, both as brave as Caesar, as alert as the leopard, but 
self-restrained self-counsellors, each permeated by the same 
instinctive love of fight that possesses the bull-dog or the 
game-cock, but holding native instinct in subordination to 
reason, both imbued with the same sublime love of truth, 
respect for women and love of children, and utter detestation 
for falsehood, hypocrisy, or double-face. I tell you, gentle- 
men, that these two great soldiers, sagacious citizens, and good 
men, must have been close akin. God shrive the sins of each, 
and bless them both. Selah! 

To recur to the transfer of ownership, let it be said that 
it was the outcome of simple charity on both sides. He had, 
11 [ 161 ] 


inadvertently, fallen in love with Melissa, my wife's dress- 
ing maid and needle woman, and as the two plantations lay in 
separate counties, it was a more difficult feat than Leander's 
for man and maid to get a glimpse of each other until the 
G-ordian knot was cut in manner stated, and eight or ten 
grown up and well-to-do children attest the honesty and sin- 
cerity of their devotion through near half a century. By 
such change of proprietary possession, a faithful servitor and 
devoted friend fell to my lot, while my honored kinsman 
could but feel well content that he had received as equivalent 
the biggest purchase money in all probability ever paid for 
'the brother in black' in our State, if not in any other. 

Another little anecdote illustrative of the fidelity of some 
of that race, and which has its humorous as well as pathetic 
side, and we pass on. Major Erwin had as attendant a strong 
able-bodied man as black as the ace of spades, who had been 
raised with him, and who held him in heart love and proof 
against wrong or ill doing. Reaching Xorfolk in a drenching 
rain on our way to the island, we found an aide of the General 
awaiting to pilot us to our quarters. The Major was exceed- 
ingly sick, and I told him to remain on the ferry-boat until 
I could send down a conveyance for him. This, however, 
was unknown to faithful Jason, who, when he saw the com- 
mand moving off, concluded that "Marse Mark" was being 
left, and wouldn't be able to take part in the approaching 
fight. So, shouldering him bodily, he came trudging on with 
his load of love and duty at the rear of the column. After 
the surrender, Jason hit on a novel expedient for replenishing 
his master's wardrobe, as will be seen. Just after reaching 
Elizabeth City on our return home, and after the prelimi- 
naries of parole had been complied with, Jason, who by 
some means, best known to himself, had slipped through on 
one of the exchange transports, beckoned the Major aside, 
while unwrapping a newspaper package which he had car- 



ried with fond tenacity under his left arm. "Marse Mark," 
he began, "see what I have focht you," as he displayed a 
splendid broadcloth overcoat, fresh from the hands of "Snip," 
and which had evidently seen very little rough service up to 
that time. Anticipating fulsome commendation on his 'cute- 
ness,' poor Jason was utterly surprised and nonplussed to hear 
his beloved master explode in a cyclone of oratory for which 
he was State wide famous, modulating emphasis, as here 



After being duly paroled at Elizabeth City, we took up the 
line of march] to our respective homes as prisoners of war, 
pledged not to take up arms again until duly exchanged, Nor- 
folk being the first objective point to respective destinations, 
where transportation was furnished. There we were com- 
pelled to remain in inglorious ease until called to Richmond 
a short while afterwards to take place in line again, a cartel 
of exchange between the two governments having been agreed 

During those days events of greatest moment were trans- 
piring. Great battles were being fought and won, and great 
men dying. Well do I recall my father's coming into my 
room one day, and remarking: 

"My son, we have won a great and glorious victory in the 
West, but it has been a dearly purchased one for us, for the 
price we paid for it was the incomparable Sidney Johnston, 
who fell in the very zenith of decisive victory." 

Like Mr. Davis, my father had a due appreciation of that 
illustrious man, and thought that his loss was tantamount to 
twenty-thousand men. Apropos, an anecdote which Mrs. 
Davis gave to me herself shortly before the President's 
death : 

"My husband," she said, "having heard that General 
Johnston was on his way to Texas from California, had 
grown most restive and impatient at his non-arrival in reach. 
Confined to a sick bed, he had constantly exclaimed: 'Why 
don't he come, why don't he come ?' Finally, the news 
reached Richmond that he had arrived, after incredible hard- 
ships in his perilous ride from the Pacific, in San Antonio. 
It found my husband on a sick bed and grown very petulant 
by reason of anxiety, which was relieved on the instant by 



the welcome news of his having reached our purlieus. For 
the next day or two he was exceedingly cross and, as I 
thought, unreasonably so, crying out continually: "Why 
don't he come, why don't he come ?" I was inclined to 
think it the outburst of delirium, when suddenly springing 
up in bed, he exclaimed: 'There he is! there he is! Let him 
in at once ! Why don't you go and open the door V Taking 
in the drift of his thoughts, I rushed down stairs to the 
front door, and there stood General Johnston. His first ex- 
clamation was 'How is he % how is he V And the next instant 
he was making his way up stairs, two or three steps at a 
time. On my reaching our room, there the two stood, clasped 
in loving embrace in each other's arms." 

Call it prescience, instinct, or what you will, it was cer- 
tainly wonderful that the almost imperceptible footfall on the 
front piazza had imparted to his Chief the news of his arri- 
val. He was at once nominated to the chief command of the 
Confederate Army and assigned to the Department of the 
West, whither he started after due deliberation and in- 
structions from President Davis, Bowling Green, I think, 
being his destination. 

It is now known that his force and resources were totally 
inadequate to meet the enemy in his front. Forts Henry 
and Donelson fell in quick succession, thus necessitating our 
falling back into Tennessee. On reaching Nashville with a 
remnant of his improvised force, he found the whole country 
in a state of clamor against his retention in command, every 
one, from the Legislature down, being in a state of outcry 
against his being kept in command. 

Such was the condition of affairs as he moved on south 
to place the Tennessee River between himself and the ad- 
vancing enemy. Such was the condition of affairs whilst 
reorganizing his force, when the enemy, under command of 



General Grant, also crossed the river and halted near the 
bank, little dreaming that the fugitive Confederate chieftain 
would, at the opportune moment, turn and give him a crush- 
ing blow, as he did, but, unfortunately for the young gov- 
ernment, as the price of his priceless life. 

It is now a matter of historic record that the Federal com- 
mander and his cohorts were utterly routed, demoralized, 
and in flight, seeking refuge under the banks of the river, 
when that unfortunate event happened. The sequel followed, 
as a matter of course, when his successor called a needless 
halt in the rich camp of the enemy instead of pushing him 
to a final finish, as Sidney Johnston would have done had 
his priceless life been prolonged for a few brief hours, and 
as Bedford Forrest would have done had the command de- 
volved upon him as his successor. 

Before morning of the next day General Buell, with over- 
whelming reinforcements, arrived on the opposite bank, and 
by sunrise had his command transported over and himself 
placed in touch with the lately routed Federal commander. 
The result was, as might have been seen, the relinquishment 
of all of the advantages gained the day before and a total 
reversal of the situation. 

Such was the most momentous and ominous event that 
transpired in those days of our brief, but enforced, inaction. 
I here repeat, as my deliberate conviction, the statement pub- 
lished by his illustrious son, Colonel William Preston John- 
ston, that had he lived for one brief day, aye, an hour only, 
the Confederate States would have taken their place at the 
council board of nations. Not to have had the honor of being 
his successor would I, for one, be willing to shoulder the res- 
ponsibility of that extraordinary and needless outcome 
sequent upon the fall of that great commander. As Presi- 
dent Davis said to the Committee of the Tennessee Legisla- 


ture, that waited upon him to insist upon his displacement as 
being unfit for the command: "If Sidney Johnston is not a 
soldier, God help us; if so, I am fully persuaded that we 
haven't one." 

During the interim alluded to was fought a naval battle 
which may be said to have revolutionized marine conflicts 
ever since — the famous fight between the "Merrimac," on the 
Confederate side, and the "Monitor," on the Federal. The 
Confederate government took an old hulk of one of their war 
vessels, which was burned on the evacuation of JSTorfolk by 
the enemy, and improvised it into a rough iron-clad. Even 
before completed, it steamed out in Hampton Roads in full 
view of Fort Monroe and grappled with three or four naval 
vessels of the enemy, destroying two of them — the "Consti- 
tution" and the "Congress," and would doubtless, have in- 
flicted much greater damage had not a strange looking craft, 
at this particular juncture, hoved in sight and compelled 
a cessation of the havoc, compelling the other (the "Merri- 
mac,") to haul off and return to ISTorfolk. 

It was, doubtless, a novelty in marine conflict, that momen- 
tous struggle between these two odd-shaped crafts, which has 
left its impress upon all subsequent marine conflicts from 
that time to this. But for the opportune, or inopportune, ar- 
rival of the "Monitor," fancy is left in doubt as to what would 
have been the ultimate damage that would have been in- 
flicted by the old 'turtle,' as it was facetiously dubbed, owing 
to its unique and peculiar appearance. A short time later on, 
it was deemed advisable to blow it up owing to an insuffi- 
ciency of water to take it up to Richmond, and thus another 
of the fondest dreams of the young government went up in 

On being exchanged and reporting with my command in 
Richmond for orders, I was told to pitch camp at Drury J $ 



Bluff, a most important defense point, owing to the pre- 
cipitous bank overlooking the James from the south side, 
and to report to General Junius Daniel who was in command 
at that place. Here I was doomed to undergo another griev- 
ous disappointment, as on the reorganization I was defeated 
for command and one of my captains was elevated, for brief 
space, to my place. 

Returning home, I prepared at once to return to the ranks, 
resolved to do my duty in some capacity in the mighty con- 
flict. Before doing so, a strange coincidence took place fo? 
me. I was nominated for the State Senate, and, without 
counting the soldier vote, which was cast a day after the ap-* 
pointed one, was defeated by one vote ; but, counting the 
other, was elected by some two or three hundred majority. 
Resolved to remain in no civic position during the struggle, 
I voluntarily relinquished the election to my competitor, Dr. 
Drake, and proceeded to Goldsboro to enlist again as a pri- 
vate soldier. 

General Daniel, however, insisted upon my taking an hon- 
orary appointment on his staff, preliminary to providing for 
me in a more substantial manner. It should have been said 
that during the same time an election was held in the old reg- 
iment, for Colonel, the Twelfth North Carolina, and I was 
placed in nomination, without my knowledge, and again 
came within one vote of an election, making the third time up 
to then that I had been beaten by a single vote ; the other in- 
stance being, as stated, for the Presidency of the Jefferson 
Society at the University of Virginia — -a remarkable coinci- 
dence, it be confessed, to have thus lost promotion on three 
different occasions by a single individual vote. 

During those days troops were moving in all directions, 
full of hope and enthusiasm, and long before, the c omm onest 
necessaries of life had run out, to be supplied by that mother 



of invention termed necessity. From the Government down, 
it was illustrated in full. In the beginning, everything had 
to be improvised, from a percussion-cap to a constitution, 
powder works and ordnance factories, and those for small 
arms had to be gotten into shape on the spur of the moment, 
and well the deficiencies were supplied. Homespun was the 
universal wear for our women, and they wore it with pride 
and uncomplainingly, and never looked more lovely in the 
eyes of the men. Sorghum was the only substitute for sugar ; 
all sorts there were for coffee, with no complaining from any- 
one. Patriotism and enthusiasm supplied the place of lux- 

It was undoubtedly an epoch of the grandest self-sacrifice 
for what they believed in that any age or any land ever knew. 
Glad I am to have lived in that era and played my little 
part, for it was one of glorious patriotic self-sacrifice for 
opinion's sake. The remark is applicable only to the South- 
ern contingent, for at the ]STorth never were wants more 
readily supplied, and in greatest abundance, thus opening the 
door to the inconceivable fortunes and boundless luxuries that 
have followed in that quarter. 

Shortly after reporting, our brigade was ordered and moved 
on to Little Washington, then threatened by the enemy, camp- 
ing just below Greenville. The next day General Daniel and 
I went down to General D. II. Hill's headquarters. 

Be it understood that Little Washington was then in pos- 
session of the Federals and running short of provisions and 
munitions, and our movement was to prevent these being 
thrown in from New Bern. To do this, we had erected a 
little fortification at a narrow point of the river (known as 
Fort Hill) to prevent the passage of their gunboats in rein- 
forcing the town. 

Generals Hill, Daniel, and Beverley Kobertson, Colonel 



Bridges and myself, rode down to see how the garrison were 
deporting themselves. The enemy's gunboats, some seven or 
eight in number, were lying just out of reach of our little 
popguns, but placing us in easy range of theirs, and they 
were shelling us at their leisure and to their hearts' con- 
tent. Up to that time, however, none of our men had been 
wounded, but we had not been inside over ten minutes before 
one of their large shells exploded just to our rear and a ten- 
pound piece of it knocked me over. 

After being carried to a farmhouse a mile to the rear, the 
other gentlemen passed me on the return, and General Daniel 
promised to send my old surgeon (Dr. Patterson), then his 
brigade surgeon, down to look after me that night, which 
he did some three hours later. The next morning I was re- 
moved back to headquarters, where I found an indefinite fur- 
lough awaiting me from General Hill, he supposing that I 
would not be fit for duty for a long time to come. On reach- 
ing home the next day, I went into ordinary for three or 
four days, but fearful that the town would fall during my 
absence, started back on crutches, allowing just one week 
after having left camp, much to the surprise of my friends. 

In the meantime, General Foster had passed our obstruc- 
tive point with reinforcements and munitions, thus rendering 
abortive the object in view of keeping them out. Each com- 
mand was then ordered to return to their respective starting 
points, Kinston being ours. Nothing of interest occurred 
until a combined movement was made for the capture of 
ISTew Bern, where the enemy were entrenched in force. As 
the country surrounding is of a low, marshy condition, and 
there had been continuous rains for many days anterior, the 
men were up to their middle in water most of the time. 

By misadvertence on our part, the Federals were able to 
concentrate their gunboats and be prepared for the attack, 
which was to have been a surprise, and so, like the King of 



France and his ten thousand men, we had nothing to do but 
to march back again, the difficulty being to find a dry spot 
upon which to lie down. General Hill was the only one in 
the command who had tent and camp equipage along, and he 
kindly invited General Daniel and myself to share it with 
him, which was most gladly accepted. 

Shortly after, the brigade was ordered to move up to the 
Rappahannock and report to General Lee. Daniel, who was 
an old West Point friend, remarked to me at dinner : 

"It must be close on to a hundred miles between here and 
your house. Are you willing to make the journey for the 
privilege of staying one night at home, and report day after 
tomorrow in Richmond ?" 

My reply was an immediate command to Guilford to sad- 
dle the horses at once, which he gladly did, as his wife, as 
well as mine, was back on the plantation. That afternoon 
we made some thirty-odd miles and were kindly entertained 
by a widow lady and her daughter, starting the next day by 
sunrise. We reached home the next day about dusk, much to 
the surprise of all the family, having made, by close compu- 
tation, ninety-three miles from the start. My mount was 
the finest animal that I have ever seen under saddle, and 
made his five miles an hour throughout without breaking a 
walk, whilst Guilford's was kept in almost a continual trot in 
order to keep up. The next morning we were again on the 
road for the Warrenton depot en route to Richmond. 

Rejoining the Staff there, we pushed on to Hamilton's 
Crossing, a few miles short of Fredericksburg, where the 
command lay inactive until the order came to take up the 
line of march, for what destination no one knew with cer- 
tainty, but some surmised that the Potomac, if not the Fed- 
eral Capital, was the point in view. It being the latter part 
of June, and the hottest spell of weather that I have almost 



ever seen, the troops suffered intensely on the march, faint- 
ing in numbers by the roadside. 

On reaching Winchester we were advised that the enemy 
were in force at the little village of Berryville, a few miles 
farther on, and General Rhodes, the division commander, 
was ordered to push on and intercept their retreat. This 
was near being accomplished, but the officer in command at 
that place, the notorious Milroy, one of the three generals 
who were outlawed by President Davis for their brutal and 
unsoldierly conduct (Butler and Turchin being the other 
two ) , was able to effect his escape. On entering their camps, 
a fine young E"ew Foundland dog became my property by 
capture until both he and I were recaptured on the night of 
July fourth, on the retreat from Gettysburg in the wounded 
and ordnance train. 

Crossing the Potomac the next day, we moved on to 
Hagerstown and went into camp for two or three days to 
enable the scattered commands to concentrate as directed. A 
laughable incident might be recorded upon our entering the 
town of Front Royal, the people of which were frantic with 
delight at seeing "the boys in grey" once more. General 
Gaston Lewis and myself were riding near the head of the 
column when we saw two ladies with pails of buttermilk at 
the front gate, who asked us to take some of it. Every old 
soldier knows that such an invitation could not be refused, 
and whilst partaking of their generous hospitality our brig- 
ade passed by, and some fellow in line sang out: 

"Come out of that, you know you have got a wife and 
baby at home; and if you don't, I'll tell on you." 

The vile outcry was taken up and continued until the last 
man of Daniel's brigade had passed, much to my confusion, 
one of the young ladies remarking — 

"I need not ask which one of you it is, for your coun- 
tenance has fastened it on you" (pointing to me). 



While halting in Hagerstown an old friend and connection 
of mine, Judge Alvey, gave me an invitation, to be extended 
to the rest of my i mm ediate friends, to come and take dinner 
with him and his family the next day, Sunday. He was 
just back from Fort Warren, where he had passed an en- 
forced sojourn owing to his strong Southern proclivities, and 
his good wife was much concerned lest our hobnobbing with 
her illustrious husband would not send him back there as 
soon as we should leave. "But, my dear madam," was my 
rejoinder, "we have no idea of taking a back track across the 
Potomac ; we have come to stay." And such was the feeling 
of the others. Alas! in some two short weeks her appre- 
hensions were verified, and that superb army was re-fording 
the river back into Virginia ; but it was not permitted me to 
be of the number, as I was unavoidably detained and held in 
durance vile for nearly two years thereafter. 

Greeneastle was our next halting place, for a day or two, 
where it seemed that all of the Pennsylvania Dutch for a 
hundred miles around about had come to look glum at our 
audacity in venturing so far in their midst. Riding into 
town with my old friend, Colonel Mercer, we stopped at the 
house of one of these and called for a little liquid refresh- 
ment, which, on being produced in a wash pitcher, Mercer 
poured himself out a bumper, and was about to toss it off 
when I cautioned him to hold up, remarking I had heard 
that when in the enemy's country and partaking of his hos- 
pitality it is advisable to make your host drink the first 
toast, concluding with the invitation: "My friend, kindly 
drink to the health of President Davis, General Lee, and 
the Confederate cause!" The poor Dutchie's countenance 
fell at once as he replied : "I have not drank the viskey for 
twenty years or more !" Mercer's suspicions were at once 
aroused that he had put a sweetening in it not conducive to 
sanitation. Taking out his revolver, he said: "If you have 



not drank the 'viskey' for one hundred years, you shall drink 
that toast!" To which the poor fellow rejoined: "Oh, do 
not shoot me ; I vill drink the toast" ; and after inviting the 
Colonel to join him in a stirrup-cup, gave us each a bottle to 
take back to camp. Mercer and I were, doubtless, the avant 
couriers in that hostile crowd, and felt no compunction at 
the enforced hospitality to which our Pennsylvania friend 
was subjected. 

The next day Ewell's corps moved on to Carlisle Bar- 
racks, then a Federal post, but which had been evacuated 
upon news of the approach of unwelcome visitors. The next 
day being Sunday, it was resolved that the Stars and Stripes, 
which had been cut down from the flagpole, should be re- 
placed by the Stars and Bars. The pole was replaced with 
the young flag floating at the masthead. It would seem 
that if there was ever opportunity to let fall a flow of elo- 
quence, it was on that auspicious occasion, but there was no 
adequate response from any of our distinguished leaders to 
calls made upon them, thus showing that heroism and oratory 
do not always go hand in hand. 

During the night courier after courier was delivering mes- 
sages in hot haste to General Ewell to move back in the direc- 
tion of Gettysburg, as the enemy were concentrating in force 
in that vicinity. This was done without needless delay, a 
halt being called for the night at the little village of Heidlers- 
burg, located some ten or fifteen miles from another village, 
about to be made immortal in the conflict then to follow. 

As illustrative of the futility of dreams, visions, and por- 
tents, I was aroused by a dream or premonition that a mighty 
battle had been fought and that I was one of the earliest vic- 
tims. Shaking off the fancy as a baseless fabric of a vision, 
I turned over and went to sleep again, and again it was 
brought home in renewed force, and so, I think, a third 
hallucination followed. My eyes were strangers to sleep the 



rest of that night, and when the next morning we were told 
by our Brigadier that probably the decisive battle of the 
war would be fought that day, the dreams of the night before 
were brought home most forcibly, intensified by each rever- 
berating gun as we neared the field of conflict. 

The brigade was drawn up in line at a no remote distance 
from those of the Federals, who at once began to shell us. 
The order was given for the command to lie down, and here 
exploded perhaps the most destructive single shell fired dur- 
ing the war. While General Daniel and I were holding our 
horses some six or eight paces in front of the line, it fell 
just to our rear. My recollection was that it killed and dis- 
abled eleven of my old command, but Dr. H. T. Bahnson, 
then perhaps the youngest boy in the battalion, now one of 
the leading physicians of North Carolina, corrected my recol- 
lection by saying that thirteen were rendered hors de combat. 
After an interchange of an artillery duel for a short while, 
the command was deployed preparatory to a charge. 

I was ordered to go with the right wing of the c omm and, 
and when we were about half-way to the enemy's line the 
order came for us to lie down so that our guns in the rear 
could play upon them; then came the command "Up and 
charge !" Suddenly we were on the brink of a chasm in 
the railroad since known as the Deep Cut, when the enemy 
opened on us with both field pieces and small arms, and 
before it could be prevented the men were jumping down 
into the Cut with the view to scrambling up on the other 
side, which was found to be impracticable owing to the pre- 
cipitous sides encountered. To make matters worse, some 
masked guns opened an enfilading fire, which was most de- 
structive. It has been stated that Daniel's brigade lost more 
in that death-trap in fifteen minutes than was lost by any 
other brigade in the three days' fighting. 

Advising Colonel Brabble, the senior officer, to face to the 



left, clear the defile, fall a few paces to the rear, reorganize, 
and then charge, it occurred to me that then was my oppor- 
tunity to offset my own loss, which was deemed inevitable. 
Taking up a musket, I managed with difficulty to crawl to 
the top of the embankment, and saw the enemy drawn up in 
line about a hundred yards in front, behind an old Virgina 
worm fence. They soon began to advance, but with no 
alacrity for the work. Seeing a field officer in front, urging 
them on whilst waving his hat, the thought occurred that his 
loss might be of considerable advantage to us in checking the 
advance. He fell on the instant, which occasioned a momen- 
tary halt, and letting myself aloose at the top, recovered an 
upright position at the bottom, but in a dilapidated plight. 
A jutting root or jagged rock caught in my breeches' leg and 
tore it from the bottom to the top, losing hat also in the fall. 
On recovering an upright position, I was knocked down again 
almost immediately afterwards, either by a minnie or piece 
of shell, when my old Adjutant, Austin Green, rushed up 
and supported me to the rear, advising the field hospital as 
soon as it could be reached. Reaching my horse, which had 
been left in the rear, I mounted and started back for it, arriv- 
ing some twenty minutes later. 

Already the ground was covered by the wounded and 
mangled, while three of the Medical Staff, including Dr. 
Frank Patterson, the brigade chief of that department, were 
hard at work, their coats off and sleeves rolled up, to stem the 
torrent of death, having a couple of impromptu tables for 
operating purposes. They were an honor to the profession, 
those three noble gentlemen. For two or three days ensuing 
there was no relaxation, or let up, in their gruesome work, 
if even a slight snatch of sleep. The pile of amputated limbs 
were rapidly increasing in size, but still they persevered in 
their glorious work. 

At the height of the terrific artillery duel, in which some 



three or four hundred guns were belching forth destruction 
on opposing sides, Bill, one of the General's body-servants, 
who had been sent back for provisions for his master, came 
up to me and upon my asking him if he wasn't scared down 
there amongst all those big guns, replied : "No, sir ; Mars 
June's down there, and if he can stand it I reckon I can." 

On the fourth day of the hell carnival that was going on, 
the great Captain, after his terrific loss to gain possession of 
Round Top hill, and running short of ammunition, deemed 
it essential to order a retreat so as to place the Potomac be- 
tween himself and Meade. Those who were able to stand the 
trip on wheels proceeded to do so, including Captain Bond of 
the Staff and myself, our friends having impressed a little 
one-horse team for the occasion. Bond had received an ugly 
wound in his body, while I had one in the back of my head. 

The weird procession started on the back track, and about 
sunrise on the morning of the immortal fourth making a 
train of vehicles some eleven miles in length, including 
wounded ordnance as well as men. Towards nightfall, on en- 
tering a defile in the hills, desultory firing in the front broke 
on the ear, growing more frequent upon every step of the ad- 
vance. It was soon learned that Kilpatrick had been de- 
tached with his division to intercept the retreat of the train, 
for failing to do which he should have been court-martialed 
for utter incompetency for command, as that long train 
had but three squadrons of cavalry for guard to oppose his 
thousands. From time to time a horse or mule would be 
knocked down from the opposite sides of the road, thus occa- 
sioning delay by a halt to detach him from the harness and 
drag him to one side. 

Things were in this condition when the defile was cleared, 

and the little mounted guard left the rear and went forward in 

hot haste. It was a bright moonlight night, about ten o'clock, 

when it occurred, and a heavy ordnance wagon loaded with 

12 [177] 


damaged gnus, in attempting to pass our little wagon took off 
a wheel and dropped us in the middle of the road. On the 
instant, a score of blue-coated cavalry were upon us with 
their revolvers leveled almost in touch. Then it was that 
the utility of gab was made manifest for once, for Guilford 
spoke with a fluency of tongue rarely, if ever, surpassed by 
any of his race : "Don't shoot, gentlemen, for God's sake, don't 
shoot. We surrender. We are prisoners;" and so we were. 

Being then ordered to get up in the old gun-wagon, which 
was not the easiest ambulance conceivable, the twenty or 
thirty vehicles which had been captured by the doughty Ma- 
jor-General, were ordered to move forward, but soon made a 
detour, going to the rear, as the rumor ran that Jeb Stuart, 
with his entire command, was waiting for the other to come 
np. After moving at a rapid gait the rest of the night, about 
sunrise the next morning we passed the identical spot where 
the mishap befell us the night before. This was impressed 
upon the mind by seeing my Berryville pup sitting down in 
the broken down wagon and to keep guard over it. 

On stopping for dinner, an old friend, Major C. C. Black- 
nail, came up and asked how I was off for transportation, and 
upon being told, he remarked : "I am pretty much in the 
same plight, and don't propose to stand it any longer." This 
was said with some difficulty of articulation as he had had a 
pretty rough operation of dentistry two days before, a 
musket-ball entering one side of his jaw, taking out a half- 
dozen of his teeth, and coming out on the other. Continuing, 
he remarked : "I see a very neat little turnout under those 
trees there. Let's go and take possession ;" which was done. 
Soon an aide-de-camp rode up and demanded to know what 
we were doing in General Custer's carriage. The reply came 
— '"We are wounded prisoners, and demand the right of trans- 
portation." He went back to his commander and reported, 
and soon returned to us with the gratifying message: "The 



General says you may ride in it the rest of to-day, but he will 
be damned if you haven't got to look out for other accommo- 
dation to-morrow." His decision proved that he was a gen- 
tleman, as little Powder Horn showed later on that he was a 
hero, falling into a trap of hostile savages, and losing his own 
life and that of every man in his command. 

Shortly after starting on the evening march and reaching 
the top of a high hill, a courier came dashing in in hot haste 
and reported that Stuart was near by and then advancing. The 
head of the column was at once turned and we went down that 
hill faster than we came up, reaching the village below 
(Smithfield, I think the name). Everything was in a state 
of confusion. Blacknall remarked to me in an under-tone: 

"Now's our opportunity. These fellows are thoroughly 
panicked, and if old Jeb would only drop a few shells over 
here, they would take to their heels in hot haste. JSTow, let's 
go out and lie down on the sidewalk there and groan as hard 
as we can." 

We did, and simulated broken bones as well as could be. 
The Dutch ladies came around, but evinced no sympathy 
for our woeful condition. One of them remarked : "Served 
them right. I wish it had taken off their heads instead." 

Just then the order came to continue the march, but our 
vehicle having disappeared in the confusion we continued 
to groan and wait for Stuart's shells. The last wagons were 
disappearing on the retreat when a Federal surgeon came up 
and asked us what we were doing there. My reply was that 
we were wounded men and if he expected us to keep up with 
the procession he must send a vehicle back to take us up. 
This was done, the occupants of one of them being hustled 
out in a hurry to make room for the wounded prisoners. 

The march was continued in double-quick time until about 
ten o'clock at night, and a halt was called, and we went into 
camp. The next day the wounded were left at the hospital 



in Frederick, and were well cared for. A dear little Sister 
of Charity took me in hand and dressed my wound most care- 
fully. When breakfast was brought in the next morning and 
I had partaken of mine, I remarked to the hospital steward: 
"I wish you would give my boy something to eat." He in- 
stantly replied: "I see no boy about here." "Well, sir, if 
you prefer the expression, my man." "Why didn't you let 
him eat with you?" was the saucy reply; and mine was: 
'"Guilford, tell this fellow why you didn't eat breakfast with 
me." And his answer was: "I would as soon have thought 
of sticking my head in the fire as to sit down to a table with 
Mars Wharton." "Mars," he said, "there are no masters 
around here, nor men either." To which I rejoined: "Hark 
ye, sir, I have had enough of your insolence. I know your 

master, Colonel , who was an old friend of mine, 

and if there is any more of it, you will be reported to him 
and reduced to the ranks again." The threat had the desired 
effect on the creature, and he quieted down after bringing 
Guilford his breakfast. 

The next day we were moved down to Fort McHenry, near 
Baltimore, a change for the worse, and from there to Fort 
Delaware, below Philadelphia, the next day. The officer in 
command there was one General Schoepff, as it leaked out — 
lately a waiter in the dining-room of Willard's hotel, and a 
more pretentious, overweening upstart I have never seen. 
The Field and Staff were quartered inside of the Fort, while 
the other prisoners had to' rough it on the outside as being 
more accessible to the General's emissaries who were trying 
to induce them to take the oath. In going out for an after- 
noon swim, Colonel Baxter Smith and Major Jack Thomp- 
son got an opportunity to speak to a squad of our men and 
urged them, under no circumstances, to take the oath as we 
would probably be exchanged. The circumstance was duly 
reported to the doughty Dutchman in command, who had 



them both marched off to the dark prison, where they were 
confined and fed on bread and water for a day or two there- 

On the fact being reported to Major Burton, an officer of 
the old army and second in command at this place, he waited 
on General Schoepff and denounced his conduct as cruel, un- 
soldierly, and unjustified, threatening that if the two gentle- 
men were not immediately sent back to quarters, he would 
throw up his commission and report the case in person at the 
War Office in Washington. The worthy Major's threat had 
the desired effect and our two friends were ushered back into 
their old quarters, not in most amiable mood as might be 

Major Thompson, who was of a fiery nature, took his seat 
on the side of his bunk, and remained silent for some time, 
when he suddenly burst forth with: "When we get back to 
Richmond, I will wait on President Davis and tender one- 
half of all that I am worth for the privilege of keeping Castle 
Thunder for one week." To which a little chaplain replied: 
"Major, if you got it, you would treat the poor fellows better 
than you think you would." Jack rejoined, in high dudgeon: 
"If you think so, parson, you don't know what a damned 
bad heart I have got," which caused the whole room to ex- 
plode with laughter. 

Another laughable little incident occurred when Schoepff 
came around to tell us that we were to be transferred from 
his custody to another's elsewhere, but said he was not at 
liberty to divulge the place, adding: "You will be well grati- 
fied with the change, and all I ask is that you give your pa- 
roles not to attempt to escape whilst on the road." Some of 
us protested against doing so as it was a novel proceeding to 
put prisoners, under guard, on the word not to escape if op- 
portunity is offered. His rejoinder came: "Those who re- 
fuse to do so will be placed in condition where escape will be 



impossible, for I will have handcuffs on all who do." Captain 
Surrat, of a Mississippi regiment, was in a room with us, 
hatless, coatless, and barefooted. The General, thinking he 
had gotten inside surreptitiously and that he was a private, 
who should have been on the outside, asked him insolently: 
"What are you doing in here ?" and the Captain replied : 

"I joined the Tishimingo Invincibles to fight for the lib- 
erties of my country, and they made me Commissary of the 
regiment. On the march one day I was sent off with a squad 
in search of forage, and as the weather was mighty hot I 
took off my coat and shoes, and was loading my wagons with 
com at a crib when a company of your calvary dashed up and 
seized us all. As we were going along, and I was mounted 
behind one of your men, my hat fell off, and I told the gen- 
tleman in front to please let me get down and pick it up, but 
he refused to do it, saying, 'If you get off this horse I will 
blow your rebel brains out,' and I didn't do it. I was 
brought here with other prisoners, and turned over to you, 
and that's what I'm doing in here." 

The impression was that the Tishimingo Invincibles got 
the best of that fight. 

In due time we reached Johnson's Island, in Lake Erie, 
a prison for officers, where some two thousand were already 
confined and the number continually increasing. On the 
whole, it was a decided improvement over the last two prisons, 
as it was more commodious and roomy. There were eleven 
or twelve two-story blocks in two parallel rows, extending 
the length of the prison yard, the two upper ones being cut up 
into small rooms for the Field Staff, into one of which I was 
fortunate enough to gain admittance. These rooms were 
about fifteen feet square for the accommodation of eight pris- 
oners each, three tiers of bunks being allotted for sleeping 
purpose. Here the next twenty-two months of our unevent- 
ful lives were passed to little purpose. The prison guard 

consisted of a regiment of 'home guards,' who had enlisted 



for that special duty with the understanding that they were 
not to> be sent to the front. As might be expected, they 
were not as considerate for our comfort as old soldiers would 
have been, as the following anecdote will illustrate: 

After a six-months sojourn under their supervision, a 
badly decimated brigade under General Shaler, who had lost 
aii arm, was sent on from Virginia to relieve Major Pearson 
in command. The improvement in our condition and treat- 
ment became obvious from the very first. One day an alterca- 
tion took place between a member of each command, the 
home guard fellow remarking to the old soldier : "You fellows 
treat these rebels with as much politeness as if they were 
some of our folks ;" to which Shaler's man replied : "And 
you fellows, who have never smelt powder, treat them as if 
they were dogs. If you had helped to catch them as we have, 
you would have more respect for them, for we know what 
they are." 

There was no more needless shooting of prisoners after 
their coming, as there had been under the redoubtable 'stay- 
at-homes', who enjoyed, of all things, some slight excuse for 
making a target of some of us. There was one young rascal 
especially who took a special delight in shooting a rebel. The 
change was so marked in our treatment under the two com- 
mands that there soon came to be a better entente cordiale 
between us and Shaler's boys than there was between us and 
Pearson's. For one, and I think for all, we felt grateful to 
these old war veterans for their marked courtesy and civility. 

Eight of our number resolved to attempt an escape, the 
plan being to dig a hole or well some three feet deep through 
the dining-room floor of Block No. 1, and then to strike off 
at right angles until past the fence on which a guard was sta- 
tioned, and then come up on the outside, all precautions 
being taken to conceal their work. In due time the tunnel 



was finished, and it was decided by lot which of the work- 
men should go first, and in rotation. There had been heavy 
rains for a day or two when the eventful night came, and 
the cavity under ground was] almost half filled with water. 
Two had gotten through when it came to the lot of an Arkan- 
sas Bayard to take his turn. He was Captain Cole, a large 
and powerful man, and his frame was too huge for the little 
hole. On emerging his head and shoulders from the outside 
aperture, he found it was impossible to pull himself through. 
Calling, in subdued tone, to the man next behind, his con- 
dition, and telling him to go back and warn the others, Cole 
remained there in a cold drenching rain until after reveille, 
the next morning, when he called for assistance and had 
himself drug out more dead than alive. ' He was taken to 
General Shaler's headquarters, and the facts reported. The 
General asked him: "When you found that you were stuck 
in a hole, Captain, why didn't you call for relief sooner?" 
To which came the noble reply : "Because it would have been 
dishonorable ; two of my comrades were already through, and 
if I had sounded the alarm, they would have been recap- 
tured." Shaler's reply was: "Captain Cole, you are a hero 
and a noble fellow, and I guess the best thing you can do is 
to take a stiff drink of whiskey in the plight you are in, and 
to have yourself rubbed down with the same;" which was 
done by the General's orderly, Shaler giving him a bottle to 
take back to the prison-pen for his own exclusive use. One of 
the .young officers of the Home Guards remarked, in sur- 
prise, to one of the scarred veterans : "It's well for that fel- 
low that you all came before he fell into the hands of Gen- 
eral Shaler, for Major Pearson would have had him in the 
dark prison and fed on bread and water, if he had been in 
command." The reply came "Your whole command could 



not turn out one such man as that noble fellow, who has just 
been sent back into the prison yard." 

One of Shaler's superb works of charity was to permit de- 
tails from each mess to go down to the banks of the lake and 
get buckets of fresh water for the use of the others. Up to 
that time, our wants in that regard had to be supplied from 
shallow wells or, more properly, seip-holes, not over six or 
eight feet deep and, of course, only surface drainage. A 
pretty fat graveyard, was left behind when that island was 
vacated, but had it not been for that thoughtful kindness on 
his part it would, doubtless, have been much greater by many 

And so the first summer passed in dull-fretting monotony, 
and winter came on y and what a winter it was ! For days, 
and even weeks, the mercury ranged between 25 and 30 de- 
grees below zero, and as these structures were of weather- 
board and without plaster, and a totally inadequate supply 
of fuel to keep us from freezing, the suffering was intense. 
At night the bedding would have to be- doubled, and the men 
compelled to sleep by reliefs or installments, one-half under 
cover while the other was sitting around a stove to keep 
from freezing. But we were living in daily hope that the 
cartel exchange would soon be ratified and that we could go 
back and resume places with our comrades in ranks. 

But still another summer came and went, and the delu- 
sive hope failed of fruition ; and so, another winter too, whilst 
our numbers were being constantly repleted and depleted, 
the first by capture, and the last by death. The hospital was 
kept filled to repletion, as I can attest from actual experience, 
for a month or more, being on the sick-list during that time 
and forced to take refuge within its limits. 

And here I propose to pay humble tribute to three as noble 
fellows as it has been my privilege to meet in all life — the 



hospital nurses. One of them was named Carpenter, a native 
son of the Emerald Isle, who had enlisted in an Alabama regi- 
ment. He and the two others seemed to he ubiquitous 
amongst the sick and wounded cots. If Carpenter ever slept, 
it is more than I can tell ; but certainly, I never called him, 
in daytime or night, that he was not instantly at my side to 
know what was wanted. When convalescence set in for me, 
I asked him one day : " Carpenter, what do you get for this ?" 
The noble fellow seemed hurt by the question. "Get?" says 
he : "Colonel, I hope you do not suppose I am doing this work 
for pay." "If not, what for?" was my reply. "Because," 
quoth he, "it is my duty." Says I: "My friend, there are 
three thousand other men on this accursed island who do not 
seem to regard it as their duty." "'No, but mine is a peculiar 
case ; you see, that when it was known that we had to fall back 
after the three days fight at Gettysburg, my brigadier called 
for volunteers to look after the sick and wounded until the 
enemy should come up and take charge of them. Volunteering 
wasn't very brisk that day, and I too held back in hopes that 
others would anticipate the call ; but as they didn't, I told my 
colonel that I would be one of the number. And so you see, 
Colonel, that having volunteered for the work, I have no 
right to shirk or give it up now." "My friend," I said, "that 
may be a strained view to take, but to my thinking you are 
not only a hero but a self-sacrificing philanthropist. Let me 
thank you from the bottom of an overflowing heart, my 
friend, for your attentions to me, and, from my observation, 
to others. 

On returning to my room, I set to work to raise some little 
token in recognition of their noble work and succeeded in col- 
lecting nearly two hundred dollars in greenbacks. On hand- 
ing the money to him, his voice became choked and he re- 
marked in the rich brogue of his land : "The devil of a cent 



of it will I take." ''And if the two others are like-minded," 
was my reply, "what is to be done with it?" "Set it aside 
for a hospital fund," he replied; "relieve these poor gentle- 
men who need it more than we." "Well, then, my noble 
friend; you must consent to take it and act as their almoner." 

I regret that the names of the two others have escaped me, 
but trust that the world has since been good to all of them. 
When it is taken into consideration that they were undergoing 
all the drudgery of the pesthouse, even carrying out the re- 
mains of those who died, there is no denying that here was 
heroism and sense of duty surpassing that of a deadly charge 
on the battlefield. 

As said, various expedients were resorted to to secure 
escape, even to attempted escapade of the sentry's beat by a 
few bold and determined spirits, in which a gallant hero, 
Captain Bowles, of Kentucky, lost his life in mounting the 
scaling ladder. 

Another project which came near being successful was 
when Colonel Thomas, the cidevant "French Lady," with a 
dozen secret volunteers, took passage at Detroit on one of the 
large lake steamers for Buffalo, an understanding being that 
on preconcerted signal they were to overpower the officers of 
the boat, reduce the crew and passengers to subjection, land- 
ing the last at the first convenient point, and push in to 
Johnson's Island, where it was understood we would rise, 
overpower the guard, secure their arms, and take passage for 
Canada. Things worked to a charm up to the point of cap- 
turning the boat and landing the passengers, and whilst a few 
of us were on the lookout for the rocket-signal that was to tell 
of their coming, including Generals Trimble and Archer, it 
became manifest by another signal given that the scheme had 
miscarried, it having become known that the Government war 



vessel "Michigan/' had anchored the day before off the island, 
which would naturally make the attempt abortive. 

As the scheme is now recalled, the correspondence between 
General Trimble, the ranking officer on the island, and Colo- 
nel Thomas, strange as it may sound, was carried on through 
the columns of a ISTew York daily, the 'Herald,' I believe, 
and was after this wise, Thomas representing a Lothario 
under an assumed name proposing to run off with his sweet- 
heart whom we will designate as Mary, for short, and who 
was impersonated by that one-legged old veteran, General 
Isaac R. Trimble, of Baltimore. Thomas's message would 
run : ''To Mary. The carriage will be at your gate on such a 
night. Be ready and prepared to meet it." The answer, 
in due time, would be: "Your notice of coming has been re- 
ceived, and Mary will be ready as directed." 

The sequel to have been, as intimated, was that the few who 
were in the plot were to rush from block to block and impart 
the information that help was at hand, and that all that was 
necessary for us to do was to overcome the guard on the 
island, capture their boats and steam away to the Queen's 
dominions. The plot was not widely divulged for fear of its 
reaching the outside before time, and when it became obvious 
that there was some miscarriage in its development the hearts 
of all sank within them. The papers, in due time, gave an 
outline of the failure of the attempt, and General Trimble's 
visitors returned to their respective rooms much cast down 
and heavy at heart. 

Tt may be added, in this connection, that an under officer 
of the "Michigan" dropped a note to the engineer of that 
boat, giving a hint of the plot on foot. The confusion of the 
last one on reading it excited the suspicions of the captain, 
and taking the communication from the hands of the other his 



suspicions became verified, and counter arrangements were 
made to intercept the arrival of the 'Trench lady." 

Thus failed another well-conceived scheme to restore the 
officers on the island to their respective commands across the 
Potomac. One other, perhaps, to the same intent, and I have 
done on that line. 

During that awfully cold spell, when the ice was about two 
feet thick around our prison pen, the thought was conceived 
that if the frost only extended across to the Canadian border 
we might rise and disarm the guard, as already set forth, 
and steal a march on them for the other side. The only ques- 
tion was to determine whether the ice extended all the way 
across in order that the attempt might be made. In our then 
condition, it was impossible to tell without outside informa- 
tion, and this was suppressed by an embargo on all papers for 
a few days thereafter. It was later known that Lake Erie 
was frozen from shore to shore. The rescue of the denizens 
on Johnson's Island might have given a different issue to 
the ultimate struggle. "Alas ! the best laid plans of mice and 
men gang aft aglee." 

A word additional regarding the hospital. It was in 
charge, by courtesy, of three Confederate surgeons, namely, 
Major Stedman, Colonel Maxwell, and Captain Sessions, men 
eminent in their profession, but who were enrolled on the 
line of killers instead of curers. Active and efficient they all 
were in their new assignment to duty. The Federal surgeons 
who had supervision of the establishment were Drs. Wood 
ward, a kindhearted and thorough gentleman, who did all in 
his power to alleviate the sufferings of those with whom he was 
brought in contact, and one Eversman from the vater land, 
as the name imports, who would have been a concentration of 
the bully and blackguard had he possessed the first requisite 
for that position. Cruel and overbearing he was by nature, 



and delighted in giving needless offence. There was a natural 
repugnance between this last-named pill-maker and myself, 
and deeming that my days were numbered I was not back- 
ward in giving him my estimate of his true character on the 
occasions of his daily visits. The first-named of these is still 
held in grateful remembrance by every prisoner with whom 
he was brought in contact, the last, in utter loathing. Com- 
mentary : It matters not how exalted may be the position of 
those in power, it is far better for posthumous fame that they 
prefer the roll of gentleman to that of the bully. 

Before quitting the medical staff, it is perhaps apposite to 
the occasion to speak of another of the Eversman order, a 
kind of orderly, hospital steward, or something of the sort, 
by the name of Foster, the most universal petty rogue within 
my knowledge. He had the distribution of certain packages 
sent through the express, and in the beginning of his duties 
was content to appropriate about twenty per cent of the con- 
tents ; but immunity from discovery prompted him by de- 
grees to extend his stealage. He rose to 30, 40, 50, and 
finally to 70 per cent, when my patience became thoroughly 
exhausted, and I told him that his cupidity, to call it by a 
mild name, would be reported to General Shaler if his con- 
duct was not corrected. Thereupon he put on the air of a 
much injured man, and remarked in high dudgeon : "I 
would have you know, Colonel Green, that I am an officer of 
the I T nited States Army, and no man shall twit me with steal- 
ing." My reply was: "Then leave it off, Foster, and no 
man will do it." Am glad to say that after my little moral 
lecture to the fellow and threat of exposure, he let up some- 
what on his avarice of appropriation of others goods. 

One of the most popular of our jailers was Lieutenant- 
Colonel Scoville, who for the life of him couldn't say "No." 
He had charge of approving all papers emanating from the 



iuside on the powers that be, and never failed to affix his sig- 
nature to each and every one, which amounted to little in 
the end. As his amiable weakness had long been seen 
through, a wag from Florida resolved to have a little fun out 
of him, and made a formal requisition on the Secretary of 
War, embracing six field-pounders with grape and other suit- 
able ammunition for the same, one thousand muskets, and ten 
thousand rounds of ammunition, one hundred sabres well 
sharpened, and ten thousand rations. The worthy colonel, 
without running his eye over the novel document, signed it, 
and promised to deliver to his chief, Colonel Pearson, who 
was in high dudgeon when he saw that Scoville had approved 
the requisition. Suffice it, that none of these essential ar- 
ticles looking to a severance of enforced connection ever came 
to hand. Let it be added that Scoville was another to whom 
the proud old prefix 'gentleman' might be applied. He 
strayed down to Nashville after the war, and he and his old 
friend, Fite, became great cronies. Whilst many thought 
him more profuse of promise than performance, they, never- 
theless, made allowance for the prompting impulse at the bot- 
tom, which forbade his hurting the feelings of others. 

Having thus given a brief glimpse of the character of our 
jailers, perhaps brief allusion to some of the jail-birds would 
not be out of place. First of all, of glorious old Isaac Trim- 
ble, one of the early graduates of the Military Academy, and 
the engineer-in-chief of the Baltimore and Ohio Kailroad. 
After espousing our side, he rapidly reached the rank of 
major-general, and caught a musket-ball in his leg at Chan- 
cellorsville. "Cut it off, Doctor, cut it off," was his impera- 
tive command to the surgeon in charge. "N"o, General," 
came the reply; "I can save your leg." "And prevent my 
taking part in the campaign next across the Potomac, which 
I am convinced will not be far off." In Pickett's historic 



charge he was second in command after Pender fell, and was 
picked up by the Federal ambulance men and carried back to 
an improvised hospital, when amputation of the previously 
wounded leg became imperative. Later on his own surgeon 
received permission to come and wait upon his chief, when, to 
his surprise, the old man opened upon him in language far 
from loving. "If, sir, you had obeyed my orders at Chan- 
cellorsville and taken off this leg, I could have kept on in 
that glorious charge up that hill. Let it be a lesson to you, 
sir, hereafter to always obey the orders of your superiors." 
I knew the old hero before and later on, and ever found him 
that kind-hearted, courtly gentleman; that he was born and 

John R. Fellows, a boy-lieutenant in General Beall's room, 
just opposite, was one whom it pleased me to study and 
honor. He was known in his adopted State of Arkansas as 
the Little Giant, in imitation of Stephen A. Douglass, the 
Little Giant of Illinois. His readiness of speech and flow 
of oratory were almost phenomenal. Although a Northern 
man by birth, he had run away from home when twelve years 
old, and developed in the wild woods of Arkansas. A single 
anecdote of his readiness of speech will illustrate the man. 
When, in due time, the 22d of February came along and our 
friends onthe outsidewere making agreat jubilee overthe day, 
it occurred to some of us on the inside that we had as good, if 
not better, right to enthuse over George's natal day than they 
had ; and a committee was appointed to wait on the Little 
Giant, who was asleep in his room, and demand that he come 
out at once and give us a counter blast on patriotism. He 
tried to get around it, but was forced down, vi et armis, and 
mounted on the platform of an upper floor around which a 
crowd was assembled, and for half an hour I have never 
heard such a burst of oratory as escaped his lips. The 



crowd by this time had been augmented by almost every 
prisoner on the island, who vied with each other in outburst 
of applause. This became so great that the authorities on 
the outside concluded that we were premeditating an out- 
break, and marched in a, detachment of troops to quell or dis- 
perse us. Owing to our close-wedged mass, it took the officer 
in command some time to get to the foot of the stair-case, and 
just before he started to ascend the band on the outside 
struck up "The Star Spangled Banner," under which they 
were playing. Then it was inborn genius rose to the superla- 
tive. "Yes," he exclaimed, as if in rejoinder to the tune, 
"the Star Spangled Banner, yon flaunting lie ; long may it 
wave over the land of the thief and the home of the knave." 
Perhaps the exordium did not bring down the house. As the 
Federal captain reached the top of the stair-case and tapped 
him on the shoulder, he said: "Look here, sir, this thing has 
got to stop." "Certainly, sir," said Fellows, in his suavest 
tones, "I had just finished as you came up," and we dispersed 
with three-cheers for the Little Giant of Arkansas. Later 
on, he married a young lady in Memphis as deficient in this 
world's gear as he was himself, and carried her on to New 
York with hardly the wherewith to pay passage, but his 
genius was infectious and soon he was made first assistant 
district attorney of the city of New York, and a little later 
full official of that position. Then it was determined that 
he would better fill the position of Member of Congress of the 
United States Legislature, and so they sent him to Washing- 
ton by an overwhelming majority, and sent him again, in 
each of which positions he left a name behind. Am glad to 
say that I have had one visit from him after his exaltation, 
and he was on the way for another, which decrepitude cut 

13 T 193 ] 


Finally tke auspicious day came. The prisoners were be- 
ing sent home by alphabetical list, and the last batch before 
the surrender chanced to include my name, the last on the list, 
thus bringing in the fateful "ISTo. 1" again. Nothing of inci 
dent occurred until going, down Chesapeake Bay in an over- 
crowded cattle-boat in a drenching rain. Seeing no better 
place for sleeping quarters, I concluded to straddle a water- 
barrel just under the eaves of the boat. It was not a very 
comfortable accommodation as the water was trickling down 
my back all the time, but still it was the best that could be 
had. While trying to catch a moment's respite of slumber, it 
became obvious that some one was fumbling in my front pocket 
Rousing myself, I saw that he was one of the guard, and 
grabbed him by the throat with my left hand while planting 
a full-aimed blow in his face with the other. 

On reaching Aiken's Landing, Virginia, the point of ex- 
change, we were compelled to walk a mile or two over to 
where 1 the Confederate boat came down, namely, "Varina." 
The Federal Commissioner of exchange planted a number of 
negro troops between us and the boat that we had to take, 
with orders to allow no one to go aboard until the order was 
given. The poor fellows, however, in their great anxiety 
to set foot on Confederate soil once more, made a rush for the 
gangway, when the darkey in charge of that particular point 
commenced backing with the outcry: "Keep back, white folks, 
keep back ! If you don't keep back, how can I keep you 
back V To my conception, the exclamation on his part was 
an admission of the value of that sort of material in war. 

The return from there to Richmond was a sort of tender- 
foot affair as it was known that the river was planted with 



torpedoes and the slightest deviation from line would prob- 
ably occasion a blow-up. Arriving in the Capital city, things 
wore a gloomy look indeed preliminary to the final crash. 
Going to the Spottiswood Hotel with my friend General 
Rucker, a one-armed soldier of old Forrest's, who started into 
the breakfast-room, Rucker wearing a fancy hat with an 
ostrich feather which I had given him at Cumberland, Mary- 
land, and which he proceeded to hang on a peg at the door. 
In reply to my caution that he had better take his head-gear 
in with him, he said : "No, Green, we are back in God's 
country now, where folks don't steal hats." On getting a very 
indifferent breakfast, after the Confederate menu, we saw 
only three or four capital coverings and lo ! Rucker' s was not 
of the number. They were to all appearances old cam- 
paigners with brims gone and holes through the tops. The 
poor General looked aghast, and remarked: "I don't know 
what has become of my hat." "Why," I said, "there it is," 
pointing to the most dilapidated specimen of the lot. Said 
I: "Recollect, Rucker, we are back in God's country, where 
folks don't steal hats." According to recollection, I had to 
shell out fifty dollars additional (Confederate, be it under- 
stood) for him to go down Main street in search of another 

Two days later my home was reached on Shocco Creek, 
which I had left two years previously. It was a gala return 
all around, including white folks and negroes. After waiting 
ten or fifteen days, I proceeded to order another mount for 
myself and Guilford, and was about starting in search of the 
grand army when stragglers began dropping in, who with one 
accord reported that General Lee had surrendered. On this 
fact being established beyond doubt, my heart sank within 
me, and I am not ashamed to confess that I broke out blub- 
bering and kept it up for an hour or two, for it was the great 



disappointment in my life, the reflection constantly recurring 
- — and all for naught. The success of our cause had been for 
long years the dream and hallucination of life, and the out- 
come was blank despair. Such, I presume, was the experi- 
ence of most others who had staked all on the issue. 

Our friend, Mrs. William Polk, and cousin, Miss Currier, 
having made up their minds to go north in search of additional 
outfit, it became incumbent on me to go with them to Raleigh 
to secure passports for the trip, which was effected through 
two old West Point friends, Generals Schofield and Ruger. 
The two Confederate dames had gotten themselves up re- 
gardless for their re-advent into the fashionable world, but 
on making their entrance into the parlors of the old St, 
Nicholas Hotel there was an explosion of laughter at their 
uncouth appearance. My consolation to them, on their return 
was : "Well, it is some satisfaction to you to know that you 
created a sensation on your re-appearance." 

The next two or three years were a period of political un- 
certainty for the entire South, for no one knew what to- 
morrow would bring forth. At that period I was selected as 
one of the delegates to the National Democratic Convention, 
which was to assemble at New York. We met replete with 
foolish hope that something would be done to obliterate recent 
by-gones. Governor Seymour, than whom a purer, abler, 
more gifted man could not be found in the entire country, 
was the presiding officer, and later on received the nomination 
for President under his most earnest and strenuous protest. 
Two days later I met him on the boat going up to Saratoga, 
and his hopes for Democratic success seemed entirely to have 
vanished. He remarked just before reaching Albany, "You 
gentlemen from North Carolina forced my nomination upon 
the convention and thereby excluded all possibility of suc- 
cess at the polls." As I now recall his idea, policy enjoined 


< 5 



that a soldier should be off-set by a soldier — Grant by Han- 
cock. As now seen, in retrospect, there was no name or com- 
bination of names that could have prevented the success of the 
North's great idol, Ulysses S. Grant, and so it appears in a 
subsequent convention, in which his name led the ticket of his 

I was made the nominee of my party for elector shortly 
afterwards, and made an active canvass in furtherance of the 
object, knowing all the time that it was a hopeless endeavor. 
The year succeeding I was out in nomination for Congress in 
the old Third District of North Carolina, composed of the 
strongest negro counties in the State, and although the normal 
majority was considerably reduced, it was not cut down suffi- 
ciently to give any showing of an election. 

All of this time I was raising corn and tobacco and the 
other et ceteras incident to farming, making a reasonable sup- 
port. Later on my attention was attracted to the Tokay 
vineyard, near Fayetteville, North Carolina, said at the time 
to be the largest one this side of the Rocky Mountains. It 
was purchased and improvements begun upon an extensive 
scale, and it has been a source of solace to me, saying nothing 
of profit, ever since. 

A year or two after moving here I was put in nomination 
for Congress and elected by an even five hundred majority. 
Thence forward my residence was chiefly in the Federal Cap- 
ital, and my associates mainly with members of Congress. 
The first session, with two of my daughters, I was domiciled 
at the Ebbitt and was brought in contact with numbers of 
congenial spirits, amongst them being William McKinley and 
his wife. The duties of the House, while not arduous, re- 
quired pretty constant attention, and some of the most agree- 
able acquaintances followed ; amongst these may be mentioned 
S. S. Cox, commonly known as Sunset Cox; Governor 

[197 J 


Curtin, Benton McMillin, John Ballentine, William Hatch, 
Hilary Herbert, James Blount, Robert Davidson, Charles, 
O'Ferrall, Charles Crisp, George Cabell, William Forney, 
Otho Singleton, John Reagan, William Springer, Seaborn 
Reese, William Oates, William Ferry, James Richardson and 
John O'jSTeilL Apropos, of the last-named follows an an- 
necdote. He and I were appointed as representatives of our 
respective States to attend the opening of the JSTew Orleans 
Exposition, which was to be done by the President, Grover 
Cleveland, touching a button. I was about to attend in or- 
dinary dress, when meeting the Speaker, (Mr. Carlisle,) who 
told me it was to be a full-dress affair and that I had better 
hurry home and put on my swallow-tail. Shortly after I en- 
countered O'JSTeill, and told him what I had just heard, and he 
too rushed to his room and ensconced himself in one. At the 
auspicious moment, to my surprise and mortification, Johnny 
and I were the only two fellows in swallow-tails, and I over- 
heard one of those ubiquitous individuals known as reporters, 
remark to another: "What fool is that over there in evening 
dress V pointing at Johnny. I took the hint, and not wishing 
to appear in the papers in that connection, dropped down 
into a big arm chair near by and covered the nether ends of 
the obnoxious garment with my arms. The next day Johnny 
appeared in full print with the sole honors of war, as the only 
gentleman present arrayed in evening dress, and commenting 
upon his dignified appearance in that hateful garment worn 
chiefly by undertakers and headwaiters. Due discretion, 
doubtless, prevented my showing off in the same connection. 
Whilst in the other house, besides our own Senators, Ran- 
som and Vance, may be named primarily those of our sister 
State on the south, Wade Hampton, whom, in the post-meri- 
dian of life, I loved first and foremost of all men, and M. C. 
Butler; Joe Blackburn, commonly called "Old Joe," for 


AN" auto of half a century and more. 

short, although, he was the youngest man in that body ; George 
and Walthall, of Mississippi ; Jones and Berry, of Arkansas ; 
George Pendleton, of Ohio, Brown, of Georgia, and Vest and 
Cockrell, of Missouri. 

Wishing to master the duties of the position, I gave very 
little attention to social calls, but devoted the evenings almost 
exclusively to work. And here let it be remarked, in passing, 
that new members are of very little use or utility to their 
constituents in the first term or two. Men of mediocre ability 
often make a mark by long continued service. During my 
first term I framed and introduced bills, and supported them 
by set speeches, which I deemed of utility to the country at 
large. Among these may be mentioned a bill against food 
and drug adulteration, the first, I believe, looking to that end, 
although the subject is now receiving most serious considera- 
tion from both Houses of Congress, including the President 
and his Cabinet. Another, a bill for an appropriation for a 
public building in Wilmington, which passed, and with some 
accretion from the Senate s;ave that citv the most ornate struc- 
ture in the limits of the State. Also a bill for an inter-inland 
waterway between Norfolk and Beaufort, looking to extension 
later on to Jacksonville, Florida, which is also receiving due 
regard at this time from the present Congress. 

Upon the expiration of my first term in Congress my name 
was brought before the nominating convention for re-election, 
and won through without difficulty ; election followed by some 
twenty-five hundred majority, or five times what it was two 
years previously. On resuming seat for the second term, I 
rented a private residence at the corner of Sixteenth and Q. 
Streets, belonging to my old friend, General Innis Palmer, 
of the United States Army, where with my children and serv- 
ants I lived a very quiet life for the two years to follow, and 
where my oldest daughter, then Mrs. Pembroke Jones, kept 



house for me. Other measures followed in the way of pre- 
sentation, some with ultimate success, but not worth recapi- 

In the second session of the same (the Forty-ninth Con- 
gress) I broke up housekeeping and moved down to the old 
National Hotel, where the rest of the term was passed. My 
next door neighbor, in rotation of rooms, was Captain Joe 
Blackburn, then United States Senator, with whom a strong 
friendship sprung up, which has lasted ever since, and upon 
whom a good joke comes in apropos. One night when he and 
a number of other friends were assembled, I put the question 
direct: "Captain Joe, what do you think of General Jack- 
son ? Not Stonewall, but the other." "Oh," says he, "You 
mean 'Old Hickory.' ' And upon acquiescence, he replied : 
"A great man, sir, a grand man, who has had few equals in 
this or any land." To this my rejoinder came: "Did you ever 
see what he said of his Kentucky contingent in the great bat- 
tle?" "No, but it must have been a glorious tribute to those 
noble fellows," was Joe's reply. "Judge for yourself, my 
friend. He said, for some unaccountable reason the Kentuck- 
ians on the other side of the river became panic-stricken and 
ran like wild turkeys." "Where did you get that ?" was his in- 
dignant rejoinder. "From his original dispatch just after the 
great battle which was published in a Washington paper a few 
days later on, and a copy of which is now posted up in Han- 
cock's saloon where you may at some time have strayed in." 
"Well," the Senator remarked, "it only shows him what I 
have always known him to be — a first-class d — fool." 

I had early become the possessor of a fine Kentucky thor- 
ough-bred saddle-horse, and my afternoons after office-hours 
were spent on his back frequently in company with my old 
friend, General Hampton, who likewise owned one that he 
thought incomparable. On the eve of purchase he and Gen- 

[ 200 ] 



eral Ransom were called upon to pass judgment upon the 
merits of the Kentuckian, and Ransom mounted him to show 
off his gaits. "Only a pacer/' was the great cavalryman's con- 
temptuous criticism: "I wouldn't have him as a free gift." 
A few days later his one-legged lieutenant, Butler, asked me 
if I wouldn't take a turn with him out in the country, remark- 
ing that General Hampton had loaned him his horse and that 
he would meet me up at Xaillor's stable, where my own was 
kept, at four o'clock. On coming up he was in a state of fer- 
ment, remarking, "Old Hamp. thinks he is a judge of horse- 
flesh, but I would not have this thing if he would give him to 
me;" adding, "he only has one gait, and that is a pace." 
"Singular coincidence that, Butler," was my reply, "as it 
was precisely the condemnation he put on mine a few weeks 
ag'o. ,, He rejoined : "He hasn't heard the last of it, for I will 
ring it on him." As he did, much to the older General's dis- 
gruntlement, eliciting the remark : "Butler knows nothing 
more about a horse than you do." Be it understood, with- 
out possibility of mistake, that the Butler referred to was of 
South Carolina, and not North. 

In this, my second term, be it understood, I was up at the 
head of the Committee on Agriculture, next to the Chairman, 
my old friend, Bill Hatch, and Chairman of the Committee 
on Ventilation and Acoustics. One of the first committee was 
a muti-millionaire, but one whom I never took to. He took it 
into his head to die one day, and Hatch did me the honor to 
invite me to preach his Congressional funeral, which I re- 
spectfully declined, remarking: "You know, Hatch, that he 
and I bore each other no love in life, and for me now to 
get up and lavish eulogium upon him would be the sheerest 
hypocrisy." He smilingly returned: "I was afraid you 
would decline the honor, but thought it due you, being the 



senior member of the committee to give you the chance of so 

Hatch, be it understood, was Confederate Commissioner 
of Exchange, and did his best to effect one for me, but found 
it a fruitless effort as favors at that time were not going by 
kissing. A glorious fellow he was, but he shortly afterwards 
passed out of Congress and over the river to rest in the shade 
with Stonewall and the others who had gone before. 

On the expiration of my second term I returned home to 
take my chance for a third nomination, and it was evident 
from the start that it would come with my permission. The 
district was hampered with the two-thirds rule and my friends 
urged its abrogation, trying to get my consent to its being 
done. This w T as refused on the ground that if two^thirds of 
my district did not wish me to continue as their representa- 
tive, it was immaterial whether I was selected or not. The 
record will show that through 330 consecutive ballots, lasting 
all night, my majority was overwhelmingly large and within 
a small fraction of the requisite two-thirds, wdrich could not 
be reached, however, owing to a combination of opponents and 
their adherents, who had attended with the avowed purpose of 
securing my defeat. At the hazard of having "sour-grapes" 
thrown in my teeth, be it candidly said, that the result occa- 
sioned but little regret at the time and still less since, not 
caring to be a mere figure-head as nine out of every ten in the 
House usually are. 

Returning home I found, and have found since, that satis- 
faction in my library and fish-pond, which the House of Rep- 
resentatives failed to bring, which was shortly afterwards 
augmented, and has since continued, through the fellowship 
of my second wife, and the visits of a few well selected and 
honored friends, at the head of whom, as stated before, is 
ranked Wade Hampton, noblest Ronian of them all. A short 

[ 202 j 


while before his death he stopped by on a visit of a few days, 
passed mostly with me at the fish-pond. He soon stated to 
Mrs. Green that his object was to get her consent to my going 
down to Charleston with him where he was booked for a 
speech to the old soldiers, and then to continue out to the 
Pacific coast on his private car on a tour of official inspection, 
he being at that time United States Commissioner of Rail- 




Arriving in Washington on the 28th of May, 1895, General 
Hampton observed that he had an invitation for me to con- 
tinue on with himself and invited party to Chicago to attend 
the unveiling of a monument to the Confederate prisoners 
who had died there during the war. The party consisted be- 
sides himself of Generals Heth (and daughter) Lomax, 
(whom I had not seen before since we were boys at West 
Point, and his wife,) Butler, French and Hunton; Col- 
onel Erwin; Majors Conrad (and wife), Hunter and 
Mitchell; Mr. Robinson; Captain Littlepage (and wife); 
Mrs. Akers, and the two Misses Washington, an agreeable 
and congenial party, and having the coach to ourselves had a 
most delightful trip to the City on the Lakes, where we 
arrived on the morning of the 29th of May and found a com- 
mittee of city officials and others at the depot with twelve or 
fifteen open carriages to receive and escort the party to the 
Palmer House where elegant apartments were prepared for 

In the afternoon a largely attended reception was given in 
the parlors of the hotel, other distinguished Confederates hav- 
ing arrived from different points, including Lieutenants-Gen- 
eral Longstreet and Stephen D. Lee. At night a superb 
banquet of some three hundred covers was given the party 
with a fine band of music in the gallery. As a rule, the after- 
dinner speeches on the occasion were good, far above the 

On the 30th of May we were escorted to the cars in open 
carriages as before with a company of cavalry. Took the 



train and went out to the World's Fair grounds, where other 
carriages took us out to the cemetery. An immense crowd, 
estimated at from 30,000 to 40,000, was present, and the 
best of order and considerable enthusiasm prevailed during 
the exercises. General Hampton made an eloquent speech 
upon which he was much complimented. 

In the afternoon of the 31st we were escorted in carriages 
through the parks, I being assigned to the carriage containing 
General French, and Mrs. Akers and Mrs. Hollenberg. In 
the evening all of the party, except General Hampton and 
myself, started back to Washington, taking my trunk with 
them by mistake. A telegram, however, overtook it on the 
road and brought it back the next morning. 

On June 1st, passed the day in sight-seeing, Senator Mc- 
Pherson, who was to accompany us, having arrived. Met a 
very pleasant acquaintance in Mr. A. B. Meeker, who was 
exceedingly polite and attentive. At 11 p. m., started west 
with General Hampton and his Secretary, Mr. Thomas, and 
Senator McPherson, on the General's special car, well 
adapted to comfort and convenience, and with a capital cook 
and steward. After a pleasant night's rest and a good break- 
fast, arrived in Saint Paul and laid over until the afternoon. 
Took advantage of the stop to see the town, and a very pretty 
one it is. 

June 3rd, continued west at forty miles an hour, passing a 
good part of the day in playing euchre, McPherson and I 
beating the General and Thomas. Good appetite, good cook- 
ing and sound sleep, made me feel better on the morning of 
the 4th' when we reached Livingston and were switched off 
to Yellowstone Park, arriving at the outskirts about 11 :00, 
and took stage for the Mammoth Springs Hotel. Passed 
the rest of the day there, visiting the famous fountains, and so 
forth. The wonders of this wonderland begin here, which 



words are inadequate to describe. Captain Anderson, of the 
Army, who was stationed there with his company in charge 
of the park, passed the evening with us, intending to go our 
way in the morning for forty miles. He told General Hamp- 
ton that he had boat ready for him to fish in up at the geysers, 
and would send it up there in the morning. Engaged a coach 
and four good horses and started thither the next morning, 
passing various objects of interest and curiosity through some 
of the wildest and most sublime scenery in the world. Among 
these may be mentioned the Obsidiam, or natural glass cliffs, 
a quarter of a mile long and rising perpendicularly hundreds 
of feet, and numerous boiling, or rather seething, springs of 
great magnitude. The lake is as blue as indigo, and there 
were springs of arsenic, soda, and Apollinaris. Stopped at a 
large tent half way and got a good dinner of Yellowstone 
trout. As we were nearing our destination, the fountain, 
stopped over and fished for a while, and were joined by Cap- 
tains Anderson and Scott, of the U. S. Army, who met us 
on horseback with a couple of cavalrymen and refreshments, 
and made us stop over at their camp a mile or two beyond 
and partake of more refreshments. After supper they called 
and passed the evening with us. 

Shortly after reaching the inn, the fountain-geyser, a 
quarter of a mile in front of the hotel, began playing after 
numerous premonitory throes, which gave time to see the 
whole of it and also the soap caldrons, an excellent imitation 
of two immense soap kettles boiling different colored muds. 
The whole plain in front of the hotel is covered with geysers 
and hot springs, the stream from which could be seen in all 
directions. There were good rooms but ordinary table at 
both of our hotels. 

On June 6th, started up to the great geyser basin, eight 
miles above, but left General Hampton and Thomas half-way 



up on the Fire-Hole River to try the trout, while the Senator 
and I kept on to the geyser basin. Some forty or fifty of them 
are in view at the same time besides hundreds of hot springs 
of immense size. The guide books obviate the necessity of 
stereotyped descriptions of these great curiosities, taken as 
an entirety, perhaps the greatest in the world. When within 
half-mile of General Hampton's halting place, the Senator 
and I alighted and fixing up our rods, fished on down the 
river until we overtook him half-mile below where he was 
left. Our entire catch was forty superb trout, of which the 
General killed much the larger number. It was a cold bluster- 
ing day, blowing at times almost a blizzard, and taking my 
new hat off into the river and almost taking the head after it. 
Retired hoping for better weather and better luck on the 
morrow, a hope doomed to disappointment as the ground was 
covered with snow and the mercury down to freezing point. 
Owing to that fact, it was decided to start back. On arriving 
at the tent of two days before, found some twenty tourists 
waiting to go further inwards, a few like ourselves, however, 
returning. On reaching the Mammoth Springs Hotel, at the 
entrance to the park, it was decided to keep on farther to the 
railroad depot and catch the train, which we did at 7 :00 p. m. 

June 8th, made some seven hundred miles passing through 
the bad lands of Montana, the most desolate and God-forsaken 
country that mortal eyes ever rested upon, composed of high 
hills on every side without the vestige of vegetation and 
almost void of animal life, but the most grotesque and pic- 
turesque shapes, Later on passed Bismarck, Helena, and 
other mining places, having entered a more inviting section 
of the country. Senator McPherson left us last night at Liv- 
ingston, and returned to Washington, leaving us to continue 
the journey westward. 

June 9th, Sunday: Traveled all day through a mountain- 

[207 J 


ous, picturesque country, but without material incident. In 
the afternoon had a long visit from General Kautz, an old 
West Point acquaintance of mine and an old adversary of 
General Hampton. Passed Lake Pend d'Oreille, the most 
beautiful sheet of water that I ever saw, and also had Mount 
Hood, Mount Tacoma, and other famous peaks in view, all 
covered with snow. Arrived at Portland at 7 :00 p. m., and 
moved from our car up to the Portland hotel and set about 
seeing the city, a very pretty one of some hundred thousand 
inhabitants. Went up on the heights overlooking the town 
by cable-car at the heaviest gradient ever yet achieved. The 
view from the top was superb in the extreme with the famous 
mountains, already named, in the background. The General 
had numerous callers, and after they had left he and I sat 
up and talked until bed time. Gave up our old car and had 
another assigned to us for to-morrow. 

June 11th: Started at 7 :00 a. m., and ran down to Oregon 
City, a manufacturing place of about five thousand having 
the famous falls of the Williamette River just above, a min- 
iature Niagara, fully as wide and one-third as high. Here 
we were side-tracked and took boat for the falls to try the 
salmon, for which the were famous. Had no luck in the 
morning although saw hundreds of big ones trying to jump 
the falls, the river being a perfect torrent. Went back to the 
car and lunched, and I took a stroll on the plain above, a pre- 
cipitous bluff reached by long flights of stairs two or three 
hundred feet high. On the summit, a level tableland, is a 
lovely village full of fruits, flowers and vegetables. On de- 
scending, went back to the falls where I had a strike that 
took out nearly fifty yards of my line and burned thumb and 
fingers sharply. After playing him two hours and his carry- 
ing the boat over a mile, the General succeeded in gaffing 
and getting him aboard, berating me in the meanwhile for not 



killing him sooner so that we could go back and catch a bigger 
one. He weighed fifteen pounds, and was the ganiest fish 
that I have ever tackled. Passed a quiet evening on the car 
after a julep and a capital dinner. 

June 12th: Colonel W. G. Curtis, General Manager of 
Southern Pacific R. R., and wife arrived with his special 
car from San Francisco to meet and take us back with them 
later in the day. Will have more to say of this amiable 
couple. The General took breakfast with theui and then went 
back to the falls, they continuing on to Portland, twelve miles 
further on, but all meeting about 12 :00 m., the General with 
a nineteen-and-a-half pound salmon. Our car hitched on be- 
hind Colonel Curtis's special engine, and his car to ours, and 
we started on a seven hundred and fifty mile ride to San 
Francisco, passing through an extensive and beautiful valley 
along the banks of the Williamette. It was hard to realize 
that this beautiful and well-developed land was a wild region 
described by Captain Bonneville less than a hundred years 
before on his famous tour of exploration. Stopped over in 
the afternoon and fished in the Umphpual River. While 
standing on the saw mill above saw large salmon trying every 
instant to jump the dam just below us, but were not prepared 
for them, as we were only trouting. Later returned to our 
little train, had an elaborate dinner on Mr. Curtis's car, 
played euchre until bed time, and then retired. The follow- 
ing afternoon moved on to the headwaters of the Sacramento, 
a kindred stream, and tried that with like success. Ran back 
a few miles to Castle Craig, a precipitous rock, said to be a 
mile and a quarter high without the slightest sign of earth 
or vegetation on it, and halted for the night on the cars. 
After a fine dinner, preluded with a julep, played euchre 
until bed time and then retired for a good night's sleep, with 
the raging river just beside us for our lullaby. 

14 [ 209 ] 


June 14th.: This being the anniversary of Mr. and Mrs. 
Curtis' wedding day, it was voted to pass it where we then 
were, than which a more picturesque place could not have 
been found within the borders, nearby the lofty rock of Castle 
Craig and Mount Shasta, one of the highest peaks on the Con- 
tinent, seventeen thousand, five hundred feet above sea-level, 
and covered with snow, and the Sacramento rushing below 
in a perfect torrent ; while on the other side of the road, tow- 
ering above, was an almost perpendicular bluff over a thou- 
sand feet high. After breakfast Colonel Curtis and I walked 
over to the Castle Craig Tavern, half a mile off through beau- 
tiful grounds and flower gardens. This is an elegant summer 
resort, capable of accommodating some six or eight hundred 
guests, with extensive walks and drives. 

June 15th: Followed the Sacramento down until dark, 
stopping to fish wherever any spot looked inviting for that 
purpose. During the morning came to a bend in the road by 
which four-and-a-half miles brought the train back to within 
half a mile of the starting point and some five hundred feet 
below, at a famous spring much like the Deep Rock water 
which we had been using on the train. There was an at- 
tractive little hotel added by the railroad, and an exceedingly 
high water jet natural, from the mountains above, which was 
made to play for our edification. Mrs. Curtis and I walked 
down from the halting place above by a narrow path through 
the woods, passing numerous large springs whose flow unites 
further down, forming a lovely moss-covered cascade just be- 
low the spring. Nature did her level best to make this an 
ideal spot, the grounds of which belong to the railroad. The 
river runs right in front of the hotel. Dined and fished until 
sundown, moving on along the stream (Sacramento). Then 
gave up our engine and hitched on to the express train which 
came along for San Francisco. 



June 16th, Sunday: Passed through one of the most fertile 
sections of country on the globe — the Sacramento Valley — 
every acre of which seemed teeming with luxuriant ripe wheat 
as far as the eye could reach. This continued for fully three 
hundred miles, interspersed here and there with orchards, 
small fruits, vegetable gardens, and hundreds of miles in ex- 
tent, shade trees and flowers. Entered San Joaquin, a kin- 
dred valley, at right angles, lower down. About 5 :00 p. m., 
reached the towrj of Oakland, opposite San Francisco, and 
leaving our cosy accommodations with a tinge of regret, took 
an immense ferry-boat and passed over to the last-named 
place. We were driven up to the Palace Hotel almost without 
a rival as a city hostelry, and assigned to elegant apartments 
with every convenience. The next day Thomas and I took 
the electric car out to the Cliff, a bold eminence looking out 
on the Pacific. Felt something of a Balboa's exultation on 
first seeing this grandest of all oceans ; the shores were 
crowded with bathers, and the rocks with seals. Farther on 
is an immense bath-house, fed from the ocean and capable 
of seating twenty thousand lookers-on. On the way out took 
a hack and passed an hour in the park, nothing to boast of 
except in its flora, unique and diversified. Much has been 
done in developing it however, as it was but a succession of 
barren sand hills and banks only a short while ago. Passed 
the evening quietly with General Hampton, who was com- 
plaining much of a pain in his shoulder occasioned by an old 
accident. Met his medical attendant there, Dr. M. Gardner, 
a very entertaining man, cousin of General Gardner, 0. S. 
A., the Port Hudson, celebrity. Some of the gradients on the 
electric and cable street railway are fearful to ascend and 
descend until used to them, suggesting angles of 30, and even 
45 degrees. Dined with Bill Foote, Captain Brice, of the 
Navy, Major Schofield, of the Army, and two young men, 



the sons of Claus Spreckles, the sugar king of the Sandwich 
Islands. After 1 dinner the first three named volunteered to 
show me the slums of Chinatown under the escort of Colonel 
Crowley, Chief of Police of the city, and three of his subor- 
dinates. Such squalor, filth and degradation, it is impossible 
to describe or even to conceive of as we saw here huddled to- 
gether in this seething hive of forty thousand Mongolians ; 
closets ten or twelve feet square furnished sleeping rooms 
for as many human beings, if such wretches can be so called, 
and frequently two and three stories under ground, reached 
by ladders, and not ten feet in dip. And yet we were told 
by the other two gentlemen, who had been there before, that 
we did not begin to see the worst phases of it, the police ser- 
geants fearing to let the chief into their vilest dens and secrets 
of these horrible purlieus lest he should call them to account 
for being cognizant of them. Went to one of their theatres 
and sat half an hour on the stage, not the slightest elevation 
of tone or change of facial muscle marked either of the actors 
during the performance. Apparently it was all pure hum- 
drum repetition. 

The next day Mrs. Curtis, by appointment, took me 
through the shopping district, and better part generally of 
Chinatown. Bad enough this even under a noonday's sun, 
but what a contrast for the better to last night's horrors. 
Cannot blame these Pacific coast folks for insisting on keep- 
ing these people out. They may excite our pity, but there is 
contagion in their touch. Passed the rest of the day in stroll- 
ing through the city and taking in the sights. Was surprised 
to see so little shipping of the better sort at the wharves. At 
night accepted an invitation of General P. M. B. Young, 
the then Minister to Guatemala, to accompany him and two 
ladies to the theatre, where he had secured a private box; 
an agreeable party and a most interesting comedy. After 



the performance we all took a light supper at the Palace Hotel 

June 21st: Met a number of agreeable acquaintances and 
passed a very pleasant day. Took dinner with Judge Foote 
in company with General Young at the University Club, an 
enjoyable affair. By the way, have been honored with invi- 
tations and the freedom of all the leading clubs of the city 
for two weeks. After dinner General Young and I called on 
Mrs. Catherwood, the daughter of Chief Justice Hastings, of 
California, and an old friend of my father in the early days 
of the State, and, if report be true, a million heiress many 
times told. She was certainly a highly gifted and intellectual 

June 22nd : By invitation General Hampton and I passed 
the day at Palo Alto, the princely home of Mrs. Leland Stan- 
ford and about two miles from Meno Station. Our car was 
tacked on to the express train and switched off at Menlo, 
where we met carriages sent for us and likewise for Judge 
Field and family of the United States Supreme Court. He 
failed to arrive, but his sister-in-law, Mrs. Condit-Smith, and 
daughter did. After an elegant breakfast, were driven out to 
the stables containing seven hundred superb specimens of 
horse-flesh, for one of which the late owner refused $150,000, 
and a four-weeks old colt, his son, was now under considera- 
tion on an offer of $7,500. The finest specimens of the 
stable were put through their paces for our inspection, includ- 
ing the kindergarten or juvenile samples of the lot. They 
were put through their paces with the precision of the circus 
although only one and two years old. From there drove out 
to the Leland Stanford University, the noblest monument 
ever erected by man to commemorate an honored relative, 
twenty millions of dollars, the bequest in memory of his son. 
Cecilia Metella is here far outclassed in lavish display. Took 



an early dinner with our hospitable entertainer, and then took 
train for Monterey, arriving at the world-famed Del Monte 
at 6 :00 p. m., where elegant apartments were awaiting us. 
Taken as a whole, it surpasses all of the caravansaries that I 
have ever seen, and that imports the finest on two continents. 
The building proper, it is true, does not come up to the 
Ponce de Leon and its surroundings, but the grounds were an 
immense flower garden, far transcending it or any private 
or ducal home that I ever saw in Europe. Our being the 
invited guests of the establishment, with best quarters, was 
not calculated to lessen appreciation. After breakfast Colo- 
nel Curtis and myself took an eighteen-mile drive around 
Monterey Bay, an adjunct of the hotel and most pictur- 
esque one it is, alternately overlooking the ocean with the 
breakers lashed into fury at our feet, and then branching off 
into primeval tropical forest. Passed through the old town 
of Monterey, which looks as if it had not undergone the 
slightest change since first laid off and turned out by the old 
Mission Fathers. The first legislature of California was held 
here in 1849-50, my father being a member of the then State 
Senate. On the way back to the hotel examined the famous 
salt-water baths, enclosing perhaps half an acre in space and 
artificially heated, with three or four large swi mmi ng pools. 
After strolling through the grounds and enjoying a superb 
dinner, took train for Santa Clara, on the other side of the 
bay, where our car was side-tracked, remaining aboard until 
Monday morning (to-morrow) in order to try the salmon in 
the bay, now in full season. 

June 24th: Was up bright and early and soon several 
miles out on salt water from the shore, the sea running high. 
I hooked a ten-foot shark and brought him alongside, but he 
snapped the line and escaped. It should have been premised 
that while there we were the guests of the California Fish 



Commissionsioner. We had boats, tackle and boatmen, placed 
at our service. 

June 25th: Started about 7:00 a. ni., with face turned 
homeward, much to my satisfaction, for notwithstanding 
the past month had been one of the most enjoyable of travels 
that it is possible to imagine, I was beginning to feel most 
terribly homesick. Am sure I was not cut out for a circum- 
navigator or globe-trotter. The home instinct is too strong in 
me. Passed over to Oakland, enjoying the magnificent bay 
and splendid view. 

The return trip was monotonous, with nothing worth 
chronicling excepting the immense snow-sheds miles in ex- 
tent, and constructed to guard against snow avalanches which 
are liable to crush trains in their downward rush. 

At Marshalltown, Iowa, had a brief interview with my 
wife's sister, Mrs. Heitshu, living in that place, who came 
down with her husband and son to insist upon my stopping 
over and paying them a visit, which had to be disregarded 
owing to the strong home-impulse which had taken possession 
of me. On reaching Chicago, was brought in contact with 
the author of a book that I had been reading on the way, 
which was then creating a sensation throughout the country, 
termed "Coin;" found him an exceedingly interesting and 
well informed man. 

After reaching home, passed the next few weeks in a hum- 
drum, monotonous sort of life, mainly spent in the library and 
in reminiscence. 

Two years later my daughter (Sarah) and son-in-law, Mr. 
and Mrs. Pembroke Jones, having gone off to Europe on one 
of their periodical jaunts, insisted upon our going down to 
their country-place, near Wilmington, known as "Airlie," and 
passing the summer by the sea. This was done with the addi- 
tional incentive that General Hampton agreed to join us there 



and pass it with us, and with, the further inducement that my 
youngest daughter, Mabel, lately married, was living near 
by with her husband's parents, Colonel and Mrs. Warren 

My health beginning to fail, a little later on, we determined 
to pass the summer at Lincoln Lithia Springs, near Lincoln- 
ton, North Carolina, with General Hoke and his agreeable 
family, and this brings a dull story to near an end, the sub- 
sequent time having been spent on our home place ' Tokay' 
with my wife and second daughter, Carrie, who has never 

Frequent visits from agreeable frieuds have served to while 
away the tedium of country life, if tedium could be associated 
with such. Odd half -hours of the time have been devoted to 
putting my lucubrations on paper with the view of having 
them consigned to printer's ink. Many of these have been 
preserved in huge scrap-books by my devoted wife, some of 
which will be given by way of appendix in the present 

A projected visit in the recent past was from four of my 
old West Point classmates, namely, Generals G. W. C. Lee, 
Stephen D. Lee, O. O. Howard, and Henry L. Abbott, whose 
average age had passed the three score and fifteen mark, and 
whose rank, age and historical record are remarkable. Cir- 
cumstances precluded the coming of all save General Abbott, 
who passed a couple of days under my roof in most interesting 
converse of our school boy days. 

And such is my little life's story as recalled, one full of 
petty vicissitudes and much to be thankful for. The world 
has been most kind and indulgent, to me, overlooking my 
fnults and shortcomings. The general tenor of my life has 
been to reciprocate in kind, and has been comparatively free 
from bathos, hypocrisy, affectation and duplicity, though I 



say it myself. If in its course I have ever wantonly injured 
any man, it is with deep regret that I recall it. 

I have been unusually blessed with two loving and consid- 
erate helpmates, and with amiable and devoted children and 
grand-children, the comfort and solace of declining age. 
Never having been of a grasping mind, I have had a modest 
sufficiency of this world's gear. 

My self-imposed task, begun in whim or caprice on the 
dawning day of a new bom century, over six and a half years 
ago, and resumed at spasmodic intervals of months, and even 
years, is done, and let me hope that it will prove more satis- 
factory to a few valued readers, than it does to the writer. 
Fate, good fortune or blind circumstance brought me in con- 
tact, if not friendship, with many of the historical characters 
of a most historic epoch, for which I am duly thankful, and 
to lay my little sjDrig of immortelle upon the biers of such, was 
the actuating impulse of this impotent undertaking. Charla- 
tans and pretenders, who have attained ephemeral notoriety 
have likewise fallen within the range of vision and been 
scored or ignored, according to the prominence of assinine 
claim and assumption. 

My nature has ever been a mosaic or composite of oppo- 
sites. The amiable, counterbalanced by the assertive, the 
conciliatory by the combative, unswerving faith in the teach- 
ing and dicta of the infallible Master with lax conformity to 
the precept. Per contra and as partial offset, I have never 
designedly injured my fellowman, but tried to do him an 
occasional service in a quiet, simple way. The post-bellum 
millenium, so discernible to the eyes of others, has never 
reached my optics. For forty years the day has never dawned 
on which my preference could be given, ' r in foro cons- 
cientiae" for the new order of things over those of early 
remembered days; for fortune surpassing conception over 



those of handgrasp measure, with attendant substitution of 
vulgarity for gentility, of concentration for diffusion, of ar- 
rogance for civility. JSTo, I am not sufficiently complacent 
yet, to sing paeans to so-called prosperity, which is loathed, 
despised, detested and accursed, over the finest civilization 
that the world has ever known, or can ever know. Let that 
patriotic assumption be devolved on those more ambitious to 
wear it. For one it is not prerogative of mine, nor is it 
craved. If I know myself, there never was a drop of hypoc- 
ricy, duplicity or double dealing in the blood of my mother's 
son. !Not that any claim is made to apotheosis after death on 
that score. It is simply an innate preference for the cotton 
field over the cotton mill and its concomitants: for a simple 
and natural order of things over a gigantic artificial, which 
with its varied appliances for absorption and concentration, 
has according to high statistical authority, placed it within 
the power of three and thirty thousand individuals, within 
three and forty years to amass over one-half of the aggregate 
wealth of the entire republic numbering fully three and 
eighty millions of inhabitants. To my pessimistic forecast, 
granting the correctness of Mr. Sherman's figures, even in 
the proximate, the fate of the great modern republic is as 
infallibly sealed as was that of the great ancient, when six 
hundred plutocratic nabobs came to own Rome, which meant 
to all intents the world. How can patriotism and love of 
country, without which free states are but as eggshells, sur- 
vive for long such an abnormal condition of affairs ? When 
it supervenes, a thousand Catos and Bruti cannot long post- 
pone the inevitable fall. More appalling this than all of the 
other dangers combined, colonization included, that can un- 
dermine free states by covert assault ; the condition that faces 
us : "where wealth accumulates, and men decay," with such 
unprecedented rapidity is the sure precursor of the impend- 



ing downfall. Let Sir William Jones speak his grand apos- 
trophe : "What constitutes a state V 

Not high-raised battlement or labored mound, 

Thick wall or moated gate: 
Not cities proud, with spires and turrets crowned; 

Not bays or broad, armed ports, 
Where, laughing at the storm, rich navies ride; 

Not starred and spangled courts, 
Where low-browed baseness wafts perfume to pride. 

No: men, high-minded men, 
With powers as far above dull brutes endued, 

In forest, brake, or den, 
As brutes excel cold rocks and brambles rude: 

Men who their duties know, 
But know their rights, and knowing, dare maintain. 

Prevent the long-aimed blow, 
And crush the tyrant; while they rend the chain; 

These constitute a state. 

Yes, it is the facility of acquisition and the facility of di- 
vorce that has sapped so-called society, made it a stench in the 
nostrils of the better sort, and forced them to despair of the 
fate of the Republic, as God help me, I cannot help doing. 
Who can help being pessimistic ? The few millionaires of that 
day being reckoned by the thousands, or tens of thousands 
of the multi-kind sort in this. Old Cornelius, usually known 
as Commodore, was one of the three or four of the first kind, 
who were reputed to be the possessors of two, or three or four 
millions each on the broad American continent, as the follow- 
ing incident will go to show. He and my father were friends 
and cronies during the latter years of their lives. One evening 
on going to an entertainment in Washington with the two, 
and Mrs. Cross, the daughter of the first, General Green 
remarked, "My son, here is the luckiest man in the world ; the 
father of about a dozen grown children, and able to leave 
each one of them a million of dollars." To which came the 



reply, "Not so, nor the half of it." At the time of his death, 
it was generally supposed that the head of that Medicean 
house could have bequeathed each one of a dozen, a half-a- 
dozen millions, and left them all far removed from penury, 
or the residuary legatee either. The incident is simply men- 
tioned to illustrate the ease of acquisition under our paternal 
idea of protection, when once the foundation is laid by a man 
of sense and long outreach. Heaven help the herd, the special 
breed is getting to be a fraction a little over-prolific. Whence 
that reverberant call for fodder just ahead ? 

Another little incident pertinent to the same, and notwith- 
standing his countless and constantly increasing millions, 
professing contempt for superfluous wealth. One afternoon 
at Saratoga, Commodore Vanderbilt invited me to take a 
drive with Mrs. Vanderbilt and himself out to "the lake" and 
on the road remarked in his brusque, off-hand way: "Before 
you fellows down south played the fool, and tried to kick 
out of harness, you ought to have been the happiest and most 
contented people in the world." "And so we were, Com- 
modore," came the reply, "until you fellows up north, re- 
solved to kick us out." "And do you really think," my young 
friend, "that we are to blame for that needless shedding of 
blood ?" "If I did not," was the reply, "conscience would 
never cease to reproach me for having shouldered a musket 
in support of what was professed, an undying regret at 
having to lay it down before the dream was dreamt out." 
"Yes," he continued, "you lived in peace, plenty, and con- 
tent, like rational folks, and as your fathers did before you, 
without breaking your necks, like a pack of idiots, by striving 
to double needless possession." Here was a high compliment, 
and a sad commentary in juxtaposition, over the impending 
and inevitable doom of Free Government, through aggrega- 
tion and concentration of hoard, by him whose sum total of 

[ 220 ] 


accumulation to-day for his house, less than a generation 
after he, the old ferryman across to Staten Island, had paid 
his obolus to a predecessor in the trade, Charon hy name, who 
has pulled the oars from the birth of time across a murky 
stream yclept, THE STYX, and will continue to ply them 
till time shall be no more. Which of the two amassed most 
of this world's dross, the man of Syndicates or he of the 
Oboli, let others determine. Socially and individually, it's a 
matter of little consequence. Politically and in boundless ag- 
gregation, it imports, as said, the death-knell of free govern- 
ment. Perhaps both long since reached the conclusion of 
Israel's wise king, and another who shall be nameless, VA]STI- 

For a few other data, reliance must be had on the historian 
and the poet, to describe a few of the surviving monuments 
of the past. Says Byron after Bede: 

"While stands the Coliseum, Rome shall stand; 
When falls the Coliseum, Rome shall fall: 

And when Rome falls — the world. 

****** * 

Rome and her ruin past redemption's skill, 

The world the same wide den — of thieves, or what ye will. 


Simple, erect, severe, austere, sublime — 

Shrine of all saints and temple of all gods, 

From Jove to Jesus — spared and blest by time; 

Looking tranquility, while falls or nods 

Arch, empire, each thing round thee, and man plods 

His way through thorns to askes — glorious dome! 

Shalt thou not last? Time's scythe and tyrant's rods 

Shiver upon thee — sanctuary and home 

Of art and piety — Pantheon! pride of Rome." 

And thus says the stateliest of historians to one of the 
greatest of poets over the grandest of antiquities. 



Having been all my life long a scribbler for the public 
prints, I venture to add a few of these by way of appendix. 

During my European tour I was a pretty regular contribu- 
tor to the Boston Herald by request of the editor. Most of 
these letters have passed out of reach; some few, however, 
have been preserved and, by way of contrast in style between 
the boy and the man, are here inserted. The first was written 
from Venice, the next from Rome, the third from Xaples, 
and the last from Thebes. They are given, as said, simply 
as samples of early style and impression, and are, perhaps, a 
little fulsome and bombastic on that account. 

Divers articles on other subjects will be added as near in 
categorical order as it is possible 'to recall. The views ex- 
pressed may be crude, but are positive, for my nature through 
life has been a strange combination of the amiable and the 
assertive, and every utterance ever put on paper is the natural 
expression of heartfelt feeling. 



[Ex-President Davis' last paper of a public nature, written from a 
sick bed just five weeks before his death. The occasion — The Centen- 
nial Celebration of the Ratification, by North Carolina, of the Constitu- 
tion of the United States, at Fayetteville, November 21st, 1889.] 

Beauvoir, Miss., Oct. 30, 1889. 
Messrs. Wharton J. Green, J as. C. McBae, C. W. Broadfoot, 
Neill W. Bay, W. C. McDuffie, Committee: 

Gentlemen : — Your letter inviting me to attend North 
Carolina's Centennial, to be held at Fayetteville, on the 21st 
of November next, was duly received; but this acknowledg- 
ment has been delayed under the hope that an improvement 
in my health would enable me to be present as invited. As 
the time approaches, I find that cherished hope unrealized, 
and that I must regretfully confess my inability to join you 
in the commemorative celebration. 

It has been my sincere wish to meet the people of the "Old 
North State" on the occasion which will naturally cause them, 
with just pride, to trace the historic river of their years to its 
source in the colony of Albemarle. 

All along that river stand monuments of fidelity to the un- 
alienable rights of the people — even when an infant success- 
fully resisting executive usurpation and in defence of the 
privileges guaranteed by charter, boldly defying Kings, 
Lords and Commons. Always self-reliant, yet not vainly 
self-asserting, she provided for her defence, while giving ma- 
terial aid to her neighbors, as she regarded all the British 
Colonies of America. 

Thus she sent troops, armed and equipped for service, into 
both Virginia and South Carolina, also dispatched a ship 
from the port of Wilmington, with food for the sufferers in 
Boston, after the closing of that port by Great Britain. In 
her declaration that the cause of Boston was the cause of all, 
there was not only the assertion of a community of rights 
and a purpose to defend them, but self-abnegation of the com- 
mercial advantages which would probably accrue from the 
closing of a rival port. 

Without diminution of regard for the great and good men 
of the other colonies, I have been led to special veneration for 




the men of North Carolina, as the first to distinctly declare 
for State independence, and from first to last to uphold the 
right of a people to govern themselves. 

I do not propose to discuss the vexed question of the Meck- 
lenburg resolutions _of May, 1775, which, from the similarity 
of expression to the great Declaration of Independence, of 
July, 1776, have created much contention, because the claim 
of North Carolina rests on a broader foundation than the 
resolves of the meeting at Mecklenburg, which deserve to be 
preserved as the outburst of a brave, liberty-loving people, 
on receipt of news of the combat at Concord, between 
British soldiers and citizens of Massachusetts. The broader 
foundations referred to are the records of events preceding 
and succeediug the meeting at Mecklenburg, and the pro- 
ceedings of the Provincial Congress, which met at Hills- 
boro, in August, 1775. Before this Congress convened, 
North Carolina, in disregard of opposition by the Governor, 
had sent delegates to represent her in the General Congress, 
to be held in Philadelphia, and had denounced the attack 
upon Boston, and had appointed committees of safety with 
such far-reaching functions as belong to revolutionary times 

The famous Stamp Act of Parliament was openly resisted 
by men of highest reputation, a vessel, bringing stamps, was 
seized and the commander bound not to permit them to be 
landed. These things were done in open day by men who 
wore no disguise and shunned no question. 

Before the Congress of the Province had assembled, the 
last royal Governor of North Carolina had fled to escape from 
the iudignation of a people, who burdened but not bent by 
oppression, had resolved to live or die as freemen. The Con- 
gress at Hillsboro went earnestly to work, not merely to de- 
clare independence, but to provide means for maintaining it. 
The Congress, feeling quite equal to the occasion, proceeded 
to make laws for raising and organizing troops, for supply- 
ing money, and to meet the contingencies of a blockade of her 
seaports, offered bounties to stimulate the production of ar- 
ticles most needful in time of war. On the 12 th of April, 
1776, the Continental Congress being then in session, and 
15 [225] 


with much diversity of opinion as to the proper course to be 
pursued under this condition of affairs, the North Carolina 
Congress resolved, '"That the delegates for this colony in the 
Continental Congress be empowered to concur with the dele- 
gates of the other colonies in declaring independence and 
forming foreign, alliances, reserving to this colony the sole 
and exclusive right of forming a constitution and laws for 
this colony, &c, &c." 

This, I believe, was the first distinct declaration for separa- 
tion from Great Britain and State independence, and there 
is much besides priority to evoke admiration. North Caro- 
lina had, by many acts of resistance to the British authori- 
ties, provoked their vengeance, yet she dared to lead in de- 
fiance, but no danger, however dread, in the event of her iso- 
lation, could make her accept co-operation, save with the 
reservation of supremacy in regard to her own constitution 
and laws, the sacred principle of community independence 
and government founded on the consent of the governed. 
After having done her whole duty in the war for Independ- 
ence and become a free, sovereign and independent State, 
she entered into the Confederation with these rights and 
powers recognized and unabridged. 

When experience proved the articles of Confederation to 
be inadequate to the needs of good government, she agreed to 
& general convention for their amendment. The convention 
did not limit its labors to amendment of the article, but pro- 
ceeded to form a new plan of government, and adhering to 
the cardinal principle that governments must be derived from 
the consent of the governed, submitted the new plan to the 
people of the several States, to be adopted or rejected as each 
by and for itself should decide. 

It is to be remembered that the articles of Confederation 
for the "United States of America" declared that "the union 
shall be perpetual," and that no alteration should be made 
in the said articles unless it should be "confirmed by the legis- 
latures of every State." True to her creed of State sover- 
eignty, North Carolina recognized the power of such States 
as chose to do so to withdraw from the Union, and by the 
same token her own unqualified right to decide whether or not 

[226 J 


she would subscribe to the proposed compact for a more per- 
fect union, and in which it is to be observed the declaration 
for perpetuity was omitted. In the hard school of experience 
she had learned the danger to popular liberty from a govern- 
ment which could claim to be the final judge of its own 

She had fought a long and devastating war for State inde- 
pendence, and was not willing to put in jeopardy the price- 
less jewel she had gained. After careful examination it was 
concluded that the proposed Constitution did not sufficiently 
guard against usurpation by the usual resort to implication of 
powers not expressly granted, and declined to act upon the 
general assurance that the deficiency would soon be supplied 
by the needful amendments. 

In the meantime State after State had acceded to the new 
Union, until the requisite number had been obtained for the 
establishment of the "Constitution between the States so rati- 
fying the same." 

With characteristic self-reliance, North Carolina con- 
fronted the prospect of isolation, and calmly resolved, if so 
it must be, to stand alone rather than subject to hazard her 
most prized possession, Community Independence. 

Confiding in the security offered by the first ten Amend- 
ments to the Constitution, especially the 9th and 10th of the 
series, North Carolina voluntarily acceded to the new Union. 
The 10th Amendment restricted the functions of the Federal 
Government to the exercise of the powers delegated to it by 
the States, all of which were especially stipulated. 

Beyond that limit nothing could be done rightfully. If 
covertly done, under color of law, or by reckless usurpation 
of an extraneous majority, which, feeling power, should dis- 
regard right, had the State no peaceful remedy ? Could she 
as a State in a Confederation, the bed-rock of which is the 
consent of its members, be bound by a compact which others 
broke to her injury ? Had her reserved rights no other than 
a paper barrier to protect them against invasion? 

Surely the heroic patriots and wise statesmen of North 
Carolina, by their sacrifices, utterances and deeds, have 
shown what their answer would have been to these questions, 



if they had been asked, on the day when in convention they 
ratified the amended Constitution of the United States. Her 
exceptional delay in ratification marks her vigilant care for 
rights she had so early asserted and so steadily maintained. 

Of her it may be said, as it was of Sir Walter Scott in his 
youth that he was "always the first in a row and the last out 
of it." In the peaceful repose which followed the Revolution 
all her interests were progressive. 

Farms, school-houses and towns rose over a subdued wilder- 
ness, and with a mother's joy she saw her sons distinguished 
in the public service, by intelligence, energy and persever- 
ance, and by the integrity without which all other gifts are 
but as tinsel. North Carolina grew apace in all which consti- 
tutes power, until 1812, when she was required as a State of 
the Union to resist aggression on the high seas in the visitation 
of American merchant vessels and the impressment of Ameri- 
can seamen by the armed cruisers of Great Britain. 

These seamen generally belonged to the New England 
States; none probably were North Carolinians; but her old 
spirit was vital still ; the cause of one was the cause of all, 
as she announced when Boston was under embargo. 

At every roll-call for the common defense she answered, 
"Here." When blessed peace returned she stacked her arms 
for which she had had no prospective use. Her love for her 
neighbors had been tried and not found wanting in the time 
of their need : why should she anticipate hostility from them ? 

The envy, selfish jealousy and criminal hate of a Cain 
could not come near to her heart. If not to suspect such vice 
in others be indiscreet credulity, it is a knightly virtue and 
part of an honest nature. In many years of military and 
civil service it has been my good fortune to know the sons 
of North Carolina under circumstances of trial, and could 
make a list of those deserving honorable mention which would 
too far extend this letter, already, I fear, tediously long. 

Devotion to principle, self-reliance and inflexible adher- 
ence to resolution when adopted, accompanied by conservative 
caution, were the characteristics displayed by ISTorth Carolina 
in both her colonial and State history. All these qualities 
were exemplified in her action on the day of the anniversary 



which you commemorate. If there be any not likely to be 
found with you, but possibly elsewhere, who shall ask: "'How 
then could [North Carolina consistently enact her ordinance 
of secession in 1861 ?" he is referred to the Declaration of 
Independence of 1776 ; to the Articles of Confederation of 
1777, for a perpetual union of the States, and the secession of 
States from the union so established ; to the treaty of 1783, 
recognizing the independence of the States, severally and dis- 
tinctively; to the Constitution of the United States, with its 
first ten amendments; to the time-honored resolutions of 
1798-99 ; that from these, one and all, he may learn that the 
State, having won her independence by heavy sacrifices, had 
never surrendered it nor had ever attempted to delegate the 
unalienable rights of the people. How valiantly her sons 
bore themselves in the War between the States the list of the 
killed and wounded testify. She gave them a sacrificial offer- 
ing on the altar of the liberties their fathers had won and left 
as an inheritance to their posterity. Many sleep far from the 
land of their nativity. Peace to their ashes. Honor to their 
memorv and the mother who bore them. 





Hotel de la Ville, Venice, October 14, 1858. 

Dear Herald : "The Queen of the Adriatic," and "the bride 
of the sea," has been mine hostess for upwards of a week. 
Venice, proud Venice, magnifiq ue of other days, the dignity of 
whose elective chief once outshone that of the first hereditary 
magnates of the world, and whose power was alike feared and 
respected wherever her name had penetrated, is at present our 
abiding place. All my life long I have had a longing desire 
to see the city of the doges, the commercial republic which 
rose for a day, like a brilliant meteor, to sink into an utter 
night and insignificance. At length I am gratified. In front 
of my window is the Grand Canal, in sight the Rialto; the 
house in which I lodge was the palace of one of her best and 
wisest chief magistrates, Loredano by name. Yes, I stand in 
the midst of Venice and ponder over a host of historical recol- 
lections, of which she was the stage. My reading had in- 
vested it with a supernatural charm and almost induced me to 
believe it as rather the conception of poets and romancers 
than the bona fide city built with marble, brick and mortar. 
In perusing the thrilling chapter of the world's history, de- 
tailing her splendor and magnificence, her victories, mys- 
teries, and crimes, I have been all but tempted to pronounce 
it a hoax, and the very existence of such a place a myth. Her 
constitution, more wonderful even than our own, inasmuch 
as it was a greater deviation from all precedent, I regarded 
it as the cunningly concocted phantasma of some political 
lunatic, and unhesitatingly pronounced the "Giunta" and the 
"Ten," the great council and the small, the doge and the dun- 
geons, "canards" of undoubted authenticity. But since visit- 
ing this extraordinary place and seeing with my own eyes 
the relics of the state of things implying the existence of the 
foregoing, my doubts have vanished like a morning mist be- 
fore a meridian sun, and I can now gulp the whole, and aye, 
even more. On every side palaces of regal magnificence arise, 
the abodes in days of "republican simplicity" of the patrician 
nobles and royal merchants, her Foscaris and Morisinis, Bas- 
aros, and Antonios (the last, of course, by poetical license.) 

Today "I stood upon the bridge of sighs" and dived deep 
into the loathsome dungeons of accursed tyranny, from 



which it leads. Yesterday, the hill where sat the ''Council 
of Ten" (with the aperture in the wall through which were 
inserted through the "Lion's mouth" those infamous anony- 
mous accusations which many of her best and bravest sons 
answered with their heads), the Senate Chamber, the apart- 
ments of the doge, the giants, and the golden staircases, all 
submitted to our scrutiny. 

The first -named room interested me most, as being that in 
which accustomed to assemble that dread mysterious tribunal 
(so secret in its operations that the very members who com- 
posed it were unknown to the outside world), instituted as 
a curb upon overweening ambition, a check upon "those 
haught traitors who would by treason mount to tyranny, but 
which, in course of time, itself merged into the most odious of 
tyrannies, the most heartless of despotisms ; thus conclusively 
demonstrating, as did the "Thirty of Athens" and French 
"assemblee nationale" of '91 and '92, that tyranny exists 
irrespective of the form of government — in republics as in 
monarchies, in parliaments as in individuals. 

Aye ! power is indeed a dangerous thing by whomsoever 
wielded. When tolerated, it is ever used ; when used, al- 
most invariably abused. Ought not we then of Constitutional 
America be pardoned, nay more, applauded, for our provei*- 
bial jealousy of strong government to the extent, in fact, 
of denying or canvassing those powers in our representatives 
absolutely essential to the ends of government ? In my opin- 
ion, where that jealousy ceases, tyranny begins ; when it 
ceases, it ought to begin. For reflection teaches that there 
is a natural proneness in the human mind to usurp all powers 
granted, and where naught is granted, not guaranteed by fun- 
damental law, the people are untrue to themselves and unde- 
serving the boon of freedom. Such concessions constitute 
dangerous precedents which, like the Grecian horse let in, 
may open the gates to others. Therefore, I would say, let out 
motto be "States rights and strict construction, now and for- 
ever," and to that standard will I pin my faith and resolve 
that stand or fall, sink or swim, survive or perish, I'll know r i 
other political creed. Let no silvery-tongned political Jesuit 
persuade us to adopt that vile heresy that the "ends justify the 



means/' and the attainment of a great good justify a slight 
dereliction from the strict letter of the law. That belief has 
in all ages proved the very best pavior to anarchy and des- 
potism, or, to use a more strong and emphatic figure, the 
most efficacious battering-ram against paper bulwarks and 
constitutional barriers. Let us repudiate it and its counsel- 
lors as we would a sum m ons to commit parricide. 

I know of no subject so fraught with serious reflection as 
the birth and death of states, and will, therefore, presume a 
moment further upon your time in pursuing it. To what 
owed the defunct republic of Venice its rise ? Any schoolboy 
can answer. Commerce was her tributary and slave of the 
lamp. She made it her pet paramount for a couple of cen- 
turies, and then without seeming to withdraw her support 
permitted it to pine, wither, and die. 

There is material for the historian in the decadence of 
Venice, and a future Gibbon would not be unprofitably em- 
ployed in tracing its origin, progress, and finale. Such a 
story would apply to Genoa as to Venice; to Florence as to 
Genoa ; to all of the Italian medseval republics as to either. 
It is the old story of the decline of men and the sub- 
sequent decline of states. In my humble judgment, it was 
not the loss of her Indian trade, as most supposed, which 
sent her toppling from her giddy height like a drunken giant. 
The loss of that, which has proved the making of every state 
that ever possessed it, was the consequence, not the cause, of 
her declension. The possession of it, in her case, was a 
doubtful good. 

It was Bacon, I believe, who said that "In the infancy of 
states arms flourish, then commerce, then art, then the 
three." Venice is an exemplification of this truism. Like an 
unbidden guest, she made her entree unannounced into the 
council of nations, so sudden was her coming. In her begin- 
nings, as in those of most other great empires, arms were 
respected and the knowledge of their use held most honorable. 
This sentiment called into existence her invincible citizen 
soldiery, her Dandolos and Falieros, her Orsinis, and Pisanis, 
and men of kindred stamp, who held the proud Moslem in 
check, and their country in esteem. 

[ 232 ] 


But this race gave place to another ; the soldiers made way 
for the merchants, the merchants for the artists, the artists 
for the foplings, and her ruin was complete. Commerce to 
which she owed her rise, she likewise owed her fall. Her 
good turned to be her evil genius, her comforter her curse. 
It opened the channel through which flowed that luxury and 
voluptuousness of the Orient which sapped her ancient virtue 
and blasted her quondam greatness. Yes ! That luxury, 
which has proved the destruction of more states than saltpetre 
and all the engines of war combined, undoubtedly subverted 
Venice. May not other republics profit by the warning ? 

And now, having devoted so much space to a disquisition of 
the Venice of other days, what shall we say of the Venice of 
the present? Nothing; for the simple reason that nothing 
good can be said except that she wears well the yoke. The 
same black, funeral-like gondolas and rascally gondoliers, the 
same narrow, filthy alleys and squalid beggars ; the same 
horde of priestly drones and hosts of Austrian soldiers — all 
are here as they have been time out of mind. And now, adios, 
adios, for the porter is at the door and we are off for Padna. 
From Florence, you may, perhaps hear from me again, and 
receive a description instead of a disquisitional letter. In 

Yours truly, 

Naples, February 13, 1859. 
Dear Herald : My last was from Rome, postmarked De- 
cember 25th, and in spite of its volume, the time and place, 
contained little in the way of general news and gossip, less of 
stereotyped recital or description, and nothing of interest. Af- 
ter consigning it to the post, regret at having so stultified my- 
self induced me to half resolve that that last should be the last 
— but somehow this mania scribendi having fastened itself 
upon me, I find it as impossible to resist its impulse as it 
was for the Cumaean sibyl of old (whose den by the side of 
the terrible Avernus is distant hence but an hour's ride) 
the proclivity to prophesy. So make up your mind to the in- 
fliction of another, but relieve it of all apprehension that my 



thoughts and reflections will again take the tone of the trans- 
cendental, or seventh-Heaven school, as embodied in my last 
Fifty leagues intervene between this and the Eternal City, 
and fifty thousand in point of historical interest. 

To-morrow we sail for Egypt, and as time and tide and 
ocean-steamers wait for no man, I must now to the task vol- 
untarily assumed without more of prophecy or ado. 

On the 10th ultimo, having tarried a couple of months 
with the Pope, we turned our faces southward, and with a 
good and commodious carriage and five fat horses (the last- 
mentioned for the nonce, as ordinarily the bones of the 
"cavilli vetturini" may be guessed with as near precision as 
the pence in Paddy's pocket) were soon rolling past Saint 
John Lateran and through the dreary Campagna. The road, 
the "Appia nuova," which soon merges into the original "via 
Appia," was unsurpassed, the day serene, the scenery lovely. 
Under such auspices the drive of course, could be but pleasant, 
especially as I had taken the precaution to dispense with pos- 
tillions, those pests of the Italian highway, in comparison 
to whom Turpin and his confreres of Hounslow heath were a 
set of civil, honest gentlemen. The first night we slept at 
Veletri, a "city built on a hill," a favorite idea of the Italians 
by the way, and one of the few worthy of commendation. The 
second day descending to the plain, we entered the once much 
dreaded "Pontine marshes," dined at the "foro Appio" or 
Three Taverns," a solitary little inn where Saint Paul met the 
brethren from Rome, as recorded in the 28th Chapter of Acts, 
and slept at Terracina, on the southern limit, and on the 
frontier between Rome and ISTaples. On the third day we had 
to run the gauntlet by some three or four custom-houses, that 
bugbear smugglers in petticoats all the world over, but no- 
where so needlessly as in Germany and Italy, for the custom 
officials in those countries are proverbial for their "itching 
palms," and the traveller acquainted with this amiable 
national weakness has no one to blame but himself if he is 
subjected to the annoyances of an examination. 

In Mola di Gaeta, where we stopped for dinner, many 
travelers would see but a romantic village and a good loca- 
tion. In my eye it possesses an intrinsic attraction far be- 
yond its narrow streets, its frowning castle, its beautiful 



bay, and picturesque background of hills. It is the last rest- 
ing-place of two of the most remarkable men of their respec- 
tive eras. In close juxtaposition repose the mortal remains 
of Marcus Tullius Cicero and the Constable Bourbon, who 
appeared at wide intervals upon this world's stage and with 
no trait in common save the "sacra fames auri," which was 
the moving principle of both, each became in his own way 
a prime mover on its chess board. The bold Bourbon with 
scarcely a redeeming virtue as a set-off against a host of vices, 
villainies and crimes, with the exception of his courage and 
self-reliance, yet possessed those in so eminent a degree that 
they almost atoned for the absence of all others. He was the 
type of a class which the nature of the times called into ex- 
istence : and which, happily for mankind and civilization, 
died out with the struggles of Guelph and Ghibeline. With- 
out country and without home, discarding friendship and 
disdaining enmity, there was something in the isolation of 
the Great Company's man which elicits our pity, whilst his 
reckless bearing and indifference to consequences involun- 
tarily extorts our admiration. It is my belief that, had the 
life of Bourbon been spared, Rome had likewise been, that 
dreadful nine months of pillage which supervened that event 
and its capture, and which for unheard barbarities threw in 
the background all the stories of Goth, Vandal, and Visigoth, 
which she had learned by experience. The brave are never 
cruel; the world never beheld such a paradox, and the Con- 
stable was superlatively brave. 

On the fourth day we dined at Capua, a modern city in the 
immediate vicinity of that ancient Capua whose blandish- 
ments proved more fatal to the hopes of the Carthagenian 
hero than Bow, javelin, or catapult of the Romans. 

It is needless to mention scores of other villages and towns 
through which our journey lay, remarkable for nothing save 
the public spirit of their sons, legions of whom we saw play- 
ing the gentleman of elegant leisure in every market-place and 
public square, with not a sufficiency of rags on their backs 
to cover their nakedness, discussing grave questions of state, 
politics, theology, or literature perhaps, and certes macaroni. 
In all these, and in fact in all from Piedmont to Cape Spar- 



tivento, and on every object from Saint Peter's to a plough- 
share, the word stagnation, or worse still, retrogression, is as 
indelibly written as those of life, progress and vitality are 
with us. Everywhere is seen the want of that glorious 
"middle-class," which constitutes the pride and bulwark of 
England, and than which, according to a distinguished Eng- 
lish author, Bulwer, none other is known in America. May 
the day be far distant when any other will be ! When our 
land will be encumbered by those incubi of energy, a privil- 
eged and pampered aristocracy and a disfranchised pauper 
million. In Italy, as I have remarked, these extremes em- 
brace the entire population to the exclusion of the more ma- 
terial mean. It is the peasant and the prince, the last the 
unii;, che first the million ; and as long as it is so, her redemp- 
tion or regeneration is a chimera by whomsoever attempted. 

In the afternoon of the fourth day we reached Naples, 
where we have been ever since prosecuting our mission of 
sight-seeing and luxuriating in a climate, perhaps, the most 
equable under the sun. Since our arrival the thermometer 
has constantly ranged between 60 and 80 Fahrenheit. Think 
of that, ye denizens of an iceberg who, during the same inter- 
val, venture your noses into the open air at the peril of frost- 

After becoming settled, a trip to Pompeii was one of the 
first excursions that attracted us. A two-hours drive brought 
us to the only city extant which, literally speaking, can boast 
an antiquity of two thousand years. Entering by the street 
of the tombs, which contains many elegant mortuary monu- 
ments, the first dwelling which arrests the attention is the 
so-called house of Diomede, one of the most sumptuously 
magnificent which has yet been uncovered. There is such a 
similitude in all of the houses that one might suppose them 
to have been designed by the same architect and after the 
same model. 

The open quadrangular court, surrounded by the inner 
portico of the house, and containing a fountain in the center. 
is the same in all. Fountains, in fact, and miniature cascades 
seem to have been an universal hobby, as they are found in 
every patrician house. The houses are invariably low, rarely 



exceeding one story, and in no instance, I believe, more than 
two. This might be for the double purpose of avoiding heat 
and the effect of earthquakes. The sleeping apartments are 
close and cramped, according to our notions of comfort, and 
might readily be mistaken for china closets of the present 

For more than five hours we pursued our investigations 
through the deserted thoroughfares of this once populous city, 
as perfect and entire in all external respects as it was on the 
ill-fated morning of its destruction, 1780 years ago. During 
this entire time the only living beings that we encountered 
were a party of English who, like ourselves, were intent on 
studying the past from the palpable present; with the ex- 
ception of these all betokened the grave. "JSfo watch-dog's 
honest bark," no prattling urchins or rumbling wheels or 
merry bells were heard. On every side a silence and desola- 
tion absolutely appalling — graveyards are proverbially 
solemn places. In my younger days I so regarded them, but 
this visit to Pompeii has dispelled the illusion and will, 
doubtless, make me regard a nectropolis henceforth a very 
pleasant abiding place. Why this oppressive sense of soli- 
tude ? Simply because the contrast between life and death 
is nowhere so strongly presented. We enter a noble mansion, 
and at the first glance mistake it for the abode of a prince, 
"or greater still a Roman ;" on every side is seen the evidence 
of an elegance which in our country is rarely seen ; mosaics 
and marbles, and statues and frescoes and fountains, and 
all the appliances which wealth and luxury and art contribute 
to beautify and adorn this mundane existence. But look 
again, and lo ! the illusion has passed away, and we stand in 
a tomb! Another, and another, is entered with a like result. 
The temples are closed, where burned the fires of the "false 
gods," and walked in immediately the priestly impostors 
whose duty it was to enslave the mind. The amphitheater, 
which once teemed with expectant crowds awaiting with 
hushed delight the revolting spectacle of a hand to hand con- 
flict unto the death, or the equally disgusting struggle of man 
and beast, is emptied. Old Romans once occupied those 
vacant seats and lovely women (who the more shrinking and 



timid, the more dear they are to man) were reckoned among 
the spectators, aye, and revelled in the brutishness of the 
arena. Where are they now ? Gone ! many thousands over- 
whelmed by one common ruin, swept as by an avalanche from 
the face of the earth, and if fiction, the handmaid of history, 
is to be credited, in the self-same hour that the city was 
emptied to fill this enclosure. The buried cities of Pompeii, 
Stabiae and Herculaneum, afford parallel to the "Cities of 
the Plain." Like Sodom and Gomorrah, they have passed 
away by the action of an agency higher than man's, but, un- 
like them, after the lapse of long, long years, they re-appear 
as if to mock the mutations of time. 

It may not generally be known that, though excavations 
have been going on upwards of a hundred years, not one- 
fourth of the city has yet been disentombed; neither have 
and buildings of a poorer class been brought to light : so it is 
an open question whether or not there were any poor in 
Pompeii, or if so, whether they were not shut up in a quarter 
by themselves like the Jews in Frankfort, Prague, and other 
German cities. Most of the articles found have been removed 
to the Museo Borbonico, and that at Portici. In the former 
we saw a collection. 

Last week we made an excursion to the crater, and a. tedi- 
ous one it proved. We proceeded almost as far as the hermit- 
age by a carriage, when our further progress was cut off by 
an immense field of burning lava, which for the last two 
weeks had overflowed and blocked up the carriage road. 

By climbing a foot-path, however, half an hour's walk 
brought us to the last human habitation on the hill, far above 
the surrounding country and half-way up to the summit. Here 
my wife and her maid gave out, unable to proceed further 
up the mountain ; leaving them under the care of the old 
priest, who inhabits this out-of-the-way and dangerous spot, 
my cousin and myself resolved to persevere. Having omitted 
the precaution to take donkeys at Resina, we were necessitated 
to foot it to a spot called "Atrio del Cavalli," at the foot of 
the cone, and about two miles further on. It was a rough 
walk, and by the time it was finished we were pretty thor- 
oughly fatigued. On reaching the place alluded to, all the 



chairs by which the ascent is usually made had been taken by 
first comers, and so, dispensing with that luxury, we had to 
climb, as another party now were also doing. So we started, 
but the order of progression was slow indeed, two paces for- 
ward and one back, owing to the crumbling nature of the 
soil, which is entirely volcanic, composed of ashes, black sand, 
tufa, and small lumps of lava. Frequently it was necessary 
to pull up by straps fastened around the waists of the guides, 
whilst we were pushed up by others. After struggling on 
thus for upwards of an hour, and finding it absolutely indis- 
pensable to rest every five or ten minutes, we finally attained 
the summit. On every side was ruin and desolation as forbid- 
ding and repulsive as chaos itself. 

All around lay spread immense masses of volcanic matter, 
accumulation of thousands of years. Among these could be 
traced almost every color and shade of color. Here and there 
little tongues of flames were discernible through the crevices, 
giving evidence that the mountain on which we were standing 
was pregnant with a force as potential for mischief as the 
black sand in the magazine, composed of carbon and saltpetre. 
The thought crossed me, what if the match should be applied ! 
and my insignificance came full to me. I felt that the 
chances were a thousand to one that, in that event, I would 
not be so fortunate as the aspiring Empedocles, whose old boot 
robbed him of the immortality he craved. 

Scrambling over the intervening space, about two hundred 
yards, and we stood at the mouth of that mysterious aper- 
ture from which were issuing huge volumes of smoke and 
steam. Producing a black flask, we drank to "the old folks 
at home," and then consigned it to the apparently bottom- 
less pit in order that it might never know a meaner toast. If 
the ascent was up-hill work, the descent was easy enough in 
all conscience. All the exertion requisite was to let yourself 
loose at the top and pick yourself up at the bottom. But seri- 
ously, it is accomplished almost without any act of volition on 
the part of the pilgrim. Query : If Virgil had not this in his 
mind when he penned "descensus facilis averni." On return 
to the hermitage night had already set in, now the ocean of 
burning lava which, under the glare of a noonday sun was 



hardly perceptible, was lit up with, a brilliancy rivalling a 
burning village and producing a grandeur rarely excelled, if, 
indeed, ever equaled. Altogether it looked decidedly in- 
fernal, prepared as the mind was by an insight into the crater 
to receive such impressions. And the effect was further 
heightened by a number of wild and weird looking fellows 
who were engaged in running the molten mass into salt-cel- 
lars, medals, and other small articles. 

I had intended in this sheet to furnish a brief description 
of the principal objects of interest, not only in and around 
Naples but also at Salerno, where dwelt Tancred and the 
fair Sigismond; Paestum, 60 miles south of this, famous 
for some of the most remarkable ruins extant, especially the 
temple of Neptune; Amain, once the first commercial power 
of the Peninsula, which claims the honor of the invention of 
the mariner's compass, now an insignificant village; Baiael, 
once the most elegant and luxurious summer resort that the 
world has yet seen, now nothing. These and others did I 
have in view, but my limit is already transcended. 

The Duke of Calabria, the heir apparent to the Neapoli- 
tan throne, has just taken a wife and brought her home, and 
the city as a consequence is filled with titled strangers met 
to congratulate the happy pair and participate in the fetes. 
The prince of this and the grand duke of that are dancing 
attendance upon their future majesties. Illuminations, bon- 
fires, fetes and frolics, ad infinitum, were prepared in honor 
of the event, but lo and behold ! in the midst of all this prep- 
aration that unceremonious old fellow, with a scythe and 
hourglass, steps in and takes off one of the royal visitors, 
Her Highness of Tuscany. Consequently, everything is in- 
definitely postponed. 

A little morceau, exemplifying American simplicity as an 
antidote against all this sententious parade and mount ain-in- 
labor tom-foolery. A few days ago, having occasion to call 
for a friend at the Hotel Vittoria, in glancing over the list 
of names, titled and untitled, I chanced to see that of Mr. 
Franklin Pierce and Mrs. Pierce, United States. On in- 
quiry, I found they had left a day or two before for Capri 
and Sorrento, but that they had been here off and on for a 



month previously. In this quiet unostentatious gentleman 
few foreigners recognized the ex-first magistrate of the first 
nation on the globe, raised to that proud eminence by the suf- 
frage of a larger majority than ever combined — indeed, it 
would be a "letting down'' and condescension for this re- 
publican potentate to take rooms at the Palace Royal and 
mingle with the regal herd "whom the King delights to 

The tour of President Pierce strikes me as characteristic 
of our glorious institutions, the genius of which is opposed 
to consequentialS; which recognize in every individual, high 
or low, but a component of the ''eternal people," and in that 
people the source of all the importance and power and glory 
of the nation. In no country is the individual so small — the 
people so great. 

And now the "wee sma' hours" warn me to bid you good- 
night. Be not surprised to receive my next from the hundred 
gated city of the Xile. Adios. 


It was my impression that I had preserved a letter written 
from Rome, but it is now impossible to put hands on it. One 
extract, however, remains in my mind, which is as vivid now 
as it was when penned. 

To me the most hallowed spot in the Eternal City, not ex- 
cepting gorgeous cathedrals, baths and temples, was a spot 
not now marked by the slightest memorial, which will explain 
itself in the following paragraph: 

"To-day I stood on the spot where stood the bridge defend- 
ed by the Coccles (the brave Horatius). Well do I recall 
the day when, as an unsophisticated country schoolboy, I 
first perused the enchanting story, and I thought then, as I 
think now, that I would rather have been that bold plebeian 
with naught to recommend him of which we are aware than 
a bold heart, a strong arm, and a free unfettered spirit, 
backed by patriotism paramount to every other consideration, 
than all of the Alexanders and Attilas, Totilas and Tamer- 
lanes, Caesars and Bonapartes, who have cursed mankind, 
combined and consolidated in one grand legitimate cut- 

16 [241] 


Ancient Thebes, March. 23, 1859. 

Dear Herald: My last wasi given in charge to a passing 
boat, on nearing this place, to be carried to Cairo for the 
post. Since then we have been prosecuting the purpose of the 
trip with such ardor and celerity that the major part of the 
principal objects of interest in this vicinity have undergone 
our scrutiny and submitted to an examination. The results 
of this survey I am now about to communicate, coupled with 
such reflections as naturally suggest themselves to my mind: 
for I can no more content myself with a succinct matter of 
fact recital, unaccompanied by those valuable concomitants, 
than could the verbose kinsman of "Cousin Sally Dilliard," 
when on the witness stand, refrain from similar surplusage. 

We reached this, Luxor, about 10 p. m., on the evening of 
the 18th, catching the first glimpse of its mossy monuments by 
a moonlight almost as bright as that of clay. 1ST ever did I more 
fervently realize that obscurity is an element of the sublime; 
never did I more felicitate myself on the concurrence of 
time and circumstance of arrival. Approaching the land- 
ing, its columns and colossi, its pylon and obelisk, stand forth 
in bold relief and loom up large when beheld for the first time 
by Cynthia's dim light. 

Having slept on first impressions, we arose at an early 
hour, and with patriotic pride beheld "the Stars and Stripes" 
waving from two of the four other masts at the landing be- 
sides our own. To those acquainted with the mercurial pro- 
pensities of our own kinsman, Mr. Bull, it is needless to add 
that "the Union Jack" of old England floated from the 
other two; that bunting of all others, after the first named, 
which possesses most of my respect and partiality. Crossing 
the river, we proceeded first, to inspect the wonders of the 
western bank. Half an hour's ride on our diminutive 
donkeys brought us to the grateful shade of the "Colossi of 
the Plain" (the vocal Memnon, and another of lesser note), 
looking in the distance like two Cyclopean sentries seated on 
posts to guard the approaches to the Sacred Enclosures be- 
yond. It was with a mingled feeling of disappointment and re- 
gret to discover them composed of many instead of being cut 
out of a single block of stone, as T had always supposed. They 



are much mutilated, "the human face divine" being almost- 
effaced, and every day diminishing the resemblance, owing to 
the puerile desire in the minds of most visitors to carry away 
a piece. 

Were it not that the age of miracles is still existent, it 
would be incredible at the present day that even the ductile 
faith of primeval ignorance could be gulled by such a prepos- 
terous imposture as that associated with one of these statues. 
Did we not every year see tangible proof of the contrary, we 
might boldly assert that the common sense and skeptical in- 
stinct of the age would not require the assistance of acoustics 
to induce them to reject with derision this priestly imposi- 
tion. But knowing this, let us be chary of a presumptuous 
comparison between the credulity of the two eras ; for in all 
probability could the priest of Isis, Orisis, or Amnion, start 
to life and be made to comprehend the statutes of the old and 
its theologies, he would smile with scorn at some of the most 
cherished mysteries and delusions of the superstitious herd 
of the present day, and certainly the periodical liquifaction 
of the blood of an old saint (the Neapolitan miracle), the 
holy fire of Jerusalem, and the table-turning and spirit-rap- 
ping of our country, are inventions inferior in merit and dig- 
nity to the more sublime and practical of their own, which 
made the creature of man's hands salute with an exclamation 
of joyous surprise the advent of the King of light, the most 
rational and respectable of all the emblems and figures of 
heathen adoration. 

With the exception of these colossal effigies of man, noth- 
ing in the shape of his creation encumbers the plain from the 
Nile to the Memnonium, half an hour further inland ; a 
plain where once stood a city, the wonder of the world ; a 
city from each of whose hundred mouths could be poured 
simultaneously twice that number of chariots with their due 
proportion of infantry and horsemen. How changed the 
scene! The ploughshare now passes over the spot. The 
serried hosts and life-destroying legions of that epoch have 
passed away and been replaced by the life-sustaining cereals 
of another. In a word, all that wealth and power could call 
into existence; all the vile and jostling competition of a 



populous community ; all the hustling magnificence which 
usually betokens the site of the world's metropolis 

has dissolved 
And like an unsubstantial pageant faded 
Left scarce a wreck behind. 

To give even a brief outline of the Memnonium and tem- 
ples would require an amount of space which you were as 
loath to accord as I to take. To describe them by a word, I 
know of no more fitting epithet than Dominie Sampson's 
f( prodigious." The Egyptian order of architecture was never 
home-like, nor have my prejudices been materially mollified 
by immediate contact with these, the noblest specimens of it 
extant. There is too much of the funereal, something too 
solemnly grand, if you will, to suit my fancy. But inde- 
pendently of preconceived bias, I am not a sufficiently com- 
petent judge of the merits of the science to institute an equit- 
able comparison between that and its more polished rivals, 
or offspring rather. Nevertheless, it must be confessed that 
in the solidity of its parts, the justness of its proportions, its 
simplicity and power of durability, there is much to recom- 
mend it even when weighed in the balance against the unpre- 
tending Greek or more graceful Gothic; much to palliate its 
more glaring defects, and to enlist our wonder and astonish- 
ment, whilst unqualified admiration is rarely conceded. It 
is the order of all the others which seems best calculated to 
mock the mutations of time and the vandal malevolence of 
man. "Time's scythe and tyrant's rods shiver upon them," 
to plagiarize the noble apostrophe to the Patheon, of Eng- 
land's noble bard. 

The pyramidical towers facing the gateway, the pylon and 
columns, are the parts invariably in the best state of preser- 
vation. The lotus-shaped capital was evidently the favorite 
design, and justly, although in the same building, and even 
in the same chamber, a conjunction with others is no unfre- 
quent occurrence. By the way, respecting the lotus which 
furnished them the idea, it may not be generally known to. 
the supporters of prophecy that, in conformity to the predic- 
tion of Isaiah, this, the bulrush, and all other water-plants 
which once abounded in the Nile, have entirely disappeared. 



Prostrate in the court of the Memnonium or Renieseum. 
rather, is the granite Colossus of Remeses II, so stupendous 
even in its fallen grandeur that its demolition without the 
agency of gunpowder has astonished the savants of our time 
as much as the construction of another monument. It is cut 
out of a single block of the hardest Egyptian granite and is 
the largest of that description of which the annals or tradi- 
tion of the country make mention. The erection and trans- 
portation of these tremendous blocks of stone has surpassed 
the world's comprehension almost from the day upon which 
the last was elevated. In transporting one of the two obe- 
lisks which formerly stood at Luxor, and now ornaments the 
"Place de la Concorde," Paris, the French Government em- 
ployed several hundred of its own subjects and thousands of 
those of the Pasha, all of whom were engaged at the work a 
year or two, and had finally to await an extraordinary over- 
flow of the river in order to get it afloat. 

The second day was devoted to the wonders of Karnak, dis- 
tant from our boat perhaps a couple of miles. As you are 
probably aware, Karnak, Luxor, Kodrheh, Medeemel Haboo, 
et cetera, all occupy parts of the ancient capital; and from 
their remoteness from each other and with a river inter- 
vening, ample evidence is afforded that its importance and 
immensity were not overrated by the historian and geogra- 
pher of the time. Having already applied my strongest ex- 
pletive to express appreciation of the temples of Medeemel 
Haboo, what adequate term can be applied to the great temple 
of Karnak? None in my vocabulary will serve the turn. 
Suffice it that the impression of superlative astonishment, pro- 
duced by the Colosseum in Rome, was eclipsed in the self- 
same hour that my mind received that of the other ; and I am 
disposed to think, that had it flourished simultaneously, the 
great temple of Solomon had not come down to us as standing 
isolated and alone, the architectural prodigy of the world. 
The statement of Diodorus, ascribing to its walls a circumfer- 
ence of one mile and a half English, a thickness of 25 feet 
and an altitude of 45 cubits, is certainly entitled to more 
credence than the generality of readers are disposed to con- 
cede it. Although these dimensions are necessarily much 

[245 J 


abridged by lapse of time, there is still enough left to con- 
vince the pilgrim that more time, labor, stone, money and 
mortar were required in its completion that that of any other 
edifice that can be pointed out at the present day. 

In the grand, or columnar, hall, 270 by 329 feet, I counted 
134 pillars of 66 and 42 feet, respectively, exclusive of the 
pedestal, and a circumference of 40 and 27 feet. Nine out 
of ten of all these are as perfect as if the building were still 
in the course of construction. In another part are two beau- 
tiful obelisks of 98 feet each. In its finished state it stood 
forth to the world in all its resplendent glories, the work of 
many monarchs and different dynasties, extending through 
an interval of a thousand or two years, and consequently ex- 
hibiting within itself the successive gradations of the birth, 
rise, progress, and perfection of its proper order of architec- 
ture. Like all other works of the period, its walls are 
crowded with hieroglyphics, those rude symbols of ideas, 
which may be considered as embodying the first principles of 
that divine science subsequently introduced into Europe by 
Cadmus. Having mentioned the great attraction of the local- 
ity, the inferior sights consisting of the smaller temples and 
hundreds of mutilated Sphinxes, Colossi, et cetera, which 
were as tame in recital as they were in review, we will leave 
Karnak and return to our boat. 

Not less wonderful and more enduring are the abodes of 
the dead than the palaces of the living, or the fanes of the 
false gods. The entire chain of hills on the western bank, 
as far as the eye can reach, is one vast necropolis abounding 
in tombs as thick as a native with fifth and vermin. The 
care which this ancient people bestowed upon its dead argues 
unmistakably their belief that the future happiness or misery 
of the deceased was materially affected thereby. This con- 
viction seems to have been transmitted unimpaired to their 
posterity, and to be shared in common by all the nations pro- 
fessing the Koran. 

Two hours' ride on the third day, under the most oppres- 
sive sun that I have ever experienced, brought us to Belzoni's 
tomb, so-called from its modern discoverer. A description of 
this will apply with some variations to dozens of others which 



are visited. Descending by a precipitous staircase some 
fifty or sixty feet, a wide passage at the bottom leads into a 
number of commodious apartments decorated in the highest 
style of Egyptian art. Retracing the way partly, and turn- 
ing a corner at right angles, a second flight of stairs leads 
further down into other chambers similar in all respects to 
those above. At the farther extremity of these, that is, 342 
feet from the entrance, is an inclined plain, at an angle of 
43 degrees, leading, I should imagine, some fifty or sixty 
yards farther down. The whole of this immense cavity re- 
minds me more forcibly of the Mammoth Cave, or Grotto of 
Adelsburg, than an artificial excavation that occurs to me. 
It is cut out of solid stone (a white calcareous limestone), in 
no part of which could I detect the slightest flaw of imperfec- 
tion, and admits of as high a polish as marble itself, thus 
obviating the necessity of cement for purposes of mural dec- 
oration, every part of it as well proportioned as if the whole 
were the work of a master mason, led by line and plumb, and 
with brick and mortar for materials. On the entire surface 
there is not a spot as large as my hand untouched by fresco 
or hieroglyphics. You may think this is a remarkable sepul- 
chre, but in no essential point does it differ from scores, per- 
haps hundreds, of others, in its vicinage, such as those of 
the Harper Amundph, the kings and queens. The tomb of 
the Scipios in Rome was evidently borrowed from the Egyp- 
tian, but in treading the ashes of that illustrious family 
there is a sensation of oppressiveness and difficulty of respira- 
tion, owing to the low, narrow and contracted space, and con- 
sequent confined atmosphere. Here, however, there is noth- 
ing of the kind, and the antiquarian might pass a twelve 
month in deciphering its inscriptions (than which I had 
rather undertake the disentanglement of a Chinese tea-chest) 
more comfortably than in any dwelling-place between this 
and Cairo. 

This morning, having examined the antiquities of Luxor, 
which elsewhere were well worthy of a circumspect examina- 
tion, but here are commonplace (except its obelisk, whose 
dogs, cats, crabs, crocodiles, orang-outangs, and animals, hon- 
ored with an effigy, are more deeply cut and consequent v 



more legible than on any other known), I called on the Con- 
sular Agent. I have heard of sinecures ; our list affords a 
few such, and its great merit is that the number is more 
limited than that of any other. But certainly a more com- 
plete sinecure and more profitless than that worthy man, can- 
not be found. If his fees reach five dollars per annum they 
exceed my guess. Nevertheless, he is studiously courteous, 
attentive and urbane in his bearing towards Americans, thus 
setting an example worthy of imitation by some of our other 
representatives in the East. 

Tie is a native, a Mussulman, and as far as I could judge, a 
gentleman ; a compliment I would feign extend to his confrere 
of Cairo could I in justice do so ; but who, if my estimate 
be correct, is emphatically "the wrong man in the wrong 
place." It was Louis XIV, I believe, who said of Churc- 
hill, — that he ought to be a general commanding or — a cap- 
tain, but that he was unfit for a regiment. So of this indi- 
vidual; he ought to be a king or a constable; as the republi- 
can consul is evidently unable or unwilling to bring to bear, 
in the discharge of his duties, those qualities essential to a 
worthy fulfillment of the office. Our system of rotation in 
office, with all its abuses and abuse, has its advantages as well 
as the life-tenure or indefinite system so lauded by our 
friends, the English, not the least obvious of which, perhaps, 
is the necessity it imposes upon the place-man of "affecting a 
politeness foreign to his nature in order that he may retain 
his post." Another homely truth that it brings home to his 
comprehension is that, with us, the office honors the man, 
and not the man the office ; and this, "though all the blood of 
all the Howards," yea, of all the "conquerors" that encum- 
bered the world from Cain downwards should flow in his 
veins. Knowing this, I would respectfully suggest the retir- 
acy of those "illustrious foreigners" unwilling to admit this 
leveling axiom. 

I deem it needless to say, in conclusion, that whenever I 
see fit to overhaul the official conduct of any man in the col- 
umns of a public print, my name and address are patent to 
all applicants ; for if I claim the right of a Junius I disclaim 
his nonentity, and so, Mr. Editor, apologizing on the score of 
haste for all imperfections, I bid you a goodnight. 

[2 48] 


Sketch of the Second N. C. Battalion — Wises', Later on in 
Daniel's Brigade. 

If any apology is necessary for the oft recurrence of the 
pronoun personal in the following report, the writer hopes it 
will be found in the peculiar make up of this gallant com- 
mand, organized mainly through his instrumentality, com- 
posed of companies from three different States, and as inci- 
dent to such composition mustered directly into the Confeder- 
ate service instead of primarily into that of either State. 
iSTorth Carolina supplied two-thirds of its numerical strength 
and gave it name and designation. The fate of war decreed 
that its initial hostile move was to a point where capture was 
inevitable, and before the arrival of the two last companies 
requisite to complete its regimental organization. 

In the first days of April, 1861, the telegraph left no 
room for doubt that the United States Government was re- 
solved to try and revictual Fort Sumter, then beleaguered by 
the young government just springing into being. 

Each fully realized that that meant war. The next train 
carried the writer to Charleston as a would-be volunteer gun- 
ner, anxious to see the beginning of what he deemed the in- 
evitable struggle, and hence nowise loth to see it begin. In 
this he was disappointed, as orders had just been issued for- 
bidding any additional recruits into the batteries. He heard, 
however, the opening gun of the mighty drama to follow, and 
a day later the final one which preceded the surrender of this 
almost impregnable fortress, as subsequent events proved it 
to be, when besieged and besiegers were reversed. It was a 
dramatic sight replete with patriotic enthusiasm, even as 
witnessed from the city battery. A thrilling one when "the 
old flag" was hauled down in token of evacuation and "the 
new one" run up. With hundreds of others our little boat 
was just below the walls when it was done, an explosion of 
cartridges killing three of the garrison while saluting the first. 

A few days later my company, that is, the one in which I 
was an enrolled private, was in camp at the State Capital. 
The very first I think to go into the camp of instruction there 
was the "Warren Guards," Cay>t. Ben Wade. Certainly one 



of the three first. After a short space of preliminary drill 
it was assigned to the First Regiment, Col. D. H. Hill. 

This company and two others had done me the honor of 
giving me their unanimous vote (all voting) for the Lieuten- 
ant-Colenelcy of this the initial regiment from our State. 

For some unexplained cause, all three of these were rele- 
gated to the next succeeding regiment, the Second, later on 
numbered the Twelfth, to avoid ambiguity with what was 
known as State troops. 

This regiment was organized at Garysburg by the election 
of Lieutenant Sol. Williams, lately resigned from the United 
States Army, as Colonel, and was straightway moved to 
Richmond. after arrival there, it was ordered to 

Whilst in camp there ex-Governor Wise, then a Brigadier 
General, sent me, unsolicited on my part, authority to raise a 
regiment and join his command, known as the Wise Legion. 
It is a matter of no little satisfaction that, upon its being 
known, the last official act of North Carolina's first great 
War Governor, John W. Ellis, was to give me an order for 
some six hundred Enfield rifles, the only ones at the State's 
disposal. Unfortunately for me, however, before all my com- 
panies could reach the camp of formation (and there were 
eighteen from which to select), and requisition be made for 
my guns, this glorious son of North Carolina had breathed 
his last, and almost the first official act of his successor was 
to revoke his order and to give my guns to another, no cause 
being assigned and none but favoritism presumable. In view 
of this gross injustice the Legislature, only three dissenting, 
voted me fifty thousand dollars to arm and equip my com- 
mand. Ordinarily such a sum would have far more than suf- 
ficed, but in those days weapons of approved pattern were 
above money and above price, simply because they were not 
to be had. Luckily my command was composed of the right 
sort of men, not finnicky or over-fastidious as to outfit. 
Though cheated of our "Enfields," to the front we would go 
with squirrel substitutes and double-barrel shot guns of divers 
calibre. Every man was afraid that he couldn't get a hand 
before the game would be ended. And so these honest work- 



men took the best tools that they could get, and there was no 
grumbling. We all expected better after our first fair field 
and an honest fight. Fortunately our uncouth armament 
was supplemented by some 350 old flint lock muskets which 
Governor Letcher, of Virginia, generously turned over to 
me, because his folks wouldn't touch such tools. After being 
percushioned by the Government, they made very respectable 
killing implements, especially when each double barrel man 
carried beside a two-foot carving knife of the heft of a meat 
axe in lieu of bayonet. 

After such an elaborate outfit, not counting a good, warm 
overcoat all around, it will hardly seem credible that within 
a year thirty-two thousand and odd dollars were returned to 
the State Treasury, to the surprise if not disgust of sterling 
old Mr. Coates. ''Why, Colonel, this thing is without prece- 
dent," was his only comment. 

In the fall of 1861 was ordered by General Cooper, Adju- 
tant and Inspector General, to proceed to Wilmington and 
report to Gen. Joseph R. Anderson, commanding the Depart- 
ment of North Carolina. By him was assigned to the duty 
of guarding the coast above and below Masonboro Sound, 
some seven miles to the east of that city. We continued in 
the discharge of that duty until the 30th of January, 1862, 
when I was ordered by General Cooper, A. and I. General, 
to proceed at once to Roanoke Island, then threatened by the 
Federal force under General Burnside. At this time the 
Second North Carolina Battalion consisted of the following 
eight companies, averaging about eighty-five men to the com- 
pany. My two last companies necessary to a regiment had 
not then reported. 

(Owing to the loss of my papers when captured, necessity 
frequently compels the use of proximates. ) 


Wharton J. Green, Lieutenant-Colonel commanding; Mar- 
cus Erwin, Major; Dr. Frank Patterson, Surgeon; Dr. Sam- 
uel Young, Assistant Surgeon; ...... McNTutt, Adjutant; 

Capt. A. H. Shuford, Quartermaster and Commissary; Rev. 
H. E. Brooks, Chaplain. 



Company A, raised in Stokes Comity, N. C. Captain, Mil- 
ton Smith; Lieutenants, J. B. Tucker, N. G. Smith, Edwin 

Company B, raised in Surry County, N. C. Captain, D. 
M. Cooper; Lieutenants, L. J. Norman, J. Sayars, J. Gordon. 

Company C, raised in Mecklenburg County, Va. Captain, 
R. C. Overby; Lieutenants, B. P. Williamson, Henry S. 
Wood, B. R. Williamson. 

Company D, raised in Pike County, Ga. Captain, Ed- 
ward Smith ; Lieutenants, W. H. McClure, R. M. Julian, 
David T. Harris. 

Company E, raised in Merriwether County, Ga. Captain, 
DuBose ; Lieutenants, J. J. Tucker, W. J. Hudson, J. N. Lee. 

Company F, raised in Randolph County, 1ST. C. Captain, 
T. W. Andrews; Lieutenants, John M. Hancock, Z. J. Wil- 

Company G, raised in Forsyth County, 1ST. C. Captain, 
W. H. Wheeler; Lieutenants, J. S. Swain, H. C. Wheeler, 
R. Gorrill. 

Company H, raised in Madison County, 1ST. C. Captain, 
S. F. Allen ; Lieutenants, Van Brown, Condell. 

There may be a mistake in lettering two of the companies, 
which, however, is not material. 

As has been said above, the order from the War Depart- 
ment to proceed to Roanoke Island (the only one under which 
I could venture to move), reached me on the evening of Jan- 
uary 30th. Some ten or tw T elve days anterior thereto, how- 
ever, the following order was received from General Wise 
to the same effect: 

"Norfolk, Va., January 15, 1862. 
Col. Wharton J. Green, Commanding, etc. : 

Sik: — You will, as early as practicable, move your whole 
force from Wilmington, 1ST. C, to Norfolk, Va., and there 
report to General Huger for transportation to Roanoke Island. 
Bring with your men all the outfit which you can procure 
at Wilmington, and make requisitions at Norfolk for defi- 
ciencies. Prompt movement is necessary, as the enemy are 
near in large force. Henry A. Wise, 



I waited at once on General Anderson and asked for per- 
mission to start the next day. This he peremptorily refused, 
threatening arrest if the attempt was made. "You are under 
my command/' he said, "by order of General Cooper, and no 
less authority is going to take you away from here." 

He, however, consented that Major Erwin might go to 
Richmond and lay the matter before the Secretary of War 
for final arbitrament. The Major carried request from me 
to obey General Wise's order, and protest against it from 
General Anderson. 

After the interval stated, and after General Wise had 
written the Secretary of War under date of "January 26. 
Please order the forces of my Legion under Colonel Greene, 
at Wilmington, 1ST. C, * * * to be forwarded to me," the 
desired permission (order) arrived. 

Within the shortest possible time that transportation could 
be obtained, about thirty-six hours after receipt of order, we 
went on way to destination. 

On reaching jSTorfolk, was again detained two or three 
days (needlessly, I thought, and still think), awaiting water 
transportation, starting on February 5th. 

The sequel is sufficiently set forth in my report of opera- 
tions of the next three days ensuing, of date February 18th, 
herewith reproduced from the War Records, Vol. IX, Series 
1, to which should be added that this command was the only 
one under arms outside of the water batteries at the time of 
the surrender. 

Am thus explicit in details concerning this first great dis- 
aster to the Confederate cause in order to refute the unjust 
insinuation of General Wise that I was needlessly dilatory in 
starting from Wilmington in obedience to his orders. In 
plain words, that those issued direct from the war office were 
not subordinated to his. The absurdity of the assumption is 
not deserving of comment. If any were needed, it is sup- 
plied in the Report of the Congressional Investigating Com- 
mittee, and the personal encomium therein contained to 

His absence from the island, and presence on the mainland 
during the entire fighting, should have made him more cau- 



tious in his reflections, not only in this case but against almost 
every other regimental commander there present It grieves 
to say as much of one who had presumptively done a favor. 
A brilliant talker, a fiery orator, a pungent writer, and withal, 
a patriot, all this he was, but like some other political gen- 
erals, a very indifferent soldier. 

Querulous with superiors, captious to equals, insolent to 
subordinates, and opinionated in the superlative degree, to- 
tally unfitted him for command at a most important point 
and at a most critical juncture. Had this not been said in 
effect before the Investigating Committee relative to the fall 
of Roanoke Island, and in refutal of the baseless aspersion 
above referred to, it probably would not here appear. No 
less is due to my gallant command as well as to myself in the 
proposed embodiment of historic regimental sketches of the 
various commands of our State. Immediately after exchange 
the Second Battalion was upon my application transferred to 
the brigade of that superb soldier, Junius Daniel, and after 
his death at Spottsylvania, commanded by his worthy suc- 
cessor, General Bryan Grimes. 

Recurring to report alluded to, let it be premised that the 
Second Battalion was most needlessly included in the list of 
prisoners that day. After the fall back of the troops en- 
gaged, and the resolve to surrender, an official order to re- 
embark and strike for the mainland would have saved every 
man in it. 

No. 28. 


Off Roanoke Island, N. C, February 18, 1862. 
Sir : — I herewith submit a report, of the skirmish in which 
my battalion (Second North Carolina) was engaged on Sat- 
urday, the 8th inst. : 

In obedience to orders from Adjutant-General Cooper, re- 
ceived on the evening of January 30, I struck camp in the 
vicinity of Wilmington on the morning of the 1st inst., and 



proceeded hither with all possible dispatch. Owing to the 
want of transports we were detained two days and upward in 
Norfolk, leaving that place on Wednesday, the 5th inst, in 
tow of the canal tug-boat White. 

On Friday, when about thirty miles distant from the island, 
continued discharges of artillery informed us of the progress 
of a fight between the Federal fleet and Confederate batteries. 
Being entirely ignorant of the topography of the island, and 
not knowing where or to whom to report, I left our transports 
about twenty miles hence and came on in the steamer for 
information. Having obtained which, I returned to my men 
and crowded them on the smallest number of transports that 
would contain them, and then started. The night was very 
dark and stormy, with the wind against us, consequently our 
progress was slow. 

After beating about until midnight our pilot declared that 
he had lost his reckoning, and as we had only a fathom and a 
half of water thought it safer to wait for daylight. 

About 2 a. m. Saturday a number of Confederate gunboats 
passed us from the direction of the island, one of them run- 
ning into the schooner Beauregard (one of our transports) 
and seriously injuring her. In reply to our challenge and 
statement of our condition, all the answer we could get was 

that one of the boats was the Beaufort, the other the 

Had they stopped in their flight long enough to exchange 
pilots with us, or even to give our's the necessary instructions 
as to his course, my battalion would have reached the island 
in time to have participated in the entire action. 

Failing to do so, it was 10 a. m. when we reached the island, 
and 12 o'clock before the men, arms and ammunition could 
be got on shore, owing to their having to be taken on lighters. 
Having distributed all of my ammunition I started for the 
scene of action, but soon met scores of stragglers, who re- 
ported everything lost and the Confederate forces entirely 

Notwithstanding these discouraging reports, my men kept 
in good spirits and pressed on with animation. On reaching 
your camp, and having the worst reports confirmed, I called 
upon you for orders, and was told to proceed to a point some 



mile or two distant, under the guidance of Major Williamson, 
and take position. 

After proceeding about half a mile we came suddenly upon 
a Federal regiment, which I have since learned was the 
Twenty-first Massachusetts. The two advanced companies of 
the respective commands were about seventy-five paces apart, 
I being some twenty paces in advance of mine. I gave the 
command, "By company into line," when the officer in com- 
mand of the Federal regiment threw up his hand and cried 
out, "Stop, stop, Colonel; don't fire; you are mistaken!" Be- 
lieving it to be a trick, I repeated my command. Thereupon 
the Federal officer gave the command, "Fire." My advanced 
companies returned the fire, firing at will after the first vol- 
ley. Finding that there was some confusion, and not know- 
ing the ground, I soon became satisfied that I could not form 
my men in line of battle to any advantage on the ground that 
they then occupied, so I ordered them to fall back a short dis- 
tance, and from behind the log houses occupied by Colonel 
Jordan's regiment as quarters. This they did in good order. 
The Federals fell back immediately after. Immediately 
after forming behind the houses, Lieutenant Colonel Fowle, 
of the Thirty-first ISTorth Carolina, passed by with a white 
flag, and stated that a surrender had been determined upon. 

My loss was three men killed and five wounded, two of 
whom have since died. I am happy to be able to report favor 
ably of the action of both officers and men. The enemy's 
loss, as learned from themselves, was between twenty and 
thirty. I marched my entire command, with very few ex- 
ceptions, in good order back to your camp. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, 
Your obedient servant, 

Wharton J. Green, 
Lieut.-Col. Second N. C. Battalion. 

Col. H. M. Shaw. 

Note. — In my report to Colonel Shaw, should have been 
stated the fact that I strenuously protested against surrender 
without a further effort to resume our original lines, pledg- 
ing my command to hold the enemy's advance in check a 



reasonable time if he would come to our assistance with the 
other troops. This I certainly understood him to promise to 
do. A mistaken sense of courtesy or delicacy to the officer 
in immediate command, to whom report was submitted, for- 
bade its insertion at the time. Sure I am that the survivors 
of the gallant gentlemen who were present at that interview, 
and there were many, will avouch to the accuracy of the state- 
ment. The Second North Carolina Battalion ivas in un- 
broken line of battle with twenty thousand foemen advan- 
cing, but hoping re-enforcement, when the white flag of sur- 
render passed. In reply to my expressed purpose to double- 
quick it back to the transports with an eye to escape, the an- 
swer came, "This island and all upon it has been surrendered. 
You will make the attempt on your peril of breach of terms." 

A little incident of juvenile heroism, surpassing that of 
"the boy on the burning deck," may not be out of place. 
Whilst awaiting the enemy in force, a little lad scarce mid*- 
way in his teens,, walked down the front of the line, his right 
arm dangling at his side but still clutching his trusty double- 
barrel with his left. 

"Colonel," he said, "they have broken my arm. Can I go 
to the rear and let Dr. Patterson look after it V 

There was no more perturbation in his voice than if he had 
been asking or answering a question on parade. There was 
incipient hero there, and would that I knew him to-day. I'll 
stake my life that that boy has never proved recreant to past 
manhood duty, or gone back on early promise then made. 
There was the bloom of the heroic, soon to fructify into 
fruitage, the crop of which the world had never seen and will 
never see again. The chance of securing reproduction can 
never recur. Heaven pity posterity in its inevitable dearth 
of such heroes. 

A few days after the surrender we were transferred to the 
steamer S. R. Spaulding with Fort Warren as objective point. 
But through the efforts of General Burnside, who impressed 
us then with his courtesy and soldierly treatment, as he did 
those who knew him after the war, imprisonment was 
changed into "parole." Fortunately for the Confederacy 
17 [ 257 ] 


later on, his reach of requisite for the chief command to 
which he was assigned against the greatest soldier of his age, 
fell something short. But better far than the reputation of 
a second-class commander, he bore "the grand old name of 
Gentleman." The writer is thus pleased to acknowledge 
more than one civility received at his hands, including an ex- 
change of body servants, his and mine, the first being then 
confined at Richmond. Mine, Guilford Christmas, was with 
me before and during the war and has been with me ever 
since, a faithful servant and a true friend, once exchanged as 
said, and later escaping after a second capture. Had not 
racial interdict precluded his enlistment, the Confederacy 
would have had few more devoted servants, for his heart was 
in it. 

The disparity of force in this, the second great battle of the 
war, was too great to admit of hope for the weaker after the 
other side had secured a foothold. Col. Shaw gives his entire 
available force, exclusive of those in the water batteries at 
1,434, rank and file, previous to the arrival of my own and 
Major Fry's commands. Loss 23 killed, 58 wounded, 62 
missing. General Burnside puts his, not counting the gun 
boats, at 12,829, loss 264. To make the disparity the greater 
they were commanded by educated soldiers like Burnside, 
Foster, Parke and Reno. That inequality was a little too 
much so, even in those early days, when to paraphrase Harry 
of England, some did "think upon one pair of Southern legs 
did march five Yankees." 

Later on, and after better acquaintance, few objected to 
having the carrying capacity of those locomotors reduced to 
three or even two blue coats. 

Eight or ten to one was out of all reason. 

Some seven months after being paroled at Elizabeth City 
we were exchanged and the battalion ordered to rendezvous at 
Drewry's Bluff. 

Whilst in came there and attached to Colonel (later Gen- 
eral) Daniel's brigade, a petition was set afoot looking to a 
re-organization. Although opposed to it on principle as cal- 
culated to introduce politics into camp, and although from 
the peculiar constitution of this command, it could have 

[ 258 ] 


been avoided, nevertheless, when it became obvious that such 
was the desire of a number of the officers, no obstruction was 
interposed on my part. The consequence was that I was 
superseded as commanding officer by Capt. W. H. Wheeler, 
who, however, resigned a few days thereafter, thus devolving 
the command on Major Andrews (promoted to Lieutenant- 

Shortly after, about the first of January, 1863, the bri- 
gade was ordered to Goldsboro, 1ST. C, in anticipation of a 
forward move by the enemy. I went there at once to volun- 
teer, but was told by General Daniel that I would be enrolled 
on his staff as a supernumerary or volunteer aide until some- 
thing in the line should turn up. Thence, shortly after, the 
brigade was ordered to Kinston, where it remained until 17th 
of May, 1863, when it was moved upon the Rappahannock. 

Whilst in camp at Kinston we were, by General D. H. 
Hill's orders, moved down the right side of the Xeuse, Petti- 
grew's brigade keeping abreast on the other with the object in 
view of taking ISTew Bern by surprise. Daniel's advance, 
after reaching a point contiguous to that place, was subject to 
gun signal from the co-operating column upon capture of the 
gun boats on that side of the river. These, however, got up 
steam in time to prevent capture, and so the attempt fell 

General Hill next attempted the capture of Washington, 
which was represented as being short of provisions and sup- 
plies. A battery, Fort Hill, was planted below the town to 
prevent relief by the gunboats. Whilst here Generals Hill, 
Daniel, Robertson and myself rode over to the fort to take in 
the situation. The gunboats were anchored some two or 
three miles off, just out of reach of our pop guns, and had 
kept up an incessant fusillade on the garrison for a day or 
two previous without doing any harm. Before, however, we 
had been in there fifteen minutes, I was knocked down by a 
ten-pound piece of shell. 

About the middle of June, 1863, our division, Rodes', 
broke camp at Hamilton's crossing, a few miles from Freder- 
icksburg, and started, whither few knew, but many surmised. 
At the time the Second Battalion was attached to this superb 



brigade, it was composed of the Thirty-second, Forty-third, 
Forty-fifth and Fifty-third Regiments, which continued in- 
tact until the end of the war. On arrival in Virginia it was 
assigned to Major-General R. E. Rodes' division, composed 
of the following other brigades, viz : Ramseur's North Caro- 
lina, Iverson's North Carolina, and Dole's Georgia, and no 
better division was there in any army. Most fortunate were 
we in brigade and divisional commanders. Both Rodes and 
Daniel were born soldiers, and both died on the field of 
battle in glorious discharge of duty. The division was in 
E well's corps. On Daniel's death Bryan Grimes became his 
worthy successor and later on the successor of the lamented 

At Brandy Station, on the , became aware that a 

fight was going on in front. Were hastily formed and moved 
forward to the point, upon nearing which General Lee in 
person met General Daniel and told him that he was to keep 
his command concealed under the brow of a hill except upon 
emergency, as it was a cavalry fight and he didn't wish the 
enemy to learn that he was on the move. Shortly after met 
the corpse of my old Colonel, Sol. Williams, being brought 
out on horseback by his brother-in-law, Lieutenant Pegram. 
He was shot through the forehead, and Pegram told us that 
Gen. B. F. Davis had just been killed on the other side by the 
self-same wound. He and I were classmates and close friends 
at West Point, and yet his death reached me without a pang 
of regret, for he was fighting under the wrong flag, being a 

Gallant Sol. Williams had only been married a week or two 
to the daughter of Captain Pegram, who won lasting honor 
in the Confederate States ISTavy. Singular coincidence her 
cousin and another old classmate of mine, Gen. John Pegram, 
was killed in front of Petersburg after the same brief nup- 
tials. He married the beautiful and brilliant Hettie Cary, 
of Baltimore. 

Gen. J. E. B. Stuart (another classmate), repulsed the 
enemy that day after a hard day's fight, although he had been 
taken by surprise in the morning. He too was killed later 
on in front of Richmond. Here let it be remarked, by way 



of parenthesis, that nine out of twelve of that glorious class 
(that of 1850), who espoused our side, were killed in battle, 
all with one exception, wearing the insignia of General. 
Stuart, Pender, Gracie, Pegrani, Deshler, Villipique, Mercer, 
Randall and one other whose name now escapes me. Was 
there ever a nobler holocaust of young heroes on the altar of 
patriotism, each thirty or thereabouts ? Generals Stephen 
D. Lee and Custis Lee are the sole survivors as far as I am 
able to ascertain. 

From Brandy the division moved on towards the Poto- 
mac, passing through Front Royal, Winchester and Berry- 
ville. At the last place came near capturing Brute Milroy 
and his entire force, but with the coward's instinct he saved 
his vile neck by precipitate flight. He was one of the three 
who were made infamously immortal by Confederate Execu- 
tive mandate that they were not to be accorded the rights of 
prisoners of war if captured. Beast Butler and Turchin, the 
barbarian, were the two others. Let the triumvirate of gold- 
laced felons stand pilloried where they were put, in the scorn 
of all true soldiers through all time to come, to teach would- 
be imitators that wars must henceforth be conducted by gen- 
erous and humane rules instead of barbaric. Moving on 
through Martinsburg we forded the river at Williamsport 
and camped a couple of days at Hagerstown, Md. Thence 
on to Greencastle, Pa., where there was another halt for a 
day. Thence to Carlisle, where we took possession of the 
government barracks. 

The next day (Sunday) the flag pole, which had been cut 
down by the enemy, was replaced and the '"Stars and Bars" 
wafted to the breeze. 

June 30 tli made an early start and a forced march to Heid- 
elberg, eleven miles short of Gettysburg. The next morning, 
bright and early, started again. Had proceeded but a short 
distance when the opening g*uns of that momentous conflict 
fell upon the ear. On arrival were deployed in line of battle 
in a skirt of woods. The enemy at once began to shell us. 
General Daniel ordered the brigade to lie down until ready to 
advance. Whilst he and I were standing just in front of the 
Second Battalion holding our horses, a shell exploded in a 



few feet to the left, killing and wounding nine men. Prob- 
ably no one missile occasioned more loss to life during the 
war. A little later the men were ordered to rise and ad- 
vance. The enemy were some five or six hundred yards in 
front, and results showed had set a most deadly trap for us. 
When half way between our starting point and their line, 
were ordered to lie down whilst our guns in the rear played 
on their ranks. Then rose and charged to the brink of the 
deep cut of the railroad, beyond which at some hundred 
paces the enemy were drawn up in line. 

The men in their ardor slid down the almost precipitous 
bank and attempted to scale the opposite, but to no effect. 
An enfilading battery to our right then opened, sweeping "the 
cut" with terrible effect. Suggesting to Colonel Brabble, the 
senior officer, to face to the left and clear the gap, I scrambled 
to the top and got one shot at the advancing foe with a musket 
taken from a sick boy at the start, with whom my horse was 
left. Believe it was with effect, as it caused a pause in the 
line behind and delayed a down-pouring fire until we got out 
of that horrible hole. As soon as it was done the men who 
had behaved like veterans so far, became temporarily demor- 
alized. Then it was that the soldier loomed up and plucked 
the flower safely out of the nettle danger. Junius Daniel is 
the man referred to. In his stentorian tones, audible in 
command a quarter of a mile or more away, he ordered the 
men to halt and reform on him. This they did without re- 
gard to company or regimental formation almost to a man, 
advanced at once and inflicted a loss on the enemy, from all 
accounts greater than that which they had just sustained. 
A sublime picture of heroism that, on the part of commander 
and command. 

Just then I was knocked down by a wound in the head and 
had to go back to the field hospital. Here the scene was 
sickening in the extreme. By sundown, hundreds of wounded 
had arrived, and the horrid work of amputation was going 
briskly on. Here I pause to pay brief tribute to an unpreten- 
tious hero who did his duty as grandly as any other on that 
bloody field, although his only weapons were scalpel, saw and 
bandage. Though Daniel's brigade had the largest wounded 



list of any other at Gettysburg, the surgical staff was some- 
thing short that day. But there was one who was a host in 
himself. For three days and nights, with coat off and 
sleeves rolled up, I do not think Dr. Frank Patterson, my 
old surgeon, then brigade surgeon, relaxed in his bloody work 
of mercy half an hour at a time. If he closed his eyes in 
sleep during that dread ordeal it escaped my observation, al- 
though in thirty feet and full view of the operating table. 

"The glorious Fourth" was a fateful day, not only for 
that glorious army, but for the cause, for far away Vicks- 
burg, the key of the Mississippi, had fallen. 

The retreat began in regular order on that day. Capt. 
Wan. R. Bond, of General Daniel's staff, now of Scotland 
Neck, likewise wounded, and myself, were assigned to a one- 
horse wagon driven by Guilford. The wounded train was 
tacked on to a part of the ordnance. That night, having to 
pass through a long defile, it was subjected to an annoying 
fire from above. Kilpatrick's division, having ridden ahead 
and taken position on each bank of the road. This doughty 
hero should have been cashiered for not capturing that entire 
train, for it was only guarded by two squadrons of cavalry. 
As it was, he only took some thirty or forty ambulances and 
ordnance wagons. 

Shortly after getting through the deep cut of the road our 
little mounted escort broke and went to the head of the train. 
An ordnance wagon loaded with old guns, took off one of our 
rear wheels in trying to pass, and before Bond and I could 
pick ourselves up, a dozen revolvers were bearing on us. It 
was then that volubility told. Guilford with a flow of words 
unparalleled in his speech before or since convinced the gen- 
tleman on horseback that, "we surrender, we are prisoners, 
for God's sake don't shoot." Believing that the entire ord- 
nance train was lost and all lost with it, it is within bounds 
to say that his impromptu eloquence elicited but scant thanks 
from either of the two "prisoners." 

Thence were carried to the hospital at Frederick, from 
there to Fort McHenry, thence to Fort Delaware for a while 
and from there to Johnson's Island in Lake Erie, which con- 
tinued to be the residence of most of the officers until near 



the surrender. My cartel was, I believe, the last one antece- 
dent thereto. Many projects for wholesale escape had been 
formed during our imprisonment, but were always frustrated 
by some secret spy or cowardly informer. 

But to return to the 2nd North Carolina Battalion at Get- 
tysburg. It fell short of a full regiment, and yet it's doubt- 
ful whether any full regiment in that matchless army sus- 
tained the loss in killed and wounded that it did. One hun- 
dred and fifty-three is authenticated record. Perhaps it is 
better to give an excerpt from a letter received from Maj. H. 
A. London, later on A. A. G., of the brigade, bearing thereon. 

* * "The 2nd Battalion at Gettysburg had more men 
killed and wounded than any full regiment in Pickett's di- 
vision. It's killed was 29 (including it's commander, Lieut. 
Col. Andrews) and wounded 124. The 57th Virginia regi- 
ment had 26 killed and 95 wounded, which was the heaviest 
mortality of any of Pickett's regiments. Maj. James Iredell, 
who took command after Andrews' death, was killed at Spott- 
sylvania, where the battalion was nearly all captured, killed 
or wounded. I do not think any field officer commanded the 
battalion after Iredell's death. It remained with Daniel's 
brigade until the end, but I do not know it's number at Ap- 
pomattox — a mere handful, however. It was a noble band 
and shared fully in all the glory of Daniel's (afterwards 
Grimes') brigade. * * * Yours truly, H. A. London." 

It was not my proud privilege to command it in that dread 
baptism of blood. I was only a musket-bearer in it's ranks that 
day, but it did my heart none the less good to see how grandly 
the children of my nurture, knew how to die for cause and 

Whilst it has been shown above that I was no stickler for 
rank throughout the mighty struggle, I may nevertheless be 
pardoned for statement bearing on it. 

Only some six weeks before his death, ex-President Davis 
told me, in the presence of his wife and youngest daughter in 
his home at Beauvoir, that as soon as he heard of my return 
from prison he sent in my nomination to the Senate for a 
Bigadier General's commission, and presumed it had been con- 
firmed. He supposed, however, that in the confusion of the last 



few days preceding the evacuation of Richmond, it had, like 
many other matters, been overlooked. 

This was subsequently confirmed in a letter from Mrs. 
Davis, with additional details. The incident is mentioned 
more in satisfaction of the good opinion of that grand man, 
the central figure of that historic epoch, than out of regard for 
an empty title, which per se is not valued at a pinch of snuff. 

Pertinent thereto, another statement is ventured which 
must be taken on faith, as he who made it is no longer in the 
flesh. On the road one day General Daniel told me that 
just after the reorganization, the President asked him if he 
would not advise setting aside the election and restoring me 
to the command, as it was primarily an executive appointment 
instead of by election. Daniel's reply was, "Not to that com- 
mand, as the event however injudicious validates the change ; 
but I will most cheerfully recommend him for the first vacant 
regiment or brigade either at your disposal." 

First Lieut. Col. Commanding, 

2nd Battalion. 

Address on General Robert Ransom, Delivered Before the 
Ladies Memorial Association, May 10, 1899. 

Ladies of the Memorial Association, Old Comrades and 
Friends : 

I thank you most cordially for the honor done me to-day 
in bidding me to talk to you of my honored friend and kins- 
man, Gen. Robert Ransom. This trust could doubtless have 
been confided to far abler hands. To none, however, surpassing 
him selected in love and admiration for this truly great 
soldier and upright gentleman. 

Sever years ago to-day the same duty devolved on me 
through the partiality of your sister society of ISTewbern, 
where he had lived and passed his closing hours. Hence, of 
necessity, I am forced to draw freely upon the address then 
delivered, even to literal reproduction of many parts. This 
has been rendered the more imperative by a severe and pro- 
tracted case of the grippe almost ever since your summons 



reached me. Hence, I crave allowance for all short-comings 
to-day, for I must draw on manuscript more than memory 

Here is the opening on that occasion: "Four years ago 
on this recurring anniversary," hallowed to patriotism and 
heroic memories, your orator was he whose eulogy by your 
bidding devolves on me to-day. He gave you graphic pic- 
tures and panoramic of one of the grandest and most melo- 
dramic battles that history will be ever called on to record. 
Charles Lever, by common consent of military critics, has 
given in his great novel, O'Malley, the finest description of 
Waterloo ever published. 

Your townsman, General Ransom, portrayed on occasion 
referred to, the field of Fredericksburg, rivaling in pomp, 
panoply and numericals the other, in words scarce less befit- 

That he was a war actor the world knew. That he was a 
war artist his single, effort proved. Such was Csesar, actor 
and artist. 

Where heroes pass the bourne, their people, if worthy to 
have heroes, ever pay them suitable tribute. Correlative 
thereto, the race that fails therein, rarely produces the gen- 
uine article. ~No account is taken of the nickel-plated or 
"Brumagetnized" specimen, the mere throat-cutter on ex- 
tended scale. Slavish barbarians can evolve such as these, as 
witness Genghis, Atilla, Alva and Tamerlane. But the true, 
genuine broad-gauged world-recognized hero is the almost ex- 
clusive development of free born men and women. 

Great races and critical junctures beget great men who 
adorn their epochs and honor humanity. Most prolific of 
all in such product was the seven hilled city on the Tiber, 
and long centuries later on, the little island with wooden 
walls and her first great trans-oceanic off-shoot. Those races 
inherently great beyond all others in past and present times, 
raised brainy thinkers and brawny but gentle actors, who 
taught and illustrated how to govern others and the far higher 
lesson for free people, how to govern themselves. Such 
teacher and actor combined in one is the quintessence of god- 
like heroism. 



Of such, where can higher type and more frequent be found 
in any era than in the Confederate armies ? Take, forsooth, 
as highest illustration, Davis, Lee, and Sidney Johnston, our 
three ranking leaders. Triumvirate of Immortals, without 
flaw or speck ! Individually never surpassed, collectively 
never equalled in any war by mortals waged in attribute here 
outlined. Legitimate praise must needs sound fulsome to 
those who knew them not, and all panegvric tame to those who 

Genius coupled with gentleness, self-assertion with modest 
claim, loftiest ambition with humanity, flawless record with 
tempting opportunity, sublime faith with unflagging zeal, 
and every impulse subordinate to patriotic end, constituted 
fitness in the highest for highest command. Let it content us 
in defeat, my brothers, that the cause by them espoused will 
be gauged in history by their exalted standard. "Causa vic- 
trix placuit deis, sed victa Catoni." Observe in like connec- 
tion Jackson, the superb, grandest lieutenant that ever cap- 
tain had, and his brother Hill, cast in kindred mould ; that 
stern inflexible brace of old Ironsides, who had implicit faith 
in Providence and Presbyterianism, dry powder and cold 
steel, and could not realize that soldiers could die before 
their time had come. It would seem that they had interpo- 
lated another tenet in the articles of the church militant : 
namely, dying for cause and country and liberty is a no mean 
atonement for duties undone. 

Such has ever been a conquering creed for under-sized 
armies, deficient alike in numbers and resources. It made 
the camel driver of Mecca, the prophet, the law-giver, the 
master of the Eastern world. It made Huntingdon's brewer 
the most renowned and respected potentate of his time, and 
who ennobled as only one had done the kingly place he held. 
It enabled the adventurer, Cortez, with a few score followers, 
to subjugate a nation of millions. And so the embattled host, 
urged on faith in God and duty to man, is well nigh in- 
vincible until by attrition annihilation follows. The eight 
thousand guns grounded at Appomattox is eternal proof of 
the dictum laid down. 

Brief retrospect of a few others of our typical heroes, and 



we pass on to the subject of our text. The entire roster 
could scarce be called between "the rising of the new moon 
and the going down of the same, at the end of its course," 
for from the modest President to the jocund drummer boy, 
it was an army of heroes. Take the two fighting parsons, 
for instance. Hear them at critical junctures in the hour 
of battle and you have the animus of those glorious legions. 
"Hold your position, General Cheatham, for it is the key 
of the line," exclaims Bishop General Polk a brief space be- 
fore his lamented fall: "hold it though it cost every man in 
your command." "Can't promise, General," was the jocular 
retort, "since youVe made me promise to give up cuss words. 
Since I have, these boys of mine don't fight a bit better than 
blue coats." 

"Speak to them to-day in your own emphatic way, Cheat- 
ham, but hold your part of the line," was the parting in- 
junction, or at least it was so reported. 

"Take good aim, my men, before pulling the lanyard," is the 
caution of the grave old artillerist, brother Pendleton, "and 
may the Lord have mercy on their souls." 

On this occasion for obvious reason we pass the most su- 
perb infantry that the world has ever known or is likely ever 
to know. God bless them, they fought on the plane of demi- 
gods and like demi-gods, and make our salaam to the cavalry. 
I give you a fancied review of our horse-back heroes in the 
mythic shades of Walhalla. 

There's Stuart, the noblest of the line of kings, whose 
name and blood he bears, replete with piety, patriotism and 
school-boy fun, who to well laid plans loved a fight for right 
as he did a frolic. If claim to kinship there was with Scot- 
land's kings, the knightly Rupert, who towered above them 
all, must have been in lineal progenitor. Farewell, "Old 
Beauty" ; good-bye, " Jeb," old friend and classmate. 

And there rides one unskilled in schools and hence could 
never master the definition of the word defeat. His name is 
Forrest. By concensus of opinion of most approved military 
critics of neutral nations the grandest leader of horsemen 
in the annals of all antecedent times. A rough rider they say 
but by my troth courtly. His theory of war may be crude. 



but it has ever proved Napoleonic: "I make it a point to 
fight the enemy wherever I find it and try and get the most 
men there first." Doff your cap Murat, Marshal of France 
and King of Naples, and discard your golden spurs and 
cockney feathers, for hence on you ride behind that untutored 
son of Genius. 

And there's Hampton, he hasn't forded the dark river yet. 
God grant the day be far distant; and hence to spare his 
blushes we must needs be chary of praise. But truly hath 
he ridden well unless universal report belie him. By birth- 
right and by right of self-made good, no Bayard e'er bore 
prouder and more spotless front. 

Political ingratitude may hurl its puny shafts at such an 
one as did the little men in Lilliput, theirs at Captain Gul- 
liver, but the muse of history has him enrolled amongst the 
world's foremost and most unselfish cavaliers. 

And there goes Wheeler, little fighting Joe. He too, was 
a marked hero in "the war between the States," and later 
on he came out as the hero of another war. Too big is he, 
little as he looks, for 1 the "standing army." He once wore 
a gray coat. 

And here is a pair of old "Web Foots" who must not be 
forgotten, although out of place in the "critter company." 
But that makes no odds. Doff hats, heroes, all of every arm, 
to the brace of old "Pirates," as they were insultingly dubbed 
by that great power whose world-reaching commerce wilted 
at their mandate more effectually than did that of Spain at 
the bidding of their predecessors in patriotic piracy — Drake, 
Raleigh and Hawkins. Aye, hail, thrice hail "Alabama" and 
"Shenandoah!" Raphael^ Semmes and "Tar Heel" Waddell ! 
Such names as these almost make "piracy" respectable, as 
those just mentioned did "rebellion !" 

These old sea birds did swim in every sea, and lit them up 
with their pyrotechnics in their two little boats with a fancied 
broom for penant, despite the prohibitory veto of hostile 
navies. Yes, pull ashore, old "Tarpauliens," and ride with 
these old heroes who were born on horseback. 

Brothers o'er the harbor, these be a few of our honored 
leaders. Soldiers all they were in high degree, but more 



than mere soldiers — gentlemen. We do not challenge compet- 
itive claim, but defy detraction. In that galaxy of immortals, 
few won more enviable fame in successive grade than did 
Robert Ransom. He was born and reared in Warren county, 
North Carolina, long anterior thereto and thence on until 
the war, the recognized home of refinement and hospitality. 
Her reputation in that regard extended far beyond State 
borders. Whilst there was perhaps more average wealth 
per capita than in any other county in the State, its posses- 
sion was rarely accompanied by vulgar assumption. Educa- 
tion, refinement and culture were unquestioned passports to 
every circle. It was the privilege of the speaker to have his 
lot cast amongst that generous people in middle boyhood, and 
thence on with interruptions to the present time ; and he hesi- 
tates not to say that for the beautiful traits named, he has, 
after extended travel and close observation, never known the 
country community that surpassed if equalled it. 

Whilst, as said, there was wealth there for that day and a 
rural population, Bob Ransom was not one of the boys who 
was "born with a silver spoon in his mouth." Perhaps, as 
conducive to the proud name and fame he left, quite the 
reverse. His ancestors were of the very first who settled 
that part of our State and had lived in style, but open doors 
and open-handed welcome had reduced his own and many 
collateral branches of his house to scant means of continuing 
that mode of living ; but still the latch string was ever on the 
outside of his father's door. To the credit of both be it said 
he and his illustrious brother Matt, who served four terms 
in the United States Senate, and prouder still, four years 
in the fight between the States and with a proud war record, 
and diplomatic besides, had to contribute by manual labor 
on the farm in intervals from desultory schooling, to main- 
tain that unpretentious but hereditary hospitality. 

His father was Robert Ransom, Sr., and his mother Pris- 
cilia Whitaker by birth, likewise of the illustrious Carey 
stock. His grandfather, Seymour Ransom, married Birchett, 
the daughter of William Green, one of the most successful 
planters and remarkable men of the South. His paternal 
great-grand-father was James Ransom and his wife Priscilla, 



born Jones, the daughter of Edward Jones and his wife, 
Abigail Sugan. 

This last named was one of the most remarkable women 
of the last century or any preceding century, and is better 
known to her thousands, aye, tens of thousand descendants 
as "Grand-mother Cook." (Her second husband was named 
Cook.) She was a woman of marked traits of character, who 
left her impress upon succeeding generations of her posterity, 
and a more distinguished progeny than man or woman prob- 
ably ever did whose death is within a century. Governors 
and law-makers and law consructers, soldiers and divines 
of high degree have through all that time been proud to claim 
that barefoot, unsophisticated pioneer girl as a most illus- 
trious fountain-head of their stocks. Priscilla, her daughter, 
first married Colonel Macon and was the mother of North 
Carolina's most distinguished son, Nathaniel, of that name. 
It will thus be seen that General Ransom's great grand-father 
was the step-father of that inflexible old Roman, Nathaniel 
Macon, whose name is revered and honored wherever known. 

Mr. Macon was his great uncle through his paternal as he 
was likewise through his grand maternal side of the house, 
and most striking were their traits in common. Neither knew 
the virtue in the world policy; neither would have Neptune 
for his trident or Jove for his power to thunder ; neither 
would have relaxed in sense of duty to win the acclaim of 
others, in order to lead Senates or armies or to win the civic 
crown or supreme command. As Old Tom Carlyle might 
have expressed it, they were a brace of sturdy, duty-loving 
men, who could not be swayed or swerved from settled con- 
viction of right by patronage from above or plaudit from 
below. Duty was the text of each through life; his life, the 

General Ransom's preliminary education was obtained at 
the Warrenton Academy, necessitating a walk of three or 
four miles a day each way, not to speak of incidental exercise 
at home. His teacher was "old Bob Ezell," familiarly so 
known. A ripe scholar he was, who believed in hickory and 
the high classics, and instilled the last by a free application 
of the first. It was a cruel system, as I for one can feelingly 



certify, that under which we old boys of that day were in- 
doctrinated in the ''Humanities." Heaven save the mark! 
It may well be questioned, however, whether its entire sub- 
version or substitution by the new fangied "fad" called moral 
suasion is conducive to a higher order of manhood. The 
proof is on the boys of the last and rising generation and 
others to follow to adduce. 

From the village school he was transferred to the United 
States Military Academy in 1846, and the transition was not 
a feather-bed by comparison. Four years later he left that 
nursery of heroes as a brevet second-lieutenant in the First 
Dragoons. His class standing was good, ordinary only in 
the academic curriculum, but according to the old Scythian 
standard of liberal education there was none above him. "He 
knew how to ride, to shoot and to speak and to act the truth." 
None stood higher for these and other high qualities than did 
this modest gentleman, as I well know who entered the school 
as he was leaving it and know the name he left behind. By 
the way, he wrote me a long letter of advice before my matric- 
ulation, such as an older brother might be supposed to have 
penned on the occasion to a younger. The gist of it as now 
recalled, was obedience to constituted authority as the basic 
and essential element of -a military life; regard for the rights 
of your fellows, coupled with a reasonable self-assertion of 
your own, and avoidance of all low dissipation. 

His branch of the service, the mounted, was stationed al- 
most exclusively in the far west, in order to hold the Indians 
in check, at that day constantly on the verge of outbreak when 
not in actual hostility. In that then remote quarter the next 
ten years of his life was almost continuously passed in hard 
but inglorious service. Nevertheless it was a fit school of 
preparation for the mighty struggle then impending. He 
had just attained in the line of promotion, a rapid rise to the 
coveted commission of Captain, having married his first wife 
in the meantime and had children born to him. Then came 
the great political cloudburst of '61 and the four eventful 
years of carnage to follow. Gentlemen on the military and na- 
val service from the South were reduced to choice of alterna- 
tives — poverty and honor on one hand and assured pay and po- 



sition and speedy promotion on the other ; or to state it in other 
and plainer terms, to elect and fight for or against their moth- 
ers that bore them. To their eternal credit be it spoken, that in 
that test election and severe ordeal of true manhood, few 
wrongly voted and wrongly acted. Almost solidly their bal- 
lot was, "poverty and unsullied honor." Some few there were 
who otherwise elected, and some of these did strike most hurt- 
ful blow of all against their native section. Marbles and 
bronzes in their honor evince the victor's gratitude. Let us 
for sweet charity, throw the mantle over their name and fame 
and bury their nativity in oblivion. Bob Ransom, like a 
Carolinian of the olden time, the true gentleman and knightly 
soldier, came quick to call and laid his sabre, almost sole 
earthly possession, save his young wife and babies, upon the 
altar of his mother State. Chivalric Ellis, then on the brink 
of the grave, gave him the right hand of welcome and bade 
him raise the only regiment of horsemen then authorized. 
ISTever did he or any other Governor make more judicious 
selection. Never was trust more worthily executed. ISTever 
was there a more superb mounted regiment than the one he 
organized, equipped and carried from Ridgeway to Rich- 

It elicited unstinted praise from the martial President 
down even to the mercenary contractor ; and better still, 
aroused emulation and rivalry of similar commands from its 
own and sister States. In this last regard as exemplar, it 
was of untold service to the cause. To its first Colonel was 
that credit mainly due. And never was Colonel better sec- 
onded than he in his immediate subordinates, Lawrence 
Baker and J. B. Gordon, both later on in command of his 
regiment, and later still general officers. Gordon died on the 
field of glory, and so Baker too would have done if he hadn't 
had more life tenacity than nine cats combined, for he came 
out mangled, shattered and battered as few others did from 
that dread ordeal. God bless you, old "Sabreur" and friend and 
grant that you live to carry those glorious scars for many 
a year yet to come. 

Its first Colonel like Forrest, was born an ideal cavalry- 
man. He was one of the most superb horsemen that ever 
18 [ 273 ] 


vaulted into saddle, with the combined critical eyer of the 
trader and amateur in selection and the Bedouin's inherent 
love for the friend that bore him through trials and dangers 
whilst ever on the alert and lookout for these last. 

The post of da,nger was ever the coveted place of that 
model regiment, and the one by discerning generalship usu- 
ally assigned it. Many and oft times have I heard grand 
old Hampton dilate in loving and admiring terms of its 
proved valor at critical juncture. Of all the daring deeds of 
that Preux Chevalier, I think he takes most pride in his night 
attack at Atlee's Station. With 306 men, 253 being of the 
First North Carolina Cavalry under command of Col. Wm. 
H. Cheek, and the remaining 53 of the Second North Caro- 
lina, under Major Andrews, all Tar Heels, he attacked Kil- 
patrick's entire division and caused it to retreat or rather 
stampede at the dead hour of night, after capturing a briga- 
dier general and a train of other captives outnumbering the 
force he hed. 

I read a letter on the subject from General Hampton : 

Columbia, S. C, March 4th, 1892. 
My Dear Colonel : I am glad to learn that you are to 
deliver a eulogy on General Robert Ransom, for his charac- 
ter and career reflected honor on North Carolina. It was 
mv good 1 fortune to have the First North Carolina cavalry 
in my command during the larger part of the war, and I 
always attributed much of the efficiency of this noble regi- 
ment to its first Colonel, afterwards the distinguished General 
Robert Ransom. To him was due in large measure those sol- 
dierly qualities which won for his old regiment its high repu- 
tation, a reputation it deserved, for in my opinion there was 
no finer body of men in the A. of NjVa., than those com- 
posing the First North Carolina Cavalry. Of the many 
instances when this regiment distinguished itself I recall one, 
when in conjunction with a small detachment from the Sec- 
ond North Carolina it performed a memorable achievement 
in the defeat of Kilpatrick on his raid, attempting to cap- 
ture the city of Richmond. With only 250 men in its hanks 
under command of Colonel Creek, and with fifty men of 



the Second, we struck Kilpatrick's camp at 1 o'clock in the 
morning in a snow storm, after marching forty miles; cap- 
tured more prisoners — representing five regiments — than our 
number, including the officers commanding the brigade, and 
put to flight Kilpatrick's whole force of three brigades in 
which were 5,000 men. But on every field this regiment dis- 
played conspicuous gallantry. Your State, which furnished 
so many gallant soldiers to the Confederacy, gave none who 
upheld her honor and reflected glory on our flag more bravely 
than did the First regiment of cavalry. I can never forget 
my old comrades who composed it. Peace to their dead and 
all honor to their living. 

Sincerely yours, 

Wade Hampton. 

When it is taken into account that Kilpatrick's purpose 
was a junction with Dahlgreen, the infamous, whose purpose 
was as proclaimed by papers found upon his base carcass the 
next day, after capturing our Capital and murdering the 
President and other high officials, to release the Federal pris- 
oners and turn the city over to indiscriminate sack and pil- 
lage and ultimate destruction, the importance of the victory 
will be better realized. The discomfiture of this hellish 
scheme was mainly due to the general in command, and the 
general who had organized and infused his spirit into that 
gallant regiment and made it adequate to the desperate under- 
taking. But let its old commander speak for himself further 
on. Long before that, Colonel Ransom had been assigned to 
a brigade command and a little later on to a divisional. From 
the time of his first promotion to the end he was alternately 
in command of cavalry and infantry, thus proving his ver- 
satility for command, and the great confidence reposed in 
him by the appointing power. 

November, 1861, whilst Colonel of the First Cavalry, he 
led successfully in the first encounter between the cavalry of 
the two armies. In the spring of 1862 he was promoted 
Brigadier-General for the special purpose of detailing him 
to organize the cavalry under Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston 
in the West, but ISTew Bern having fallen, this purpose was 



abandoned, and he was ordered to Eastern North Carolina to 
hold the enemy in check and to maintain railroad communi- 
cations. In June, 1862, he was assigned to the command of 
the North Carolina brigade of infantry, and was with Holmes 
and Huger during the seven days fight, and at Malvern Hill 
his brigade made the last charge, and left some of its dead 
among the Federal guns. 

In the first Maryland campaign his brigade was a part of 
J. G. Walker's division, and was at the fall of Harper's 
Terry and in the hard-fought battle of Sharpsburg. From 
the extreme right (September 17th), he was, at 9 a. m., 
double-quicked to the left centre, where the enemy had pene- 
trated our lines. They were driven back, and three succes- 
sive attacks in overwhelming force repulsed, and the position 
held until our army was withdrawn on the night of the 18th. 
That feat is all the more worthy of mention when it is taken 
into account that two gallant commands had been forced back 
when he came to the rescue, and that his force was subjected 
to an artillery fire at canister range for several hours with- 
out the chance of replying. 

At Fredericksburg he commanded Walker's old division 
(December 13, 1862), and "was in special charge of Mars' 
and Willis Hill," where the Federals suffered heavier than 
at any other part of the line. Here it was that Meagher's fa- 
mous Irish brigade was almost exterminated after various re- 
peated charges to carry the position. Perhaps the lesson then 
received from the force in his front was the prompting im- 
pulse of the generous tribute paid his foeman by that gallant 
son of Erin, Thomas Francis Meagher. In reply to a sere- 
nade given him in Chicago after the war he was reported at 
the time to have used this language : "Now that they are pros- 
trate, the question comes up, how shall we treat them ? My 
answer is, with the utmost kindness, cordiality, generosity 
and magnanimity, for they deserve it. No people have ever 
dared as they did. No people have ever endured as they did. 
Aye, by the God of battles, no people have ever fought as 
they did. They have proven themselves the master revolu- 
tionists of all history. To treat such people otherwise than 
indicated would be the quintessence of baseness, cowardice 
and pusilanimity." 



Had that magnanimous course prevailed, as it probably 
would had it been left to the decision of the true soldier ele- 
ment of the North, the asperities and animosities of the war 
had long since been as effectually wiped out as have the earth- 
works around your towns that the war called into being. But, 
alas, those "sons of thunder," mouthers, ranters and hot- 
house politicians, who had a Falstaffian repugnance to the 
villainous smell of saltpetre when they could get a whiff, and 
illustrate John Phoenix's sneer of "Soldiers in peace, citizens 
in war," had no notion of giving up their chief stock in trade. 

In January, 1863, he was ordered to North Carolina with 
a division to repulse a threatened attack on the W. & W. R. R. 
Here he remained in active service till May ensuing, when 
he was made Major-General and superseded Gen. D. H. Hill 
in the command of Richmond, when the latter was trans- 
ferred to Bragg's army in the West. Here he remained 
about two months, when sickness compelled him to give up 
the command. 

In October, 1863, he was assigned to command in East 
Tennessee, and drove the enemy as far south as Knoxville, 
and in November had a brigade of cavalry, and then was 
ordered to Richmond "for other and distant service." It was 
the President's purpose to assign him to the command of the 
trans-Mississippi Department, and his nomination to a Lieu- 
tenant-Generalcy was sent in. But the threatened condition 
of affairs at Richmond, and the confidence reposed in him 
by the President induced a change in that arrangement, and 
he was assigned to the command, having for its object the 
defense and protection of the Confederate capital. 

How well that duty was performed is shown by a manu- 
script letter of Mr. Davis to him, from which I make a short 
extract: "You had been my main reliance for the defense 
of Richmond. You had shown both your gallantry and ca- 
pacity before you were ordered to reinforce Beauregard for 
temporary service." This letter bears date of 19th of March, 
1887, only two years before that immortal man left us. Only 
six weeks before his death I heard from his own lips strong 
confirmatory evidence of the high estimate in which he held 
General Ransom. This was fully shared by the devoted and 



gifted widow of our Chieftain. When compiling his biogra- 
phy, she wrote me an urgent letter to try and induce Bob 
Ransom to go down to Beauvoir and help her in the work. 
This unfortunately was out of his power to do. 

Apropos of those two men, the last time that I ever saw 
Gen. Robert Ransom was, I believe, in the summer of 1891, 
at the reunion of the old Confederate Veterans' Association 
at Wrightsville, at which he was the then President, and of 
which I had been the first. In consequence, I was booked 
as the orator of the occasion, and took as my theme : "Our 
hero President with his jailor as concomitant." In that 
large crowd of honored old gray beards there was no more 
attentive listener present than their honored head. When 
my address was ended, he wasi the first to grasp my hand and 
to thank me, as he was pleased to phrase it, for a worthy 
tribute to one of the truly grand men that the world had 
known. Those who knew him who uttered it can appreciate 
the compliment, for he was one who never indulged in 
double-faced meaning. Do not mistake my friends, he was 
not alluding to the "concomitant," the key bearer, the riveter 
of fetters in that deplorable episode in our national history. 
JSTo, he was not referring to the Promethean torturer, by 
classic tradition the vulture, by ornithologists the buzzard, 
"exulting in the glory of the night" over the agonies of a 
shackeled giant. A creature we are told of insatiable maw is 
that same bird with gorge of honors such as a real hero has 
no right to aspire beyond this gorgeous thing looks higher 
still. There must be a special grade, forsooth, up to this 
time filled by three or four world-recognized heroes re-created 
to fit his transcendent merits. Tell it not in Gath, publish 
it not in the streets of Askelon. Did Hudson Lowe reach 
the high command of the British army? Did "Simon the 
cobbler" ever grasp the Marshall's baton of Prance? 

IsTo, he was not talking of such a thing as this, but of an 
old man in gray down on the Mexico Gulf who had lately 
left us, weighed down by cruel usage and the cares of state. 
He had held the proudest and most difficult place ever held 
by mortal man, and filled it too. Aye, according to the Hon. 
Mr. Roebuck, in the House of Commons, filled it as none 



other on the then habited globe could have done. He was 
the head and front of the sublirnest cause ever espoused by 
heroes at its death. He was the head and front of our of- 
fending, or, at least, as a vicarious sacrifice, they fain would 
so have finished him, had the law and the world's opinion 
permitted. Despite the systematic tortures of this petty 
tyrant, he lived on for twenty years and died as his friends 
proclaimed him, and the discriminating world now proclaims 
him, "one of the grand men in the tides of time." His 
keeper, such by the accidency of circumstances or the restric- 
tion in the field of selection, is given the pitiful power of 
degrading his own o-overnment in the vain endeavor to de- 
grade the other by tyranny to its Chieftain. Pardon the 
emphasis of my English, oh friends, for it is my style under 
provocation, and is bound to come out when the artesian pres- 
sure at the bottom gives the impulse. 

But to return. Besides checkmating raiders, he was as- 
signed to special duty under General Beauregard to meet 
Butler's movement near Bermuda Hundred. He com- 
manded the left wing and repulsed the enemy's right. With 
him, as the General in command,! there is every reason to be- 
lieve that the battle below Drury's Bluff would have been a 
crushing and an overwhelming defeat to Butler. In special 
orders the day after the fight, General Beauregard was 
pleased to compliment his divisional General in most eulo- 
gistic terms. On the 10th of June, nearly a month later, in 
his report to the war office, he virtually unsays what was then 
published and animadverts on Generals Ransom and Whit- 
ing. There be some who opine that the change of tone in the 
two documents as to the first was simply self explanatory, 
when the commanding General discovered that there was a 
feeling of general disappointment at general results that day 
obtained, and that he preferred for others to bear the respon- 
sibility to shouldering it himself. So did not Robert Lee 
after Gettysburg. 

I beg to add here the following statement made in a re- 
cent letter from that good soldier, that hard fighter, that de- 
voted and faithful man, Gen. William Gaston Lewis: 

"I shall always believe that the order I received from Gen- 



eral Robert Ransom to forward and attack the enemy at 
double quick, saved Drury's Bluff and also Richmond." 

Be that as it may, there is no denying that the discrepancy 
of statement is very extraordinary, to say the least. Unfor- 
tunately for him, it was not the first time that that redoubt- 
able gentleman had had recourse to like tactics to extenuate 
his own incapacity in the hour of almost assured victory. 
Superiors, as well as subordinates, must undergo like criti- 
cism when he needed a shield, as witness the President and 
the Senior General of the army. But to return to General 
Ransom. In June, 1864 he was assigned to the command 
of Early's Cavalry in his movement to meet Hunter and was 
with him all through his march to the rear of Washington in 
July, 1864. He was taken sick and relieved August 15th, 
1864, and was on leave until September of same year when 
he was sent as President of Court of Inquiry to investigate 
outrages reported to have been done on Morgan's last raid 
into Kentucky. 

In November, 1864, he was sent to the command of 
Charleston and surrounding country, which renewed sick- 
ness compelled him to give up shortly afterwards. 

Such is the brief outline or synopsis of the war record 
of Bob Ransom, and it is one that any man and his posterity 
might well be proud of. As adjunct to it, pardon a few ex- 
tracts from a manuscript letter of his of December, 1883. It 
was written to one of his old soldiers and couriers, Professor 
]STat Allen, of Kingstree, S. C, who submitted a sketch for 
a magazine publication for his revision and correction. They 
are given as evidence of his high sense of honor, of truth and 
honesty, which would not permit him to profit by the partial 
mistakes of a loving friend whilst at the same time he mod- 
estly claims what he was justly entitled to. 

He writes : "In some respects you are mistaken. I did 
not supersede or relieve Sam Jones in S. W. Virginia and 
East Tennessee. I reported to him as a subordinate. You 
were right as to- my doing the work and entirely independent 
of his directions, for he gave me none. I did not decline to 
go to the trans-Mississippi, but I did not suit politicians, and 
the pressure being so great around Richmond, was by the 



President's order assigned command at Richmond and De- 
partment of Henrico. I stopped Butler. The affair at 
Rogersville was on the 6th of November, 1863. ... I took 
command of Earley's Cavalry at Lynchburg, Virginia, about 
the 18th or 19th of June, 1864. Disorganized as was this 
force, I made it do some good sendee. I got nearer to Wash- 
ington, D. C, I believe, than did any other general officer of 
the Confederacy, going within less than a hundred yards of 
the works north of the city. In November, '61, I went to 
Charleston, S. C, and left there just after Christmas and was 
no more on duty. At Malvern Hill my brigade made the 
last charge and my men fell at the muzzles of the enemy's 
cannon. At Sharpsburg, I masked ( ?) the junction of Early 
and Hood, who fought out, and repulsed Sumner's and 
Hooker's attacks during the day. At Fredericksburg, with 
less than 5,000 men I repulsed the Federal attacks with a 
trifling loss to us, killing over 2,000 Federals. I think 
though, my best service was in organizing the First North 
Carolina Cavalry, and in my work at Kinston, 1ST. C, in the 
spring of '62, when I brought order out of chaos, after the 
fall of Newbern, and in my operations around Richmond 
in 1^64 (the spring), when with only a handful of men I pre- 
vented the fall of the city against raids and Butler's attacks. 
I have been trying to get up data, but it seems a hopeless job, 
and I hate to write anything which will not be complete and 

convincing It does appear that I am for all my 

life to be at hard employment. Well, better wear out too 
quickly than rust out and linger too long. I return the paper, 
and if you can correct it satisfactorily and do justice to 
Brigadier-General W. E. Jones for his part at Rogersville, 
for you know he was in immediate command, I will as fully 
appreciate and recognize your kindness and friendship as a 
grateful man can. Be sure not to claim anything for me 
that is not justly mine. . . . Faithfully yours." 

Much of this letter, my friends, is repetition in the main, 
but it is given as confirmation of what was gleaned from 
other sources, for you who knew him well will affirm that 'Tie 
would not claim anything for himself that is not justly his." 



And now, my friends, with, a brief summary of character, 
we will close this too extended sketch. 

Old Tom Carlyle hath pungently said in effect if not in 
words, that "none but earnest men do deeds worth chronicle." 
True for you, old Epigram, aud here is an illustration. Bob 
Ransom was an earnest man. Convince his judgment and 
every fibre and impulse of his nature was sure to follow to 
make that judgment good. 

'Tis needless to say to those who knew him, that conscience 
had first to be convinced. That done, and work or fight or 
pray, "he did his level best." 

I have told you as you knew before, that he was a follower 
true and tried of "the Southern Cross." Those who knew 
him only on the surface, little thought that there was an- 
other "Cross" for which he strove within himself even more 
strenuously. I know it of observation in the dead hour of 
night, and have had it confirmed by tongue of one whose 
words with me is almost tantamount to either of the five 
senses, his old comrade in arms, the late Col. E. D. Hall; 
judging from his war diary he seemed never to have missed 
divine service when secular duties permitted his attendance. 
One entry is here inserted; April 8th, '64, "Last Day. Tried 
faithfully and piously to observe it." 

" So groan'd Sir Launcelot in remorseful pain, 
Not knowing he should die a holy man." 

Whilst few had higher regard for 'the good opinion of the 
discerning good, none held in more sovereign scorn the ephem- 
eral popularity, for which small men strive as good supreme 
of earthly aspiration. Perhaps in him it was carried a frac- 
tion too far, both in peace and war. His idea was that an 
approving conscience is essential to happiness. "The rest 
is but tinsel and gewgaw;" so held Socrates, the philosopher, 
wisest of men. 

It may be a fallacious creed for worldly gain, but for eter- 
nal give it me every time before that of the smiling, smirking 
time-server, now this, now that, all things to all men. It is 
essentially the faith of brave, high strung, straightforward, 
self-reliant natures, for sturdy independence and freedom 
from cant, duplicity, hypocrisy, and policy, the world has 



rarely seen Bob Ransom's match. He had an instinctive 
repugnance to anything that bore in slightest the semblance 
of unseemly claim, or cringe or fawn or untruth. _, 

Ladies and old comrades, I have tried to give you in my 
feeble way the limn and outline of a hero, one who reflected 
glory on his State and her cause as he did in our frail hu- 
manity and as he would have done on the "Table round of 
Arthur and his chosen twelve." He was one of the 126,000 
according to official count, that ^STorth Carolina sent to the 
front in those trying and telling times. Heroes all they were, 
except the exceptional few homesick gentlemen who could 
not get along on rather precarious camp fare with only for 
saltpetre for seasoning, and had to go home with or without 
leave, for "pies and things.' 1 Scratch the names of such off the 
roll, and we have an immortal roster left in very truth. Her 
contribution to the cause, ]S7orth Carolina's I mean, was so 
overwhelmingly in excess of the others, that to spare the feel- 
ings of the others we'll omit comparative figures. Suffice 
for purpose that no other State approximated her in soldiers, 
none surpassed her in gallant deeds, none equalled her in 
graves. I said that he was a unit of the 126,000 heroes, bar- 
ring deserters, that are accredited to ISTorth Carolina. As 
times will not permit to call the roll and specify their deeds 
in detail, we must take a few of their typical leaders as illus- 
trative of the men they led. Without the backing of these 
last they could never have risen to the proud grade of his- 
toric front. It takes heroes to make heroes. 'Tis ever so. 

" Ye brave en masse who fall and pass to the leaden halls of death, 
There are palms for the few, but alas for you, 
Not a leaf from the victor's wreath.' 

Let it content us, brothers, duty well performed must 
needs be our meed and guerdon. What higher meed need men 
demand ? Here are a few of you who inscribed your names 
high on the historic scroll, and most of whom did die for cause 
espoused. I take at random George Anderson and Junius 
Daniel, Pender and Pettigrew, Grimes Branch and Bragg, 
Ramseur, Hoke and the other Ransom. Of course there are 
many glorious names omitted, but these will do as type and il- 
lustration of that super-human army. 



After war's stern alarms were over, he settled down to the 
humble citizen and devoted the remnant of his well-spent life 
to the improvement of the water-ways on your coast. His 
unpretentious after life was in keeping with the glorious 
record that he had previously made. He lived and died a true 
soldier, a good citizen and an upright gentleman. 

With bowed heads and reverential mien and grateful 
hearts, we thank Thee, oh God of battles and Giver of all 
good and perfect gifts, that in the hour of supreme grief and 
disappointment and the generation of sorrows and trials that 
have followed, thou didst vouchsafe such a spotless cause and 
such unsullied champions to uphold it. Amen. 

West Point Then West Point Now. 
(A letter written by "Senex" to the Washington Post, February 3, 1901.) 

Brutality is a synonym for fun. So says the savage whilst 
gloating over the agonies of his victim. So thought and 
thinks Dante's demons in Inferno, as they pile on the fagots 
for fresh arrivals in that hope-left region. It passes belief 
that any, save creatures of this debased and abnormal type, 
could take delight in suffering, and, least of all, in those of 
their own kind. Recent developments, however, in our two 
"national nurseries" for soldiers and seamen forces the re- 
luctant conclusion that innate propensity in the baser sort 
for inflicting pain when solely a one-sided game is not modi- 
fied by fortuitous station or a little suj)erncial culture. The 
brutish instinct of the son of Aurelius, whose chief delight 
on the verge of manhood was to torture flies, naturally paved 
the way as his great fathers foresaw in his successor, to Corn- 
modus, "the execrable," torturer of men. As easy the trans- 
ition from the torturer of "plebes" to the tyrant of peoples, 
when opportunity places it in his power. Eliminate the 
whole cowardly, detestable brood as fast as the vile nature 
is developed. 

Fifty years ago, says an old man, the older cadets would 
have a little harmless sport out of the newcomer by jest, gibe, 
or harmless boyish pranks, rarely, if ever, transcending the 



gentleman's bound of courage, decency, and inborn gentility. 
There was a tradition then, still current on "The Point," old 
Senex continues, which may have had much to do with put- 
ting a curb on vulgar, upstart pretension. But to the story, 
be it purely apochryphal or mostly true, and the last is my 
diagnosis, having ever believed that "the boy is father of the 
man." The tale is told as it was told at the time, half a cen- 
tury ago. 

Back in the "twenties," so the tradition runneth, quoth 
"Senex," there came to the academy a stalwart son of Ken- 
tucky, country born and country bred was he, but high-strung 
and self-reliant. Modest and reserved he was by high home 
culture and gentlemanly instinct, but punctilious to a hair's 
breadth in questions involving his inherent rights. Of course 
the lad was unknown to fame. The world had never heard of 
him up to that day. It has heard of him ever since, and 
will continue to hear whilst fame has tongue and men have 

On the night after his arrival he was waited upon by a 
visiting squad of soldier cadets on a little "fun" intent. Soon 
one of his visitors passed him the lie, for specific purpose of 
provoking excuse for ulterior proceedings. He got it, for the 
next moment he was in a recumbent position from a blow 
between the eyes. Of course, such an unheard of presump- 
tion, a plebe striking an older cadet, could not be atoned 
except in blood. Such the predicate laid down by outraged 
dignity, to which the offender was more than acquiescent. 

"Yes," was the cool reply, "I'll fight your whole posse 
in detail, in any way you may elect, if you will only promise 
'fair play.' " 

With both sides so very accommodating, of course the pre- 
liminaries were soon arranged. 

Place, Kosciuske's garden. Time, just after reveille in 
the morning. Weapons, muskets loaded with fifteen buck- 
shot each. Distance, fifteen paces. 

One of the young gentlemen kindly voluntered to act as 
the plebe's second. They met. according to agreement, and 
at the first fire the older classman fell. The younger pro- 



ceeded at once to reload his own gun with the deliberation and 
nonchalance of a juvenile rabbit hunter. 

"What are you doing, Plebe ?" Don't you see you have 
killed your man ?" exclaimed his "friend," in evident alarm. 

"Well, if he is dead, a little more killing won't do him any 
hurt," was the calm reply. "Wake up your dead friend and 
tell him for me he had better proceed to do what I am doing, 
for I'm resolved to have another shot or two before this funny 
party breaks up. Here are three honest cartridges, not fire- 
crackers. Select one for your dead friend, and another for 
yourself. I will keep the third. All three as well as the one 
in my gun barrel are charged precisely alike. Of this you 
must take my word, but rest assured there's lead in each. Go 
and report what you have heard, and let me know the decision 
of yourself and friends." 

There was a hurried interchange of opinion in that mimic 
"council of war" when that plebe's mandate for a plebiscite 
became known. The story runs that the "dead man" evinced 
more vitality and a more pacific spirit than any other in that 
conclave of fun-seekers and merry-makers. They do say 
that after he came to life he talked with a fluency and volu- 
bility until then dormant in advocacy of acquiescing in the 
bullheaded plebe's demands. They do say, too, that he had a 
most eloquent seconder in the late "second" of the second 
party of the second part. 

"What do you demand ?" was the answer brought back by 
the messenger. 

"An ample apology from each and all of you for your un- 
gentlemanly treatment, and a promise to abstain from such 
in the future." 

"I am authorized to say that such demand will be com- 
plied with by all of us," was the prompt rejoinder. 

For once the hazers were hazed, and innate cruelty taught 
a lesson which was borne in mind for many a day thereafter. 

History tells of another plebe in the dim bygone who, 
single-handed, "held the bridge" against advancing hordes 
of normal brutality. Who will say that the incident men- 
tioned does not entitle the later plebe to kindred plane with 
that since held by "the brave Horatius ?" The sportsman's 



intuition on discharge told the boy that there was only a 
blank cartridge in his gun, and missing his target, a pair of 
legs, at short range settled it beyond doubt, hence his resolve 
to try "phlebotomy" as a curative for cowardly practical jok- 
ing. It has been seen how it worked. 

It may be asked whence the obvious and admitted degen- 
eracy in the tone and esprit de corps of the Military Academy 
of late years. 

"Fifty years ago," continued Senex, "the West Point corps 
of cadets was the most truthful, chivalrous, high-toned body 
of young gentlemen that could be found in the world. Truth, 
courage, regard for the rights of others, especially the weaker 
— in a word, inborn and cultivated manhood — developed 
men, heroes, and gentlemen, surpassing for the time of its 
brief existence any other school that the world had known 
in that regard. In those halcyon days ; I had a cadet friend 
(one of many) to whom I was deeply attached until the incep- 
tion of the war between the States, he espousing the Northern 
and I the Southern side of the great question at issue. The 
estrangement thus produced continued for many years there- 
after, when by mutual consent we met again on the old tramp- 
ing-ground. War questions were, by tacit understanding, 
ignored, and we were in our middle manhood — boys again — 
roaming over familiar scenes and recalling old friends and 
incidents of the early manhood days. He had been a ripe 
and ready scholar, and graduated near the head of his class 
and been a close student ever since. As a consequence, al- 
most on emerging from the section room he had been called 
to fill one of the most important chairs in the academic staff, 
and he filled it creditably. In one of our turns about evening 
parade, I stopped and put this direct question to him : 

" 'Tell me, amigo mio' whether the same high sense of 
honor pervades that line that did in our day, when the slight- 
est suspicion of prevarication or falsehood, even to avoid sus- 
pension or dismissal, would consign the culprit to the cate- 
gory of 'the dogs,' Anglice, 'social pariahs V 

"His answer follows, in effect: 'It grieves me, old fellow, 
to tell you no; so far from it, indeed, that a bare-faced lie 



on lesser inducement entails but little loss of caste among his 

" 'To what do you ascribe this woeful deterioration ?' was 
the next query. 

" 'Partly to the demoralizing results of war, but more to 
the loss of a typical sectional equipoise as counter-balance.' 

"Be his diagnosis of 'cause' correct or otherwise, never- 
theless, conceding the predicate, and it is easy to account 
for the continued downward grade culminating in the abyss 
of infamy for the culprits now being developed." 

Macauley asserts that lying is common to all inferior races, 
and heaven-given to protect themselves against a superior 
race. If so it be, what more natural than the transition to the 
individual man of like base instinct from liar to torturer. 
The Hottentot, the Indian, and the "heathen Chinese" are 
masters of each accomplishment. The man with a white hide 
rarely proves a laggard in any field of competition on which 
his ambition prompts him to enter. 

Fayetteville, K C. W. J. G. 


An Address by Col. W. J. Green, Delivered to the Young People of Fayetteville 
on the Ninety- Fifth Birthday of the President of the Southern Confederacy — 
The Life and Character of the Great Leader Described by One who Knew 
Him Well. 

The following address on President Jefferson Davis was 
delivered before the young people of Fayetteville on the nine- 
ty-fifth anniversary of Mr. Davis' birthday, by Colonel Whar- 
ton J. Green. It was published in the Fayetteville Observer 
by request of J.'E. B. Stuart chapter Daughters of the Con- 
federacy, and a copy has been sent to The Observer with a 
request for its reproduction in the columns of this paper. 

"My young friends, and old friends, too, pardon a few pref- 
atory remarks, and I will tell you in brief why we are here 
to-day to honor the memory of ex-President Jefferson Davis, 
and to make it plain, you have only to be told what manner of 
man he was too that we honor him because he first honored us. 
He was an earnest man, and as old Tom Carlyle tells us, no 



other kind of men ever achieve anything fit to live or worthy 
to survive in this world. He was a studious, a reflective, a 
God-fearing man, ever tenacious of his own rights and those 
of his people, but ever ready to concede as much to others, 
which constituted him a just man. He was a typical and 
representative man of a class embodying the grandest civili- 
zation and most finished society that the world contained, 
now fast becoming extinct, and which when it does, the world 
can never know it's like again. Such was the "old South," 
which witlings of "the new" are prone to deride as having 
been deficient in "Push" and appreciation of material or 
commercial prosperity. Correct they are, for that class was 
so old fogy as to have a marked preference for sterling, old- 
fashioned gentility over the garish substitute that has come 
to the front under the effulgent new order of things subse- 
quently. This man was an illustration of the first, the purse- 
proud aristocracy of the last. Like the old Greek, he did not 
know how to play the lute or dance the Pyrrhic (or the 
"german" either), hut he knew how to make a small State 
great, for he was of a race that turned out men, "high- 
minded men," and not mere physical and intellectual dwarf- 
ings, or moneyed mountebanks. 

" 111 fares the land to hastening ills a prey, 
Where wealth accumulates and men decay." 

He came of a race of modest mein, but assertive manhood, 
one that knew it's rights, and knowing, dared maintain. One 
that evolved heroes, sages, statesmen, and grandest of all 
gentlemen, in more prolific outcrop than any other of like 
time and count has ever done or will do, henceforth and for- 
ever. I repeat, after mature deliberation and due reflection, 
and after being a close and untiring student of history 
through life, that this man, Jefferson Davis, first and only 
President of a short lived but immortal Republic, when his- 
tory comes to be written, as it should be, will loom up as one 
of the world's grandest characters, the peer of Aurelius, 
Washington and Lee (grandest triumvirate that the world 
has known). Can praise or appreciation go higher? From 
the day he mounted his pony, as a little lad of seven years 

19 [ 289 ] 


old to ride through three great States to matriculate in his 
first public boarding school, he showed the stuff that was in 
him. Thence on to the end of his glorious and most event- 
ful life, if he ever fell short or proved derelict in any duty 
devolving upon him, after filling the highest positions under 
two great governments ; and one, the most trying and exact- 
ing ever occupied by mortal man I cannot recall it. Did ever 
man go to render his final account with such a balance sheet 
as that before ? If so, close historical research has failed to 
bring it under my eye. He was never over elated by success, 
and for near three score years, he had his full allowance of it, 
nor was he ever unduly depressed by "the slings and arrows 
of outrageous fortune," and in his declining years, he seemed 
to be a favorite target for the shafts of the fickle jade. He 
received the praise and plaudits of the impartial world with 
same sublime poise and 'equanimity/ that he did the gnat 
stings of a petty tyrant, whose chiefest delight was to inflict 
the torture that he could upon his helpless victim. See latent 
retort of scorn : 

" The man who dies by the adder's fang 
May have the crawler crushed, but feels no anger; 
'Twas the worm's nature, and some men are worms 
In soul, more than the living things of tombs." 

This withering scorn of one of the immortal poets in speak- 
ing of a low, base, depraved nature, might be supposed to have 
been his thought whilst undergoing the instinctive brutality 
of this crawling creature. And here comes in the reason for 
selecting this spot as the place of our meeting. On an invalid 
couch and within sound of my voice lies a noble sick lady. 
For over twenty years she has hardly left that bed of suffering 
for a day at a time. Her admiration and veneration for 
this world hero surpasses that of any that I have ever known, 
except my own. When refused and denied by his resplendent 
jailor the commonest necessaries and comforts of life, even 
down to a sufficiency of bedding, after that solace of an old 
soldier, his pipe, had been taken away from him, it occurred 
to this truly good woman that a thick, warm quilt might 
lessen his sufferings, and thereupon she made one and sent 
it to him post-haste. Her unpretentious life has been replete 



with beautiful little benefactions and Christian charities, but 
none has reached the standard of this. I am prepared to be- 
lieve on the glass of cold water basis that for this one good 
act alone, when she knocks at the golden gates, there will be 
but little question of admission on the part of the gate-keeper. 
Never was gift more thankfully received, as evinced in his 
loving inquiries about the donor on the occasion of my last 
visit to him, six weeks before his death. Young ladies, if I 
had been born of your sex and hers I would rather have 
been the maker and giver of that bed-spread to that poor, 
suffering, but immortal man, than any Zenobia, Cleopatra or 
Semiramis who has figured in history. Hence, although I 
had about resolved never to try and speak in public again J 
nevertheless when her request came for me to do so on this 
occasion, it wasn't in me to say nay. And so Mrs. Jessie K. 
Kyle is solely responsible for the infliction you will undergo 
to-day. And yet mock-modesty does not forbid the remark 
that, in some respects few living men are better suited to the 
task. Few knew him better or longer, and none honored and 
revered him more in life and death. Truly can I say of him 
what I published of another in The Boston Herald, in a let- 
ter written from Rome some five and forty years ago. It 
was the spontaneous outburst of a young patriot of demoniac 
fury about to burst over his own beloved land : "To-day we 
stood on the spot where stood the bridge defended by 'The 
Codes' in the brave days of Rome. Well do I recall the day, 
when as an unsophisticated country school boy I first perused 
the enchanting story, and I thought then, as I think now, that 
I would rather have been that bold plebian with naught to 
commend him of which we are aware, save a strong arm, 
a stout heart, and a free, unfettered spirit, backed by a pa- 
triotism paramount to every other consideration, than all 
of the Alexanders and Attilas, Totilas and Tamerlanes, Caes- 
ars and Bonapartes, who have been the curse of their kind, 
combined and consolidated in one grand legitimate cut-throat. 
That was penned by a mere boy near a half a century bygone. 
Let him substitute the identity of another Horatius, another 
for the captain of the gate, a Codes for a Codes (blind of 
one eye), or, to make it plain, Jefferson Davis for Horatius, 
and by my conscience I stick to what was then uttered. Yea, 



verily, rather be that frail, half-blind man, the later on "Cap- 
tain of the Gate," and '"Holder of the Bridge," at times like 
his prototype of antiquity, almost single-handed, and ever 
with an "eye single" to his high and holy trust, than the 
whole aggregation of great captains only, who have reddened 
the earth solely for selfish aim and greed of gain. My last 
interviews with this superbest of men that I have ever known, 
and I am prepared to believe that the world has ever known, 
came on invitation to visit him, only six or eight weeks before 
he left us. Perhaps the invitation was not accepted by re- 
turn of mail, and I didn't put in an appearance at "Beauvoir" 
as fast as steam would take me. But such inference is im- 
probable, and not true to the record. The three or four days 
passed in that charming abode are amongst the most delight- 
ful in recall through a somewhat eventful life. The great 
man was there in his beautiful, simple, ©very-day domestic 
life, and so was his devoted wife, and loving and most lovable 
daughter, "Our Winnie," who bore before and thence on the 
proudest title ever worn by woman, save one, and wore ilj 
with honor and without reproach, a title transcending even 
that of queenly Cornelia, of "daughter of the Scipios and 
mother of the Gracchi," her throne far outshining those of 
"Ind or Orme," or that of any other Oriental sultana or 
imperial princess of Rome, for whilst they might sit on one 
of ivory and gold "the Daughter of the Confederacy" had 
her's enshrined in the hearts of heroes and the wives and 
daughters of heroes. John Gordon, I thank you for the 
soubriquet, so worthily and appropriately bestowed on this 
fascinating young woman. Let none other ever carry it. 

In the welcome of this historic but unpretentious family, 
the head of which was a hero in three wars, and the architect 
or formulator of the most phenomenal republic of all times, 
were passed three of the happiest and best improved days of 
my life. From the worthiest of the disciples of the great 
Calhoun, a little teaching could but come to a would-be dis- 
ciple of his, in our little daily talks. A single recital of one 
incident, to illustrate his wonderful nerve, power of endur- 
ance and celerty of thought and grasp, is here reproduced: 
"After the Rifles had repulsed the attack of the Lancers, it 



soon became obvious that we would soon nave to receive 
another charge in overwhelming force (Buena Vista), and I 
realized that a change of line of battle was all important. 
Shortly after the necessary order was issued, and in process 
of execution, we came suddenly on a gulch or chasm, appa- 
rently about fifteen or twenty feet across, and of about the 
same depth, and sides almost precipitous. There was no 
chance to flank it. in time for the occasion, and so it had to be 
crossed. I had to clear it en volt, a leap. Ordinarily, I 
would have had confidence in my mount to clear it, for he 
was of blood and mettle. But that day I had but one spur 
available. But crossed it had to be, so giving orders for the 
command to scramble down and up the side as best they could, 
I went back some fifty yards for purchase or impetus, and 
went for it at full tilt and cleared it in fine style. In the 
instant that I was in the air, I saw beneath a four-mule team 
with the driver in the agonies of death. A minute later, my 
men were crawling up the bank and we were soon in line and 
prepared to receive our visitors in a proper manner. The old 
soldier's face lit up with the fire of youth and old-time con- 
flict as he told the story, and there was no brag or bravado 
in the recital. Behold the heroic man in the supreme mo- 
ment of decision before taking that perilous vault on the 
success of which hinged the issue of the day and the fate of 
an army. This is the man whom scullions would fain de- 
grade by the pusilanimous spite of expunging his name from 
national monuments and memorials, which owed their being 
to his patriotism and genius. A little illustration to show 
the folly of puny and puerile spite to reverse the reading of 
history. One day, in strolling through the Dogeana, or Du- 
cal Palace of Venice, I came into the famous gallery of por- 
traits, containing the life likenesses of all the sovereign Ducal 
of those immortal "Sea Kings," all save one, which, was an 
empty frame draped in black. On demanding the meaning 
of my guide, the reply came, "That panel, Senor, is the one 
for the best known (for, like you, every stranger asks this 
cause of the vacant space), and many think the most illus- 
trious of the Dogeanic line, that is he who "tamed the Turk," 
and curbed Florence, Pisa, Genoa and Amalfi, not to name 



the new city on the straits with its imperial upstarts of the 
Palseologi and Commeni stocks ! The speaker was a Vene- 
tian. Opposite thereto, in the Supreme Court room in Wash- 
ington, are arranged with like precision as to detail all the 
Chief Justices of the United States of America, all save one, 
and yet some there be, and their name is not meagre, who hold 
and maintain that the aforesaid vacant frame lacks a suitable 
head in the chief est of the justiciaries of the antecedent high- 
sounding cognomen. ISTo ! Roger B. Taney and Jefferson 
Davis are there to stay, as will that of the good old Venetian, 
Marino Faliero, despite party pique and partisan malevo- 
lence, and the expunging chisel or wipeout brush ; they are 
there to stay. Pigmies all bear it in mind that it is an easy 
thing to do, to efface or obliterate figies of giants. Better let 
this kind alone, for your puny scaling ladders and expunging 
tools can never reach the tip of their beard. 

The last time that I was brought into contact with him was 
at his gorgeous funeral, all things considered, perhaps, the 
most imposing and impressive ever accorded to man, for it 
was a genuine outgush of feeling from the mighty concourse 
assembled, estimated as high as one hundred thousand, and 
everything was conducted in the plainest and simplest man- 
ner, as he would have had it, for he loathed vulgar ostenta- 
tion, as all truly great men do. The mighty procession fol- 
lowed on foot from Virginia's historic capital to quiet Holly- 
wood, where we laid him to rest, in, perhaps, the most beau- 
tiful spot in its hallowed domains, overlooking the James 
from about its highest point. On the march and at the grave, 
the place of honor was accorded our delegation, just behind 
the catafalque, and at the head of the grave. His lately 
penned letter in commendation of their State, written to the 
Fayetteville committee on the centennial occasion, called for 
no subordinate place. A brief space thereafter, and some of 
us helped to place the remains of his lovely, gifted, womanly 
daughter by his side. Her funeral fell but little short of 
his — and there they rest, this father and daughter, until the 
resurrection morn. Never higher type of the two has this 
world seen. Young gentlemen and ladies, their portraiture 
is given in brief to arouse imitation and emulation. Time 



forbids further elaboration. Boys, there was a man, a com- 
bination, such as we will never look upon his like again. 

You will find the study of his life and character and that 
of the cause which he embodied, and those of the patriotic 
heroes who helped to uphold his hands in the hours of trial, 
more useful and instructive reading than the flashy trash with 
which the world is now inundated. Of this last class were 
such men as Lee, and Sidney Johnston, and Jackson and For- 
rest, and Hampton, and Dick Taylor, and Stuart, and the 
Hills, and the Lees (Steve and Custis), and half a million of 
other grand, self-sacrificing, patriotic heroes, some few of 
whom still linger superfluous on the stage, whilst the bulk of 
them have crossed over the river and are resting in the shade 
of the trees. Its good reading, young gentlemen. 

" Lives of great men all remind us, 
We can make our lives sublime, 
And departing, leave behind us 
Footprints on the sands of time." 

And, again, from a favorite old volume of long ago (Fes- 
tus), we read: "He most lives who thinks most, feels the 
noblest, acts the best." All of this he did. And whilst in 
the quotation mood let me add another in conclusion. My 
wife found it in place in a little book of daily devotions the 
day we took the funeral train at Greensboro, May 30, 1893 : 
"And thus this man died, leaving his death an example of a 
noble courage and a memorial of virtue, not only unto young 
men, but unto all his nation." (2 Macabees, 6th chapter, 3d 
verse. ) 

Friends, one and all, let me urge you never to speak of 
him in the flippant style of New England South-haters as 
"Jeff Davis." It comes with bad grace from a Southern 
tongue. He was either President Davis, or plain, simple Mr. 

My young friends, this is the ninety-fifth birthday of one 
of the most remarkable men who figure in history, and whose 
name and fame should be held dear by every one of Southern 
birth, now, henceforth and forever. 

I have been asked, as said, by our dear friend, Mrs. Kyle, 
who lies on an invalid couch near-by, and who honors his 



memory almost as muck as I do, to tell you a little of what I 
know of this truly good and great man, for both he was, and 
therein lay his chiefest claim upon our regard. How few fill 
the hill and houor the "letter of credit" on posterity as he. 
A truly good and a truly great man in combination ! Grand- 
est sight to men or gods it is — a truly good and a truly 
great man. 

The world, according to common repute, has had five great 
captains by name and roster — Alexander, Hannibal, Caesar, 
Frederic, Napoleon. Great soldiers all they were, but not 
one of them could lay claim to the combination laid down of 
truly great and good. They lived and died before the days 
of Lee — the superb, the peerless soldier, who, by common 
consent of all competent military critics, fills the sixth place, 
and the needed combination. He, too, my young friends, 
God be praised, was one of us. But I come not to talk to you 
of mere soldiers to-day, though no occupation is more worthy 
or praiseworthy, when followed in a righteous cause, in a 
righteous way and for the rights of man. Xo other wars or 
warriors can be held strictly excusable in the eye of God and 
men. God be eternally praised, ours was one of that sort, and 
no cause ever had grander soldiers or more of them in pro- 
portion to opposing sides. Sidney Johnston, Lee and Jack- 
son, with Davis as directing head, would sanctify, ennoble 
and glorify any cause left to the arbitrament of arms. We 
challenge any single war to match that immaculate quartette 
of immortals in chief command. Did any war ever have 
completer type of justification, not to speak of their great 
lieutenants down and through the rank and file, who knew 
how to die themselves and to teach others how to die for what 
they knew to be right? 

No, it is not of the Confederate army, but of the civic chief, 
without whose contriving and controlling head and directing 
hand, that almost invincible army as it soon came to be con- 
sidered, could not have been kept afield or afoot for six 
months, and probably not for sixty days. And yet for four 
years, under his superb and matchless manipulation, it did 
and endured more than any other army has ever done, Greek, 
Roman or English not excepted. Of course, after the forma- 



tive crisis, it became a case of mutual dependence and sup- 
port, the one on the other, the executive on the army, the army 
on the executive. Luckily for both and for the cause, neither 
rarely fell short in its allotted work. But it is chiefly of the 
executive, or to be precise, of the presidency, and of him who 
filled it, that I propose to talk to you to-day. Great soldiers 
merely have been no rarity in the world, since wholesale 
throat-cutting first came into vogue. But great men, all- 
round men, have ever been and will ever continue to be more 
of a curiosity and a historic world wonder. The great Marl- 
borough, "Little Jack Churchill," was undoubtedly a great 
soldier, perhaps until Lee put in an appearance, the greatest 
of all the English speaking ones of the tribe, but who in the 
face of his time-serving, self-seeking instincts and proclivities, 
and easy and ever-shifting political principles, and infidelity 
to faith and plighted word, would ever think of writing his 
name in the little book of truly great men. It was, I repeat, 
for the last named as a professional soldier to complete the 
combination, and stand forth for all time the model soldier 
and ideal man. Most fortunate he was in final development, 
in having for chief, one of kindred mould, and for cause one 
as immaculate as the untrodden snow. Both in unison were 
essential to the full make-up of the man. He could never 
have reached his full stature as commander of the "Tenth 
Legion" under Caesar, or of the "Rear Guard" on the great 
retreat (freely rendered, "panic") under Xapoleon, because, 
forsooth, his judgment could not have relied on the captain, 
or his conscience on the cause in either case. But here there 
was the entente cordiale, the thorough accord all around. See 
the outcome the grandest, outcrop of creation, Davis and Lee, 
the grandest brace of heroes that ever immortalized any ante- 
cedent struggle between the sons of men. Are you not proud, 
young ladies and gentlemen, that you are of the same race 
and tribe with Jefferson Davis and Robert E. Lee? If not, 
you should set to work to correct the defects of neglected edu- 
cation. But to the work in hand, let it be premised, that it 
was my proud privilege to know them both, and the one 
whom we are considering, intimately from my boyhood days 
to that of his death, as numerous letters from him can attest, 



as well as the beqneatkal of his inksand, most valued heirloom 
in my house. In that acquaintance began, ripened and con- 
tinued to the end, is the secret of my love, admiration and 
hero-worship of the man. It has never flagged or grown dim- 
mer, but on the contrary intensifies with each recurring year. 
My first acquaintance with him began during his first term 
in Congress, when he was a man of 37 years, and I a boy of 
fourteen. It is needless to say, there could be no great in- 
timacy between two of our divergent ages, but, boarding at 
the same house, a Mrs. Potter's, I believe, on Pennsylvania 
avenue, near Sixth street, and our rooms contiguous. I being 
the only juvenile in the establishment, (the others being grave 
Senators and members of Congress,) I naturally saw much 
of him in his leisure hours. In fact, out of compliance with 
my father's request, who was his friend, but absent on busi- 
ness, he kept a kind of casual supervisory outlook over me 
until I was consigned to my college, and he to the colonelcy 
of the First Mississippi Rifles, in the Mexican war, which he 
made immortal as well as himself by his superb management. 
At Buena Vista, it is generally conceded that he saved the 
day at more than one critical juncture. The general in com- 
mand, sturdy old Zach Taylor, a little later on, lovingly 
dnbbed "Old Hough and Ready," realized his obligation to 
him at once and although connected by closest family tie, 
had refused to extend him friendly greeting for many years 
anterior. A well authenticated story has it that without dis- 
mounting after battle he rode over to the colonel's tent, who 
was lying on a pallet with a shattered foot. "Colonel Davis," 
he said, "will you deign to take my hand ?" Quick came the 
reply: "More gladly, general, than I ever did anything in my 
life." The reconciliation was complete. Girls, would you 
like a little love story in this connection ? Well, you shall 
have it. Shortly after the cadet was turned into a lieutenant, 
he was sent to the then northwest, to wear the gilt off his 
epaulets and spurs, and to help catch Black Hawk, the fa- 
mous Indian warrior, who was making things lively in those 
parts. for the settlers. This was done, and the conquered In- 
dians, including their chief, were prisoners under his care. 
He subsequently received the thanks of Black Hawk for his 



courtesy to the conquered. Quotation this last. Observe the 
difference accorded to prisoners, (though only barbarians), by 
a gentleman jailor and that received by himself from an in- 
flated, upstart tyrant later on ? Having served a long proba- 
tion as a prisoner of war myself, I was brought in touch with 
each class, and to draw the line of demarcation between the 
two, to honor the one and to loathe and despise the other. If 
it be a sin to put the systematic torturer of our "grand old 
man" in the contemptuous class, God help me, I can't help it, 
and perhaps I am not disposed to make an over-strenuous 
effort in that direction. History tells us of many brutal keep- 
ers of illustrious State prisoners. Few, if any there are, 
whose name and fame I covet less than that of one Simon-the- 
Cobbler, the torturer unto death of a little boy king, known 
as the Dauphin, whose only crime was that he was the son 
of his father and mother, known in history as Louis XVI 
and Marie Antoinette, who were murdered by the insane mob 
government of that day. The question arose what was to be 
done with their poor little eight-year-old orphan, then de 
facto King of France. Murder him they could as they had 
his parents, but were afraid to for fear of intensifying the 
horror and indignation of all Europe, already at fever heat. 
So it was resolved to accomplish the same end by slow, de- 
liberate, systematic cruelty and torture. But where could a 
creature so base be found as to carry out such a demoniac pur- 
pose? It was at that juncture, when true soldiers held back 
aghast, that this creature, more loathsome than a toad, or 
vampire, or devil fish, came for name, laterized, as soldier. 
Ye Powers! for a consideration he would undertake the job. 
He got it, yes, Simon-the-Cobbler was promoted to be the 
keeper of a King with the implied, if not expressed, condition, 
that he was, like the fabled vulture of old, to feed on the vitals 
of his helpless victim until the vital spark was sped. He com- 
plied with his part of the contract with scrupulous exacti- 
tude ! 

The fancy has sometimes come over me, what if you were 
reduced to the dread alternative of making choice between 
the Cobbler and another later on whose name, latinized, is 
Soldier. (Ye Powers eternal, what a travesty on nomencla- 



ture!) who gladly discharged the same villainous functions; 
which would you rather be of the two ? The question still re- 
mains unsettled in my mind, notwithstanding the difference 
in prominence and position of the jailors. 

But to come back to our story: The post to which the 
young man was assigned was under the command of a bluff 
old colonel with a charming daughter, who he declared with 
military emphasis and intonation should never marry in the 
army. Now that was just what the young lady wanted to 
do, and what the lieutenant wanted to do likewise. But the 
colonel was incorrigible, and the young couple, being respect- 
ors of parental authority and military mandate, were com- 
pelled to put off the nuptial day until the obstacles could be 
removed or avoided. Two years later he resigned his com- 
mission, and deeming now that all rational objection on the 
part of her father was removed, he hurried to Louisville, 
met his sweetheart, and the twain, Jefferson Davis and Sarah 
Knox Taylor, were married at the house of the bride's aunt, 
a sister of her father, with other near relations on hand to 
sanction the event by their presence, in July, 1835. All the 
sensational stories about an elopement are purely fabulous 
and without foundation. Their married life and happiness 
was all too short lived, for in three short months he was a 
widower. She was a sister of the accomplished Lieutent-Gen- 
eral Dick Taylor, who, as a major-general in command, won 
one of the might-have-been decisive victories of the war, at 
Mansfield, but of which he or rather we were cheated, as at 
Bull Run and Shiloh and Murfresborough, but supernal in- 
competency in command after the victories were won, and 
who afterwards wrote one of the most graphic and interesting 
books of the war yet penned — "Destruction and Reconstruc- 
tion." The sequel of the story has been] anticipated in the 
"make-up" interview between the two on the field of Buena 
Vista, the older giving a clincher to the renewed bond of 
friendship with the remark: "I am convinced Jefferson, that 
Sarah was a better judge of men than her father." Each of 
them became a reluctant President later on, both preferring 
the camp to the cabinet. Their bond of union thence on to 
the end was that of father and son. 



On the 26th of February, 1845, Mr. Davis was married to 
his second wife, the gifted and accomplished Varina Howell, 
daughter of William Burr Howell, and grand-daughter of 
Governor Richard Howell, of ISTew Jersey, who still survives 
him, and has given us the finest and most complete life of her 
illustrious husband yet published and one of the model speci- 
mens of biographical literature extant. 

President Polk tendered him the commission of brigadier- 
general in recognition of his services at Monterey and Buena 
Vista, which he respectfully declined, owing to the State's 
rights views and doubts as to the right of appointing power. 

"President Pierce, with whom he had been domesticated 
for a winter when they were both young (I think at Mrs. Pot- 
ter's,) in making up his cabinet in 1863, urged upon Mr. 
Davis the acceptance of the portfolio of war and he reluct- 
antly took his place in the executive family March 4th, 1853. 
His conduct of the Department is a matter of public record. 
The army was judiciously but emphatically strengthened ; 
the coast was more fully defended ; the coast survey and 
geodetic observations were extended ; and the fields of as- 
tronomy, zoology, botany and meteorology were fully ex- 

"He ordered the survey for the construction of the Pacific 
railway; added to the fortifications of the Xew England and 
Pacific coasts ; repressed Indian hostilities, and provided for 
the more speedy transportation of guns and ammunition in 
case of need. He recommended national armories, urged the 
extension of the pension system to widows and orphans of 
soldiers and took the initiatory measures for a retired list. 

"He also had charge of the enlargement of the national 
capitol by the addition of two wings to provide a new senate 
chamber and hall of representatives and the construction of 
a more imposing dome to the structure. 

"Under his administration the Washington aqueduct and 
Cabin John Bridge was built, the largest single span arch in 
the world. President Pierce's cabinet presents the only in- 
stance in the history of a presidential administration in which 
no change was made in the personnel. Mr. Davis was re- 
turned to the United States Senate by the Legislature of Mis- 



sissippi in 1857 and took bis seat March. 4th, immediately on 
leaving the cabinet. On a visit to Boston he spoke at Eaneuil 
Hall on October 12th, 1858, on the condition of the country 
and the dangers besetting it. He pleaded for the protection 
of the independence of the States for which ~New England 
and all the States fought, and for a strict construction of the 
constitution, framed and adopted by the founders. 

Such was this man. Jefferson Davis, the only President 
of the Confederate States. In a word, and take him all for 
all, he was in universal heroic attribute to the closest copy 
of the Immortal Roman that I have ever seen in life or in 
books. That he was a patrician, polished, cultured and re- 
fined, goes without question. A soldier, orator, organizer, 
writer of highest type in combination, since Imperial Cassar 
passed, is my estimation of the man. Let some other nomi- 
nate a worthier if he can. Add the highest attributes of self- 
negation, unselfishness and patriotic devotion to lifelong and 
unswerving principles, and some may think that the reputed 
first of men should take the second place in the computation." 

Address by Col. W. J. Green, January 19, 1905, Before the 
J. E. B. Stuart Chapter, U. D. C. 

Daughters of the Confederacy : At your bidding I am here 
to talk to you of two of the grandest men that the world has 
known. ]STor can I imagine a more appropriate beginning 
than the opening words, on a similar occasion, of the most 
valued friend whom I have known in life ; one whom I loved 
next to my father. What shall his title be ? State Governor, 
H. S. Senator, Lieutenant-General, or simply that inborn, 
ingrained, undeviating gentleman ? for each, and all he was at 
times, and the last at all times. It is needless to say that his 
name is Wade Hampton. It is culled from his eloquent ad- 
dress delivered before the Society of Confederate Soldiers and 
sailors in Maryland on the 12th of October, 1871, on the 
Life and Character of General Robert E. Lee. Taken as a 
whole, it is one of the most exquisite eulogies that has ever 
fallen under my eye. Every word and utterance was felt to 
the core, for the two were of kindred soul, and twin brothers 



in loftiest patriotism and sublime self -negation. Here is the 
excerpt alluded to with conjoint regret that time and occasion 
calls for any excerpt from that superb production instead of 
giving it entire: "Whilst appreciating the compliment that 
brings me before you, it is with a profound sense of my in- 
ability to 'rise to the height of this great argument,' that I 
assume the duty of your kindness has imposed; nor would I 
venture to do so, comrades of the Confederate service, were 
it not that it seems to me no duty can be more sacred than 
that which bids every true man of the South, at all times, 
by all means, in all places, to pay homage to the character, 
and honor to the memory of our great leader. To myself, 
whose good fortune it was <x> follow that illustrious Chief 
from the beginning to the close of the marvelous career, which 
has placed his name by the side of those of the world's great- 
est captains — who witnessed his grand magnanimity in the 
flush of his proudest triumphs — his sublime serenity in the 
hour of disaster — who was sustained by his constant faith in 
the justice of his cause, encouraged by his kindness, and hon- 
ored by his friendship — this call to join in doing honor to 
his memory has the saucity and the tenderness that death 
alone can give. Once again and for the last time, I seem 
placed on duty in the service of my old commander, and the 
voice that summons me here, waking many of the proudest, 
though saddest emotions of my heart, comes from the tomb 
of him who, 'though dead, yet speaketh.' " 

Ladies: By the received verdict of recognized judges in 
such matters, the five great captains of anthentic history, 
naming them in point of time, were: Alexander, Hannibal, 
Csesar, Frederic, and Napoleon. Just precisely the number 
that there are fingers on the hand. But circumscribed as was 
the limit, it was held immune from intrusion of soldiers of 
inferior sort or minor degree until some forty years ago, when 
bolder iconoclasts of our own great tongue made room by way 
of deposition for two of their own unequalled race. 'The mad 
boy of Macedon,' and the almost equally mad Sage of Braden- 
burg ? were told by these to descend from their pedestals and 
make obeisance to Marlborough and Lee. So it stands to- 
day, and probably will continue for centuries to come. Quin- 



tette of the incarnate gods of war; here they are: Hannibal, 
Csesar, Napoleon, Churchill, Lee. But grand as they are, 
and as are the two called down, ye powers, how they pale be- 
fore the courtly gentleman and unpretentious schoolmaster of 
Lexington. Who would hesitate in the right of choice, as 
between him and Imperial Caesar ? Not I, forsooth. And so 
by my vote he stands the foremost man of recorded time, Paul 
alone excepted. 

Not that it is proposed to claim equality of plane in intel- 
lectual development and varied achievement between him or 
any other and the phenomenal all-sided man of Rome; but 
it is a moot question, and ever will be, until true story of 
this glorious epoch is written, if written it ever will be; 
could even he, "noblest man that ever lived in the tide of 
times," have done as much under like dearth of men, money 
and munitions ? If not, then it is clear that Robert E. Lee 
is entitled to his new elevation into the exclusive five awarded 
him by a jury, composed of such as Wolseley, Freemantle, 
Chesney, Henderson, and Long, whose claim to the proud 
title of Military Critics, is acknowledged around the world. 
See what the first two, who made the Pennsylvania campaign 
under him, for the avowed purpose of studying war under the 
greatest soldier of the age, have to say. General Lord Wolse- 
ley, head of the English army, has this to say: "I would 
instance Caesar, Hannibal, Marlbourough, Napoleon and Gen- 
eral Lee, as men who possessed what I regard as the highest 
development of military genius — men who combined with the 
strategic grasp of Von Moltke and the calm wisdom and just 
reasoning of Wellington, all the power of Marshal Bugeaud 
and of Souwaroff to inflame the imagination of their soldiers, 
and impart to them some of the fiery spirit of reckless daring 
which burned within their own breasts." 

One other excerpt from Col. Freemantle, commanding of- 
ficer of the "Cold-stream Guards," the crack regiment of the 
English army of that day, must suffice in laudation of this 
incomparable hero and leader of heroes, the incarnation and 
embodiment of poetic Spain's fabled demigod, "the Cid Cam- 
peador," barring the latter's disregard of plighted truth, and 
proclivity to Treason, both of which were beyond his capacity. 



Quoting from a perusal, nearly forty years ante-date, and for 
which, allowance must hence be made, this in effect, is what 
the gifted Englishman says of his cousin over the water : "He 
is the grandest and stateliest man that I have met in life, 
whether afoot or in the saddle, but especially the last. Se- 
rious but not over solemn, his every glance and utterance indi- 
cates the soldier and the man of thought. Free from the 
minor f aidts and foibles of manhood, such as levity, drinking, 
swearing, smoking, chewing, etc., his bitterest enemies, of 
whom there are few, have never accused him of being addicted 
to any of the greater. ''Can pen portraiture of a perfect char- 
acter go further % Ladies, you will pardon my introducing a 
little more quotation from illustrious contemporaries of our 
father land, bearing on the subject, and whose estimate is 
naturally free from bias and prejudice of participants in the 
mighty struggle of which he was the military head. Better 
such than my crude opinions, and better ten thousand times 
told, than the perverted, distorted, malicious and mendacious 
statements of so-called historians, God save the mark ! have 
essayed to do through forty years of counterfeit peace, by a 
prostitution of their base talents to belittling him and his 
cause, a task which baffled about three millions of armed foe- 
men, including John Pope and a gentleman down there, who 
shall be nameless, through four years that he was on the back 
of old "Traveller," and had attenuated legions within call. 
History forsooth of the United States of America ! None of 
the recent trashy stuff for my posterity, if my interdict would 
prevent it. Better Munchausen, Jack, the Giant Killer, 
Aladdin and his lamp, and other such transparent History, 
to the nauseating fiction of post bellum days, which sails 
under the counterfeit and fictitious title "History." 

~No modern history of the United States for me and mine, 
until it is penned beyond the shadow of Bunker's Hill, and 
by impartial hand. 

The most veracious and reliable history of the American 
Revolution ever penned, as conceded by both sides in the 
struggle, was written by the Italian, Dr. Botta, who had never 
set foot in the ]STew World. Let us of the South bide the 
coming of a second Botta to do the same for us, if no son of 
20 [ 305 ] 


the soil to the manner born, arises to essay the stupendous 
work, and carries it out to a successful conclusion. Until that 
day arrives, let the story be unwritten, if samples these be, 
or at least unre„ad by Southern youth through time and eter- 
nity. Give us Munchausen in preference to mock heroics and 
mandacious statements, palmed off by lying knaves for ture 
recital. But to leave off digression. Professor George Long, 
one of the most profound scholars of his day, having an 
intense admiration for the great and good Aurelius, whom 
he seemed to regard as the most perfect of men, compiled and 
published the thoughts of his ideal hero. 

The book was hardly out of press, before it was pirated by 
a Northern publisher, and dedicated to a learned doctor pro- 
fundus of that quarter by the name Emerson. The English 
author was naturally outraged by such unwarrantable impu- 
dence, not to give it the less euphonic name of forgery, and ex- 
presses his opinion in the prefatory of the ensuing edition, 
as here follows : "I have never dedicated a book to any man, 
and if I dedicated this, I should choose the man whose name 
seems to be most worthy to be joined to that of the Roman 
soldier and philosopher. I might dedicate the book to the 
successful general who is now President of the United States, 
with the hope that his integrity and justice will restore peace 
and happiness, so far as he can, to those unhappy States who 
have suffered so much from war and the unrelenting hostility 
of wicked men. But as the Roman poet says: 

" Victrix causa deis placuit, sed victa Catoni." 

And if I dedicated this little book to any man, I would 
dedicate it to him who led the Confederate armies against the 
powerful invader, and retired from an unequaled task de- 
feated, but not dishonored; to the noble Virginia soldier whose 
talents and virtues place him by the side of the best and 
wisest man who sat on the throne of the imperial Csesars." 

Observe another tribute from another English admirer, 
Philip Stanhope Worsley, a poet of no mean merit, with a 
stanza added to the cause : 



" To General Lee, 
The most stainless of living Commanders, 
And except in fortune, the greatest, 
This volume is presented 
With the writer's earnest sympathy, 
And respectful admiration." 

" Ah realm of tears ! — but let her bear 
This blazon to the end of time: 
No nation rose so white and fair, 
None fell so pure of crime. 

" The widow's moan, the orphan's wail, 

Come round thee ; but in truth be strong ; 
Eternal Right, though all else fail, 
Can never be made Wrong." 

It would seem to be a recognized fact that all truly great 
Captains require at least one lieutenant, or coadjutor of kin- 
dred calibre to assist in developing or carrying out the col- 
lossal conceptions of the originating brain. Caeesar had his 
in the legionary chief of the immortal "Tenth/' Marlborough 
his in Eugene, Wallenstein in Tilly, Frederick his in Zlethen, 
Washington in Greene, Napoleon perhaps none of marked 
and supereminent degree, because forsooth, he insisted upon 
being both in one. Like Bottom the Weaver, he insisted on 
playing all parts in the play himself. If he had such, it was 
the heroic commander on the return from Moscow, when old 
Michael Ney, as chief of "The Rear Guard, " was saving the 
remnants of a disorganized army left without a directing 
head. These undoubtedly were priceless coadjutors to generals 
in command. But how far short they fell to Lee's unmatched 
lieutenant, the unmatchable Jackson. The two seemed de- 
signed for each other, and for the great occasion in which 
they were to act in respective role, so symmetrically were they 
adjusted each for his work. "Better it had been me than he," 
exclaims the great captain when he hears of the untimely fall 
of the other. "Not so, quoth the wounded hero, better a hun- 
dred dead Jacksons than one Lee. I would have followed 
him blindfolded around the world." This showed the recip- 
rocal trust subsisting between the two, and never was there 
a grander alliance between Titanic spirits for the accomplish- 
ment of a mutual grand purpose. In that little word "trust" 
lay the secret of this man's phenomenal, marvelous success. 



Coupled to his native war genius, he had implicit trust in 
the justice and integrity of his cause, and absolute trust and 
reliance on his two superiors, the one up yonder, the other 
down here. 

He likewise had implicit trust in himself and his invincible 
"foot cavalry," who returned it to overplus. With such a 
sublime combine of trust, not the God forsaken, unhallowed 
thing of later times, no wonder he accomplished almost mir- 
acles. By good judges the grandest feat of the "little cor- 
poral" was the overthrow on lake Garda of the two great 
armies in three consecutive days, each his numerical superior, 
having left his base around beleaguered Mantna virtually de- 
pleted, in order to supply him with his little army for offen- 
sive operations against the advancing hordes. The strategist 
of that day and of succeeding days has branded the conception 
madness; the result renders a different verdict, and pro- 
nounces it sublime strategy. Be it which it may, it had it's 
replica on the banks of the Shenandoah, when the great lieu- 
tenant caught up with his chief quartermaster, Banks, whose 
duty (enforced) was to supply his men with shoes, blankets, 
powder and provant, and himself with lemons. Gen. Dick 
Taylor says that he had an insatiate appetite for that acrid 
fruit and was always sucking one, when resting on a march, 
and to supply himself with that tropical delicacy, the men 
were wont to say that he kept the commissary trains under 
constant contribution, or else in dread apprehension (be it 
understood, the enemy's commissariat.) But General Dick, 
in his appetite for epigrams or antithesis must sometimes be 
taken, 'cum grano,' for he intimates very broadly in his faci- 
nating book that 'old Jack, was a crazy man. If so it be, 
President Davis might have plagiarized his brother President 
across the line of mark when told that his new and last ap- 
pointee to chief command was a little too given to turning 
the little finger above his dexter. "If I only knew his brand 
of whiskey," quoth Abraham," I'd send a barrel to each of 
my commanding Generals." Mr. Davis might have said to 
his illustrious brother-in-law, on basis of insinuation, "I wish 
I knew the mandrake that incites such madness." 

His piety or rather sanctity amounted to almost austerity,. 



such as is rarely seen in camps, or in cathedrals either. It im- 
pressed his followers more forcibly than did 'old Noll's' his 
round-heads, for there could be no doubt of its sincerity. 

But to return to the comparison of results on Lake Garda 
and the Shenandoah, this must be said to the extra credit of 
the Corsican over the Predestinarian. The first had for an- 
tagonists trained soldiers and supposed masters of strategy, 
such as Wurmser, Alvinzi,Davidovich and Prevara, whilst the 
other was pitted against militia captains and bombastic pre- 
tenders, like Banks, Milroy, Fremont and Pope, in which 
last category must be excepted that sturdy old Irishman, 
Shields, who with odds of three to one in his favor, became 
the half hero of Kernstown, and might have been the whole 
one, had it not been for that insuperable stonewall in his way. 
Appropos of that event : Shortly after the war, one of Jack- 
son's old troopers was called upon to introduce Gen. Shields 
to a Democratic audience in Missouri, which he did in the 
following neat, pithy and pointed style as "the countryman 
and political follower of one Jackson, a hero in three wars, 
a United States Senator from two or three States, and the 
man who came nearer whipping the other Jackson, whose 
surname is Stonewall, than any other man ever did, and he 
didn't do it by a d — n long sight." 

Pardon another anecdote which my old and honored 
friend, Hunter McGuire, his chief of the medical staff, gave 
me during one of our long talks about his idolized com- 
mander. It is told simply to illustrate his sublime self- 
reliance, the predominant trait of all the greatest soldiers of 
all time. Said the Doctor : "I was riding with him on the re- 
treat from Kernstown, which I felt sure had been decided 
on against his approval. Notwithstanding the great disparity 
of odds against us, both in hand and within reach, I had 
never seen his brow so lowering and with every indication of 
ill humor and discontent. After riding along in silence for 
awhile, he remarked : "I have just done a thing that I have 
never done before, and shall never do again. A council of 
war leaves the general in command saddled with all of the 
responsibility, but impotent to follow his matured convic- 
tions, if a majority of the tribunal prefer a counter course. 



It was and is my belief that at the worst stage of the fight we 
had at worst an even, chance, and, if successful, the results 
in our favor would have been incalculable." Some there be 
who think that for once, and on this occasion, it will be the 
cause of regret for all time that he did not follow the example 
of his imperious and imperial prototype, when, wrapped up 
in his old gray overcoat around a camp fire, he would call 
for the opinions of his grizzled marshals at some grave junc- 
ture, and, after hearing all, would drily remark: "Gentlemen 
your reasons are cogent, but whilst hearing them I have de- 
cided on a plan of my own. The council is adjourned." His 
usually turned out the best. 

Ladies, you have in brief, my conception of the character 
of this brace of most remarkable men. Immaculate in mor- 
ality and Christian charity, transcendent in genius and fit- 
ness for the work they were called on to perform. There were 
two others of kindred type and lofty soul, who, taken in con- 
nection with them, constitute the most superlative quartette 
of immortals that ever reflected undying lustre on the self- 
same cause in the self-same epoch. Jefferson Davis and Sid- 
ney Johnston are their names. Ladies, these four were typi- 
cal of the race to which you belong, the cause which you 
revere. ~No wonder you are proud of your paternity, and of 
their unsullied escutcheon in the noblest, purest, sublimest of 
earthly struggles. ]STo wonder you exult in the soubriquet 
you wear: 'Daughters of the Confederacy,' and of Confeder- 
ate heroes, I doff my cap and salute you in all deference and 
humility for trying to keep alive the spark of sacred memor- 
ies, which others of the sterner sex seem equally anxious to 
extinguish with frivolities, (suggesting). 

" You have the Pyrrhic dance as yet, 
Where is the Pyrrhic phalanx gone ? 
Of two such lessons, why forget 

The nobler and the manlier one ? 
You have the letters Cadmus gave — 
Think ye he meant them for a slave? " 

It was a proud privilege to have been the countryman, the 
comrade, the follower (even in subordinate station) the 
friend of some of them, trivial honors though some might 
view them, which would not be exchanged for any commis- 



sion bearing Mr. Lincoln's signature, with all the subsequent 
honors accruing to the possessor. It was deemed a holy duty 
at the time, and has been so held religiously ever since. The 
epithet of traitor in "foro conscientiae" would more than 
neutralize such rewards in a Southern man for consenting to 
don a blue coat at such a time. There no like imputation at 
taching to those of Northern birth for preferring- that color 
to the less pretentious gray. 

Daughters of the Confederacy, I rejoice exceedingly that 
the Chapter of my home town bears the name and emblazon 
of a much loved friend and classmate of my early manhood. 
J. E. B. Stuart, or as he was lovingly dubbed by his intimates 
and associates, "Old Beauty/' abbreviated into "Bute 
Stuart," was a man of opposities, but of singularly lovable 
character. To begin with, like Jackson he was essentially 
of a religious cast of thought in those early days, though not 
pushing it to the ascetic or monastic extreme of the other, he 
was a devout member of the Episcopal church, and on one of 
our walks remarked in effect, that he considered "The 
Litany" the most beautiful and comprehensive invocation that 
could be devised, both for and against; in which opinion, I 
have since learned to concur. And yet, withal, he was so full 
of exuberance of spirits that he would fain at times break 
forth into a loud whoop, a lively song, or a mad dash on old 
Flirtation walk. Such he was, half boy and half man, during 
the three years of our acquaintance at the academy. In his 
last or graduating year, I had drifted off to the University 
of Virginia, in search of Law and Political Economy. But 
when my old friends on the Hudson were about to shake off 
the Cadet chrysalis for the butterfly toggery of the Lieuten- 
ant, impulse got the better, and I rushed on to the old tenting 
ground to give the glorious heroes (soon to be) a parting 
hand-shake. Though I say it myself, never did returning 
brother receive more cordial greeting. As soon as parade 
was over, invitations poured in by word of mouth from al- 
most every one of the dear old fellows, to share their room 
for the night. But "Old Bute" took possession of me, march- 
ed me off to his room, and then down to the "mess hall," and 
then back again. Perhaps old J. E. B. and Rogers, his room- 



mate, devoted the evening to their final examination, then 
only a week off, but I don't think they did. Perhaps "Old 
Bute" intended that blanket which he was spreading on the 
floor for me instead of somebody else ; but I don't think he 
did, as he took it himself, leaving me no other alternative but 
to take his bed. Perhaps we did as school girls proverbially 
do, when they meet after a whole year of separation, and non 
interchange of confidences, went to bed and went to sleep, 
but such is not my recollection. True, we retired at "taps," 
but I will not vouch that "reveille" found us asleep. Daugh- 
ters of the J. E. B. S. Chapter, what is your verdict based 
on personal experience and presumptive inference ? 

He next appears in the public eye as the capturer of that 
incarnate fiend Brown, at Harper's Ferry, under orders of 
General Lee, and who was a little later on most justly hung, 
whilst his cowardly, skulking adherents, devoid of every ves- 
tige of his one solitary redeeming trait, have been ever since 
trying to raise to the plane of apotheosis or sainthood. More 
deserving the halter they. 

Before he was thirty, (to be precise 27), we see him the 
virtual Chief of Cavalry on the Confederate army in the east, 
and the acknowledged "Rupert" of that branch of the service. 
If claim of kinship there was between him and the Royal, 
ill starred, and not over creditable house of Scotland, as he 
ever maintained there was, let us trust that it was in direct 
descent from that heroic Bohemian, on the maternal side, 
(Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia,) and not through any son 
of Scotia who later on became the imported crown wearers 
of the sister kingdom. Be they cousins or not, these two had 
certain strong traits of character in common. Recklessly 
brave, jovial, light-hearted, debonnaire they were with kin- 
dred capacity for cavalry command. Each was the world's 
recognized ideal of the born trooper. He was to us one of 
the stars of first magnitude in the resplendent galaxy, which 
they composed. Observe a few of the booted and spurred 
champions of that day : Forrest, Hampton, Yan Dorn, Rosser, 
Wheeler, Morgan, Bob Ransom, John Wharton, the two Fitz- 
hugh Lees, Ashby and others. Of course it is not proposed to 
place him or any other, in that, or any antecedent war, on 



the same plane of equality with the first named, Bedford 
Forrest, grandest of horsemen. 

By common consent of friend and foeman alike, this phe- 
nomenal man proved himself a natural born leader of men, 
especially horsemen, and usually under most untoward condi- 
tions and circumstances, from the beginning to the end of the 
struggle, fighting odds that none other fought, and without 
fail to successful finish, when in chief command, and with a 
roster of prisoners to his credit that none other could claim 
except "the great captain, himself," even ''Old Marse 
Robert." There he stands, our matchless "'"king of the saddle, 
the saber and spur." God shrive and annoynte his glorious 
soul for sending more than his due proportion before the 
judgment seat up yonder. I repeat that, to my thinking, 
since the birth of his brother stable boy, Joachim Murat, later 
on Marshal of France, and King of Xaples, and for a thou- 
sand years anterior the world has not seen his prototype for 
the work that he was called on to discharge. Martinets may 
say in depreciation, that he was ill acquaint with "the 
school of the soldier," to which may be added, or any other ; 
but where was the Master of Schools or of Arts that ever 
approached him in outreach of accomplishment ? 

Ladies, if some may urge, in derogation of these homely 
remarks, that I have been over-lavish in superlatives, be mine 
the reply, that it was an epoch of superlatives, of high and 
low degree, in actors, in plot, in development, and events. My 
effort has been to confine remark to the first or higher class, 
where praise was legitimately due, and to ignore the other 
and leave it to other and more willing hand or tongue to 

Daughters of the Confederacy, of the J. E. B. Stuart Chap- 
ter, (worthy sponsorial namesake to worthy Daughters), you 
have sincerest appreciation for the honor done me. 

I will close by requesting my friend, Mrs. Dr. MacBae, to 
give us in her own inimitable style that glorious camp song, 
which, owing to salt in the eye and frog in the throat, I have 
never been able to read aloud myself. 

"It was Stonewall Jackson's way." 



Gettysburg Reminiscent — After a Hiatus of Forty Years. 

Fayetteville, July 15, 1903. 

(Begun as indicated by date: delayed by illness.) 

Me. Editor: — I am just back from Gettysburg, where I 
went a week or two ago to try and locate to my own satisfac- 
tion the lines of battle of the opposing armies, on the momen- 
tous first day's fight. To carry out this purpose, I put in an 
appearance there two days in advance of the big day. Most 
fortunate was the combination of time and circumstance, as 
it enabled me to take in the field under as good pilotage as 
ever falls to the lot of pilgrim to that historic shrine, and no 
where is such more needed. To make the tour, relying only 
on the vague recollection of a participant of forty years ante- 
rior, or the usual parrotty verbiage of a professional guide, is 
like threading the labarynth without the ball of twine. 

On the train from Baltimore, I met my old classmate, 
General O. O. Howard, whom I had seen but once since we 
were at the military academy together, half a century by- 
gone. Notwithstanding the tremendous issue that had been 
involved in the meantime, and which shook the continent 
from centre to circumference, in which we saw duty from 
opposing standpoints and took sides accordingly, he to rise 
to high fame and distinction, whilst I came out where I went 
in, owing to two years imprisonment, he met me with all the 
cordiality, not to say impressement of uninterrupted friend- 
ship. It was illustration of an oft asserted iteration, that the 
spirit of class Camaraderie (as the French term it) was 
stronger in that school than in any other institution organized 
of man before or since. The bond of the Crusade was strong, 
and so is that of societies of cabalistic Greek letter in modern 
college, but neither reached the unstudied altitude of the 
standard there prevailing. Upon that highland Hudson 
cliff", nearly a hundred years anterior consecrated to Freedom, 
and the rights of man, were wont annually to assemble about 
one hundred young men, of all recognized rank, station and 
condition of life from every quarter, knowing nothing of 
each other, or of each other's antecedents, and nothing caring, 



simply content by touch and contact to let each one show what 
was in him. If the man, he was the recognized man, thence- 
forth until he proved himself less than man. If a dog of 
currish instincts, he went to the dogs, and there he staid. 
Was ever aristocracy of grander type or conception! 

There was the son of the mechanic, the farmer, the mil- 
lionaire, starting the race together, with no adventitious ad- 
vantage or serious set-back, by reason of paternity or pedi- 
gree. Such was the "West Point" of half a century bygone, 
whera truth, fidelity to plight, good fellowship, good horse- 
manship, good markmanship were taught and inculcated to a 
degree unknown to any school in Scythia of old or any school 
subsequent in or out of Scythia. Pardon the digression. We 
lived together in Arcadian simplicity and brotherly love, until 
the edict went forth, up and cut each others' throats. In ob- 
dience to unquestioning mandate it was done. The query 
came, how many of our fellows were killed on your side, 
Green ? Nine out of twelve and all general officers, was the 
reply ; and how was it on your's, Howard ? Seven out of 
seventeen, was the answer. Sixteen out of an aggregate of 
twenty-nine surviving in 1861 was a no mean showing in a 
class that laid aside the academic shackles less than ten years 
anterior thereto. Noble fellows, and duty's liegemen they 
were, one and all. Rather a concession that, coming from 
one heretofore regarded as something of tacit mourner over 
historic results. How was it done ? I do not know unless, 
perhaps, I was near recaptured, this time by kindness and 
courtesy on the revisit to that field. Certain it is, that my 
feelings were not wounded by harsh or jarring criticism, or 
the flippant, senseless use of terms, Rebel and Rebellion, ob- 
noxious "to ears polite," when falling from the tongues of 
those who judiciously espoused the vanning side, but disgust- 
ing and doubly distilled when labialized by those of Southern 
birth. It was only used once by a Northern man in my pres- 
ence, and then in a spirit of badinage: "Sit down here, you 
bloody old Reb, and let me see if you are the genuine article 
or only the counterfeit presentment." Such was the opening 
remark of Major-General Alex. S. Webb, who held the bloody 
angle against the bloodiest of all charges, fighting with mus- 



ket in hand until it was shattered by one of Alexander's shells, 
and with the fragments was Alexander Webb's crownpiece. 
"Say, Sep, old boy, he continued, have you still got that shrug 
of the left shoulder ?" The title "Sep" was one universally 
carried by all September matriculates. Howard and I were 
and are both "Seps," having entered on the same day, Sep- 
tember 1st, 1850. On the night of July 1, 1903, on the stoop 
of that Gettysburg hotel, there were three of us better entitled 
to carry the soubriquet, three ''Septuagenarians," as I opine. 
But strictly this could not apply to Webb, as he entered in 
June the year succeeding, and was almost the baby of his 
class. Howard was the senior, being, I believe, a graduate 
of Dartmouth, and the close contestant of Custis Lee for first 
honor at West Point. It was his good fortune to be the first 
of his grade to arrive at that little village at critical juncture, 
when armies were concentrating from all points. He found 
Reynolds in command, who was shortly afterwards killed, 
thus devolving the chief command on himself during the first 
day's fight, until Slocum came up about sundown, by whom 
he was by rank superseded. Judging from a dispassionate 
standpoint at this late day, the impartial critic must ascribe 
to Howard's temporary command on that momentous first 
day, especially in grasping the importance of Cemetery Hill 
and Little Round-top, and holding possession of that pivotal 
point until adequate reinforcements came up, the only credit 
that Meade can legitimately claim, and the highest ascribed 
to him by competent critics of his own side, of having made 
the three days' fight a drawn battle. It was under his guid- 
ance and description that I enjoyed the exceptional privilege 
of passing my two days in review, forty years afterwards, with 
mingled feelings of admiration for heroism, never surpassed, 
if ever equalled by contending sides on any field before, not to 
speak of a twinge of irrepressible sadness on account of those 
saddest words ever uttered by tongue or pen: "the might have 
been." Let others sing peans to victory, necessitating the 
overthrow of their life cherished cause and convictions. I 
for one have not yet attained to that sublime stage of philo- 
sophic consolation, or, to put it stronger, exultation. Does 



latter day patriotism enjoin, or hypocrisy sanction, such con- 
cession ? 

Just after supper I was waited on by the committee of ar- 
rangements, with invitation from General Howard to ride 
with him and General Huidekoper, the two orators of the 
second day (Thursday) during my sojourn. It is needless 
to add, the courtesy was thankfully accepted, the committee 
promising to give "Guilford," my body servant, who was 
captured with me in the ordnance and wounded train on the 
retreat, and was in my service anterior and has been ever 
since, a seat with the driver. The two Generals had each 
given a good right arm as contribution to their cause and con- 
victions, and I was rather shaky in the "underpinnings," ow- 
ing to a return ten-pound compliment, which makes pedes- 
trianism inconvenient in the rheumaticky stages of existence, 
but which is now degraded to the base use of holding 1 mv 
library door open, somewhat suggestive that of: 

" Imperious Oesar, dead, and turned to clay, 
Might stop a hole to keep the wind away." 

The first place we went to, was what might be termed 
"Howard's eyrie," which, with the aid of some half dozen 
flights of steep stairs to reach it, gives perhaps the best view 
of the town and surrounding country that can be had. To 
scale those dizzy heights as he had done forty years and a 
day, preceding, for the sinister purpose of watching our com- 
ing in, and systematic spreadouts, was what I was called 
upon to do last Wednesday morning a week ago. There was 
no excuse, holdback or other get out, from that invitation, 
for it was a special treat given in my honor, and had I not 
besides just made a trip of five hundred miles to take (in) 
that pretty little borough ? And yet candor compels the ad- 
mission, that I would have vastly preferred being one of Pen- 
der's (another classmate) immortals, making that ascent, a 
part of the time under glorious old Isaac Trimble, to trusting 
a pair of three-score and ten legs up that fearful flight. Was 
amply compensated, however, after getting down, for apart 
from the historic information imparted by my distinguished 
guide, it was one of the finest panoramic views that I have 
ever seen. 



On resuming the drive, General Howard remarked, now, 
gentlemen, we will first go to where Daniel's brigade, the one 
to which Green was attached, first put in an appearance on 
their forced march from Heidlersburg that morning, and 
where it suffered such tremendous loss at "the Deep Cut," a 
little later on. Captain Zeigler, will you please direct the 
driver ? This was addressed to the fourth party of our make- 
up, a true gentleman, as I take him to be, a zealous soldier 
on the side which he deemed to be right, and perhaps, from 
close study and systematic research, one of the most reliable 
local guides there to be found. We were soon spinning along 
to that point over the finest road that I have ever seen, find- 
ing out as progress was made that all others in that vicinage 
were of kindred kind. The United States is of a surety the 
king of road-builders in and about national graveyards, since 
old Rome gave up the business on a grander scale. Apropos, 
I had an old kinsman, once upon a time, who was not un- 
known in his own State, or in all the States surrounding. 
VVfien the bill for an appropriation to what was known as 
"The National Road," running from Cumberland to Terre 
Haute, was passed or pending, with every assurance of pas- 
sage, Mr. Macon arose from his seat in the Senate, and pro- 
ceeded to preach "The Funeral of the Constitution." His 
text being, that road building was extra constitutional, and 
that with this little shovel full of dirt for beginning on that, 
line, the road was open to endless extension. Some there be 
still living who still think that that old "Strict-Construction- 
ist" was not such an egregious ass as the new school of India- 
rubber expansionists would have the world believe. 

During the drive, numerous statues and mementoes to de- 
parted valor were passed in transient review ; some good, 
others indifferent, but mostly belonging to neither category, 
but all remindful, in reversal, of the old Roman "lex non 
sc?'ipta" : "Build no monuments to commemorate civil strife, 
or to remind posterity of bloody intestine collision." A wise 
as well as a valorous race was the outcrop of the Tiber she- 
wolf. Let not the vanquished in later "internals" make wry 
face or call in question the wisdom of reversal of that effete 
and antiquated aphorism or dictum. 



Crossing a little bridge, the carriage was stopped and the 
inquiry made: "Sep, do you recognize the locality?" Of 
course I did, for it was ''Deep-Cut," where Daniel's brigade 
sustained heavier loss in twenty minutes than did any other 
brigade during the day; adding, "there's another spot that I 
recall, that grove on the little eminence to our left, for it was 
there, while the command was undergoing desultory shelling 
in a prone or recumbent position, previous to the order to 
advance, that a chance missile exploded almost under the 
nose of the Second Battalion, and just behind where General 
Daniel and I were holding our horses. It was, perhaps, the 
most disastrous single shot fired during the war. Thirteen 
men were killed or wounded by that detonation." To that 
came reply, that won't do, old fellow, for in such a battle 
(naming it) you all sent us it's companion piece, which 
killed and disabled twenty -nine of ours. "By the way, you 
recollect my brigadier, June Daniel, whom many think was 
hardly second to any one that his State has sent forth ?" 
"Yes, was the reply, I recall him, but had lost sight of 

Here, Sep., is where our "mutual friend, General Huide- 
koper," then Colonel of the 150th Pennsylvania, was 
wounded, although winning promotion thereby. "There is 
where Archer's little brigade, having got beyond support and 
too far in our domain, was taken in. Off to our left there is 
where Gordon entered the field." And so in desultory talk 
pertinent to the occasion, we drove on towards the National 
Cemetery, but did not then enter. Howard has, as all true 
soldiers and the world at large has, a most exalted opinion of 
General Lee, both as a soldier and a man, although hardly 
disposed to concede with Wolseley, Henderson and other 
world recognized military critics of recent date, that his name 
is entitled to a place on the roster of the five greatest captains 
of authentic history. "Perhaps," he continued, "you are 
not aware of the reason why we did not intercept your retreat 
between this and the Potomac, as all judges say ought to 
have been done, and thus and then end the war." 

Why wasn't it done? Well, here's the reason: General 

had the ear and confidence of Meade to a degree that 



none other had. He also had a blind admiration and confi- 
dence in Lee, as man and soldier, not surpassed by any in his 
great army. When the question of pursuit was under dis- 
cussion during the night of the third day, and we were almost 
a unit in favor of it, with eye to interception before the river 
could be reached, the commander, of course, being noncom- 
mittal until a full expression was reached, then General 
....... interposed: "Do I understand you to say, General 

Meade, that you have reliable information that General Lee 
has reported to his government, that whilst his loss has been 
fearful he is still in condition to repulse assault, come from 
what quarter it may \ Then, my counsel is, let him severely 
alone, for I know the man, and know that he would not pre- 
varicate even at this critical juncture to save his life, or the 
cause of his espousal, which he values far more highly." 
The point was carried, and we didn't try to cut off the re- 
treat. Was ever higher compliment paid to the integrity of 
man, by either friend or f oeman ? 

On reaching the most observant or observable point on 
Cemetery Hill, which proved to be a veritable cemetery to the 
Confederates and their cause in the outcome of the most 
heroic onslaught in history, assumptively claimed by one 
State as a close monopoly, to the exclusion or ignoring of 
another that kept step on that occasion, or to be entirely accu- 
rate, showed pace to all others, we alighted to have mapped 
out the historic or the possibilic. That point over yonder 
(designating it) is where General Lee stood during the as- 
sault. There is where Sickles was in line when ordered to 
fall back, which order he deferred obeying until he could 
communicate with Meade. That big iron book is the ex- 
treme point that your advance reached — "Little Round Top" 
— which was confessedly the key to the situation; that little 
hillock to the left, which we will put off attacking until after 
dinner, or until tomorrow, as General H. and I have func- 
tions to discharge this afternoon in connection with an un- 
veiling. On the way back to town remark was made on the 
large iron tablets, which denote the positions held by different 
Confederate commands at various stages. As indicators of 
position, I expressed my preference for these to the legion of 



bronze warriors who stood mute and unresponsive sentinels 
on every hand, and Howard said, so did he. 

These are apparently about six or eight feet square, with 
raised letters in same metal, giving name of brigade and 
regimental conformation of it at particular juncture. For 
the idea and other important data, from the Southern stand- 
point Major W. M. Hobbins, of our State, and the Southern 
representative on the Battlefield Commission, is chiefly en- 
titled to the credit. 

The drive back to dinner was along "Confederate Avenue," 
in front of which Colonel Alexander planted his guns, u and 
most judiciously planted they were," added Howard. By 
the way, was query, how many guns were there altogether in 
that terrific duel, the like of which the world has never 
heard ? "To the best of my calculation," was the reply, 
"you all had 225, and I think we had about 100 more." 
Lying in a field hospital, a mile or so to the rear, my estimate 
was that there were five or six reports to the second. That 
would be about 300 to the minute, and 20,000 to the hour. 
Luckily for both sides, they were nothing like as destructive 
as the two we were telling about. After dinner we drove out 
to the unveiling of John Burns' statue, one of the best, by the 
way, judged artistically, that I casually took in, just finished 
by his State to an old burgher who insisted on achieving fame 
by being killed the first day "in resisting the insolent in- 
vader," according to one of the speakers. The thought ob- 
truded on one of his auditors of a few score hecatombs of 
patriot heroes, or rather hundreds, who died across the river 
yonder to like purpose and intent, who for monumental shaft 
or storied urn had to be content with a soldier's grave for 
"resisting the insolent invader." Much depends, quoth the 
lion in the fable, on which side makes the statue. 

In the early part of that night, whilst sitting in front of 
the hotel, General Howard came up and said that Aleck 
Webb was up at his hotel, and expressed a desire to see me, 
but was unable to walk so far, and requested that I would 
go up and see him. The preliminaries of our interview are 
already inserted. We three old boys continued our talk 
until nearly midnight with a crowd of interested listeners 
21 [ 321 ] 


standing around. We talked of old friends of half a cen- 
tury bygone, many of whom had made historic names in the 
interim. Webb and Jimmy Whistler, who has since died, 
the recognized artist of the world, were recognized contest- 
ants for first place in old Bob Weir's class of drawing. Nat- 
urally there was no love lost between them, for one football 
was too small for two Alexanders. I told of Jimmy's room 
and mine being opposite and that when he was not immersed 
in a novel, as was usually the case when not cartooning it, 
he was interrupting the serious studies of Black and Green 
with novelistic recitals of the Court of the Romanoffs, where 
his boyhood was largely spent, his father being one of the pet 
American engineers of that day whom the Czar had drawn 
around him. His neighbors thought that "the little Billee 
of Trilby" could grind out romance when not reading it, dear, 
fascinating little fellow that he was. "Make him tell you, 
Webb, two pretty little stories that he gave me to-day about 
General Lee and my dear old friend, Archy Gracie, which I 
am going to introduce in my address in Texas next week." 
Of course insistence led to violations of ride laid down by 
him of Avon, never to repeat. Here are the two stories, such 
as they are : 

One day in ranks, Gracie, who was my file follower, kept 
stepping on my heels, regardless of protest. Finally, my pa- 
tience, like Mr. Acres' courage had all oozed out, not at the 
tips of my fingers but the tips of my toes, and I promised 
him a licking as soon as ranks were broken, which I proceeded 
to administer con amove. In the midst of the fun old P. de 
Janon had to rush up and separate us, demanding my name, 
which I declined to give, walking off to the barracks. Gracie 
gave his, but, like the true gentleman that he was, refused to 
give mine, remarking in emphatic tone that he was no in- 
former. Poor fellow, he got eight extra tours of guard duty 
for fighting on parade ground, whilst I, for the time, went 
scot free, but only until the superintendent, Col. P. E. Lee, 
got to his office the next morning, when I too put in an ap- 
pearance. "Colonel," was the opening remark, "Mr. Gracie 
was reported for fighting on the parade yesterday, whilst the 
man he was fighting goes unreported." "Well, sir ?" "Colo- 



nel, isn't it a hard case that after getting the worst of the 
fight he should have to undergo all of the penalty, whilst the 
other fellow escapes altogether?" "Well, sir; I presume 
that you are the 'other fellow.' " "Yes, sir, I am, and what- 
ever punishmeut is meted out to Mr. Gracie I insist upon 
the same for myself." With that sweet, benignant smile of 
his, which, once seen, could nover be forgotten, he replied, 
"No, sir, neither of you will suffer for this offence. Try 
and live together in peace aud harmony hereafter.'' And 
we did, thanks to the judicious peacemaker, who interviewed 
"the other fellow" right afterwards. 

"That's a good one, Sep, but old Archy was not to blame 
for making free with your heels, for you know he was knock- 
kneed. Now for the other." "Well, here it is, by well au- 
thenticated report: 

"During the last days at Petersburg, when General Grant 
was getting to be over affectionate in his hug on 'Marse 
Robert,' news reached the old man that something out of 
routine was going on in front of Grade's line. Thereupon 
he mounted 'Traveller" to do a little scouting on his own 
hook. Hitching 'Traveller' en 'perdu, for fear of his getting 
hurt, with field glass in hand, he climbed the parapet and 
began his observations and mental notes, whilst the suppli- 
cation arose all up and down the line: 'Come down, General 
Lee, for God Almighty's sake come down' ; for well they 
knew what such exposure to the sharpshooters beyond im- 
plied. Deaf to their importunities, he remained there, 
poised, with glass to his eye, until the Brigadier brought 
him down. Placing himself between the great man and the 
sharpshooters, he stood with callous mien and folded arms as 
the order came quick and sharp, 'Get down, General Gracie, 
get down.' To which came the saucy reply, 'After you, 
General Lee.' They came down together. Heroic man, he 
was only anticipating his hero-fate a few brief days before 
it came." 

As Webb was engaged on State work, it was a source of 
regret all around that he couldn't be with us in our drive the 
next day. I hear that he is now at the head of the largest 
educational institution in New York City, Columia College 



alone excepted. His father was the great journalist, Gen. J. 
Watson Webb. 

Passing over muck of the ground traversed yesterday, but 
more deliberately for more careful inspection, we came at 
last to the base of "Little Round Top," where, alighting, we 
proceed upward on foot. Just below and to the right, my 
attention was called to a field of immense boulders extend- 
ing some distance each way. "Say, Sep, don't you think 
you all would have a rough trip over tbat in an assault, even 
if there bad been no field pieces above?" I should say so. 
"Well, we had to get a battery over it and up there to inter- 
cept your expected arrival, a battle of Cyclops, truly. Come 
up here to the summit, and see the spot where our dear old 
classmate, Steve Weed, who was in command, was done for, 
and where Lieutenant Hazlitt, in command of the battery, 
was struck dead whilst stooping over him to receive his dying 
orders." Such was the tenor of conversation and observa- 
tion during the two days' drive. The most interesting and 
artistic memento was the beautiful monument, "To Peace," 
near the entrance to the cemetery, wbich is the crowning 
jewel to art and sentiment in that dread Necropolis. Next 
to it, in merit, are the equestrian statues to Hancock and 
Meade, and the standing one to Warren, at least so they 
struck me. Such is a brief glimpse of brief revisit to that 
greatest of all battlefields. It is not intended to be purely 
descriptive. The guide books do that. 

Regretting inability to stay longer, and especially to hear 
Howard's speech that afternoon, which reads the best on the 
other side that I have ever seen, I took the 4 p. m. train for 
borne, where I arrived two days later. When we took the 
wounded and ordnance train forty years ago, it took about 
twenty-two months to make the trip, as we were intercepted 
by train wreckers, who wouldn't let us keep on. 

Yours truly, Wharton J. Green. 



Memorial Address in Honor of Mrs. Davis, Delivered at the 
Request of J. E. B. Stuart Chapter, U. D. C, by Colonel 
Wharton J. Green. 

Ladies of the U. D. C, I thank you for being permitted to 
lay my little sprig of immortelle on the bier of this trans- 
cendant woman. It was my proud privilege to have known 
her, and her immortal husband, through more than half a 
century, and to have loved and honored them both through- 
out that protracted acquaintance. A better idea of my ap- 
preciation of their great merit can best be given by a brief 
recital of that acquaintance, illustrated by a few homely inci- 
dents and recollections, supplemented by an article that ap- 
peared yesterday in the Observer, and which is now given: 

Colonel Green and the Late Mrs. Davis. 

Fayetteville, N. C, October 18, 1906. 
Editor Observer, Fayetteville, N. C. 

Dear Sir: — I send you herewith my contribution to the 
long list of telegrams of condolence, which are being pub- 
lished on the occasion of Mrs. Davis' obsequies. Sure I am 
that none that has gone forward is more genuine in heartfelt 
sympathy, for it was my proud privilege to know and love, 
and, as I flatter myself, to have been loved by her and her 
immortal husband for over half a century, as numerous let- 
ters, mementoes and keepsakes abundantly attest; and I hesi- 
tate not to say that, taken together, they were the most extra- 
ordinary married couple, intellectually and in other exalted 
attributes, that it has been my blessed prerogative to have 
known. Blessed are we amongst the short-lived nations of 
the earth, or the long-lived either, to have had our national 
autonomy illustrated by such an official head in counubio. 
Aurelius, worthiest of monarchs that the world has known, 
was mated to Faustina, but this was a perfect couple in all 

Yours sincerely, W. J. Green. 



Fayetteville, N. C, October 18, 1906. 
To Mrs. J. Addison Hayes, Hotel Majestic, Neiv York. 

Please accept our heartfelt sympathy, part of which is re- 
tained for ourselves, for she was my honored friend through 
many years, as was your glorious father through half a cen- 
tury to the end. Wharton J. Green. 

My acquaintance with her began in 1853 or 1854, whilst 
Mr. Davis was Secretary of War in President Pierce's Cabi- 
net, and has continued ever since. That with her illustrious 
husband, some nine or ten years anterior, during his first 
term in Congress, whilst I, a lad in my teens, was left under 
his quasi supervisory control at the same boarding house. 
During his continuance in that cabinet, confessedly the 
strongest that the government has ever known, as, after Mr. 
Calhoun, he was the ablest head of the war office, she shone 
resplendent as the head and front of cultured and refined 
Washington society. And so she did too in that of the other 
capital, as first lady in the land, when I took tea at the Con- 
federate White House in the closing days of the great up- 
heaval, if "Yupon" could be called Bohea, or Okra seed 
Mocha. But be it what it might, right sure I am that Mad- 
ame de Maintenon never decanted her costly beverages to the 
Grande Monarque and his satiated Court with more superb 
grace than did this inborn born queen her homely substitutes, 
born of necessity, to struggling and starving patriots. And 
so it was at beautiful "Beauvoir," when forced to dispense a 
liberal hospitality, ill suited to their meagre means. In 
very truth she would have shone resplendent in any circle 
and under all circumstances. Culture and refinement was 
her inborn nature, as it was her mated lord's, and ever appa- 
rent. Again, I repeat, my friends, let us be thankful that 
we had such representatives as these and kindred spirits to 
embellish the most glorious cause that ever enlisted the 
prowess of man, even if lost. And what shall I say of their 
peerless daughter, our Winnie, who wears the proudest title 
that woman ever bore, save one ? Here is what I said to her 
mother during one of our morning drives along the coast: 
"Madam, you ought to be a proud woman, with such a hus- 



band and such a daughter. I wish that I was the father of a 
son of suitable age, with all of the reputed perfections of 
Crichton and Bayard conibirXe4, that I might express him 
down here as a candidate for your son-in-law." She was 
pleased to say that she would like the alliance. 

Shortly after the close of the war, whilst our immortal 
Chieftain was undergoing all the tortures that could be de- 
vised by that brace of petty, pompous tyrants, Stanton and 
Miles, in a damp, dank, loathsome dungeon, I chanced to be 
at the St. Charles Hotel in New Orleans when she arrived 
and took rooms for herself and little ones at the St. James 
Hotel. The term brace, which imports a pair, was em- 
ployed. Respect for a certain high office, which he then 
filled by the accidency of murder, and regard for a noble 
State, which enjoyed the equivocal honor of his nativity, de- 
ters completing the triumvirate of infamy by giving his 
name, but who, holding the restraining power, was to say the 
least acquiescent and permissory to the brutality of the others. 
It was at this juncture that, naturally assuming she was 
wanting for the comforts of life, I requested her nephew, 
General Joe Davis, to wait on her at once and place my purse 
unreservedly at her disposal. He brought courteous reply, 
and over ample thanks, but adding that she hoped that with 
the strictest economy she trusted to be able to weather the 
storm, but continuing, tell the dear fellow that, if at any 
time hereafter I lack for bread, I'll know where to make a 
call. She forgot to do it. 

Speech of Hon. Wharton J. Green, of North Carolina, in the 
House of Representatives, Monday, April 21, 1884. 

The House having under consideration the motion of Mr. Beach, to 
suspend the rules and adopt the resolution, submitted by the Select 
Committee on the Public Health, regarding the adulteration of food and 
drugs — ■ 

Me. Green said: 

Mr. Speaker: It is a political axiom that the obligations 
of government and governed are correlative or reciprocal, 
protection being the duty of the first; support of the last. 

f 327 ] 


Protection is the end and aim of all government, be it patri- 
archal, monarchical, aristocratic, or democratic; be it abso- 
lute or constitutional. For that end primarily is all govern- 
ment devised. Against foreign foe and domestic force, 
against invasion from without and mob violence within, 
against open assault and covert design ; to that extent at least 
will all concede that the government is bound to the governed. 
la return therefor the protected class, the mass, the people, 
yield obedience and support; in war their personal prowress 
to resist aggression, in peace and war the requisite percentage 
of their goods and chattels or yearly accretions, in one way 
or another, to maintain the organism so established. Admit 
the predicate, and none dare gainsay it, and the question 
naturally arises, where do the protective functions of Govern- 
ment cease ? Are these exhausted when armed invading col- 
umns are beaten back, or mobs dispersed, or murderers, rav- 
ishers, burglars, house-burners, and the like caught and pun- 
ished ? These undoubtedly are the most palpable and glaring 
duties of the agent or factor known as the Government. The 
right of demand, however, ceases not here. Immunity from 
the depredations of law-breakers of every sort and designa- 
tion is at least their implied right by terms of "original com- 

I purpose to push the claim advanced to its legitimate con- 
clusion and to arraign the counterfeiters and adulterators of 
meat, drink, and medicine as one of the most criminal of the 
criminal classes, and hence meet and fitting one for the eye of 
the law and the heavy hand of the law. If the proposition is, 
as I maintain, self-evident, then I repeat the people have the 
right to demand protection against their nefarious practices, 
covert, cowardly, and false, no less than from predatory 
bands on land or sea, against bandit or pirate. 

Does not well authenticated suspicion, almost tantamount 
to proof, if circumstantial evidence is ever proof, justify the 
sweeping allegation which will follow ? If not, and I fail 
to make it so appear, then set me down as slanderer and the 
objects of my anathemas as spotless lambs most unjustly and 
unrighteously arraigned. 

Now for the premise of what I propose to prove under 



penalty to the extent of which it is here susceptible of proof. 
If concurrent testimony and widespread accusation through 
the public prints be not the offspring of pure diabolism; if 
chemical analysis be not a snare; and if dire effects traceable 
to sinister causes be not a delusion, I charge and maintain 
that the whole field of dietetics and medicinals, of articles 
that we daily eat and drink and take as doctor's stuff, teems 
with adulteration, noxious or innoxious as the case may be. 
but hurtful as a rule. 

Mr. Speaker, if this be so, it surely appertains to us to in- 
quire into the evil and remedy to devise. If, in spite of uni- 
versal attaint, it be not so, it is due to the manufacturer, com- 
pounder, and consumer alike that the negative be authorita- 
tively established. 

The unfortunate whelp that has the cry of "mad dog" 
raised at his heels might as well be dead ; and he who is bit- 
ten by such a one had better be, even though the poor cur be 
innocent of the charge. Abstract justice would enjoin that 
hydrophobia be established or disproved for the mutual bene- 
fit of dog and man alike. A like regard for justice would 
enjoin that his brother cur of our conformation and purveyor 
of our diet, who is pointed at as poisoner, should have like 
opportunity to establish innocence. It is your right, Mr. 
Speaker, and mine, as his alleged victims, that he be required 
to do it. 

Yes, sir ; metaphor aside, if cause there be for this whole- 
sale arraignment, and cause for one I think there be, it is 
your right and mine, and that of every man who voted for 
and against us, to have the thing inquired into. If the 
charge be established against manufacturer or compounder 
of killing off innocent people by thousands and tens of 
thousands by slow process and homeophathic doses, wherein 
has he the advantage over his brother scoundrel, who prefers 
active agencies and larger measure to remove some hated 
rival or ambitious foe, as did the Borgias and others of the 
vile accursed class, through the medium of Belladonna, 01 
arsenic, or of ratsbane ? 

For one, I hold the last less culpable. They killed by 
units, these by thousands. Better, a thousand times better, 

[ 329 ] 


the allopathic dose administered bj a Madame Brinvilliers, 
to the graduated modicums of the abominable drugs which 
enter into our daily food, and protract the life in misery of 
the victims by thousands, as said, through one or two or 
twenty years as may be. 

We will probably be met at the threshold of investigation 
by the hackneyed cry of "sumptuary laws." Sir, no one 
holds in utter detestation laws of the class named more than 
I. But why, I demand, should those against slow insidious 
poisoning be so classed more than the others, aimed againstf 
the deadly drugs when give for sinister and specific object? 

Yes, sir; I go further and maintain that it is within our 
province to prevent the admixture of spurious, base, or bad 
ingredients in our daily food, and have it palmed off upon 
an unsuspecting world as a. better article even if harmless in 
effect. If it is our right, then when poison enters it follows, 
as the night the day, it is our duty. Sir, the vile practice 
of adulteration engendered by sordid greed of gain is, I re- 
peat, now so universal and widespread that it is the merest 
chance, be your grocer who he may, that you can obtain any 
genuine edible article, if diabolic science will permit it to be 
counterfeited to advantage. Sugar, flour, sirups, baking-pow- 
ders, pepper, spices, brandy, whisky, vinegar, wines, teas, 
pickles, preserves, ground coffee, canned goods, mustard, 
lard, butter, table oil, curry, and a host of other articles of 
every-day life too numerous to mention, all fall to a consider- 
able extent under my sweeping accusation and desired inter- 
dict. We buy them, knowing that they are probably spu- 

But what alternative have we except to restrict ourselves to 
old-fashioned hog and hominy of our own raising, or imitate 
that would-be heroic idiot, Dr. Tanner. Surely, Mr. 
Speaker, there must be some adequate remedy for this crying 
evil, this monstrous crime. That remedy, I repeat it, is ours 
to devise. If we are encountered by constitutional objection, 
then give us an amendment to that India-rubber document 
that will compass the aim designed. The Constitution of 
the land ought to be able to protect the physical constitutions 
of its citizens against the machinations of demons disguised 



as men. State enactments are utterly inadequate to suppress 
the evil. We have laws, and stringent ones they are, impos- 
ing suitable and adequate penalties upon counterfeiters of 
the coin and currency of the country. Are there any against 
counterfeiting articles of diet, drink, and medicine ? If so, 
sir, -the brazen effrontery with which they are disregarded 
proves their total inadequacy. In Heaven's name, why are 
not the two at least of parity ? 

Can any hold that the last is crime of minor grade ? Who 
will say that he who stamps and passes off little bits of baser 
metal than the standard bullion to put into your pockets is 
guilty of greater wrong than he who prepares and sells you 
base and counterfeit compounds, not to say deadly, to put 
into your stomach % Possibly the reason for imposing penal- 
ties in the one case and neglect to do so in the other is that 
our ancestors could not realize that human cupidity could 
prompt such depravity as trifling with the health, well-being', 
and very existence of myriads of their fellow-men. 

Just as the Romans had no special punishment for parri- 
cide. Just as our old English progenitors had no special pen- 
alty for that most cowardly and repulsive of all known 
crimes, the taking of lifq by deadly drugs, until in a very 
late reign (one of the last Henrys, I believe) the crime was 
proven and special penalty thenceforth imposed to "fit that 
vile Italian crime which hath lately entered into these 
realms." The culprit was to be boiled to death in oil. Meet 
punishment that and fitting for all the vile, accursed class, 
whether the agency employed be the famous, or, rather, in- 
famous, "Aqua Tofana," or "Elixir of St. Nicholas," which 
could be gauged to do its hellish work in a day, a week, a 
month,, or a year, or the slower poisons of our day, which 
enter into our daily food and permits its millions of victims 
to live out nearly their allotted span, but with impaired con- 
stitutions, both mental and physical, for years before their 

Mr. Speaker, were the adulterated substance sold entirely 
harmless but of inferior merit or virtue to that which it pur- 
ports to be, it would still be a fraud, and should as such be 
punished. But when baleful and deadly ingredients enter 



into the composition, capital felony should be its status in the 
list of crimes, and the oil cauldron the bath in which the vile 
miscreant, be he manufacturer, manipulator, or expert, 
should be required to lave his sordid soul. 

If any one within the compass of my voice doubts the ex- 
tent and enormity of the evil complained of let him go to any 
first-class grocery in this town, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New 
York, or Boston, and attempt to make out a bill of goods with 
the guarantee of purity attached. Though he stand with 
golden ducats or silver dollars in his hand to settle upon com- 
pliance, I j)rophesy that the bill will not be filled without 
abatement of proviso. If these middle-men, or rather first 
purchasers, honest as a class as I concede them to be, and as 
a class bitterly opposed to the necessity which exists of sell- 
ing the counterfeit commodities, will not sign the "bill of 
health" required, is it not prima facie evidence that their 
cargo is taint and not entitled to pratique; in other words, 
that it is an unwholesome and sickly lot ? 

Mr. Speaker, I had occasion some two years ago to lay in 
a supply of commissary stores for those in my employ, and 
told my grocer in a neighboring city I desired a pure article 
of sirup. His reply was, "You can not get it here, nor do I 
believe you can in or out of the city;" and so with numbers 
of other articles. When the item of sugar on my list was 
reached he was equally honest and candid. "We can sell you 
a pure article of sugar," quoth he, "provided you take the 
granulated. Nothing else will we guarantee." "And why 
the granulated ?" The reply was pert and to the point : 
"Because refiners and doctorers have not yet been able to 
counterfeit it to paying profit." 

This, Mr. Speaker, is a sample of the coloquy on that occa- 
sion. Did the vendor fall in my esteem or would he have 
done so in yours on account of the admissions made?' No, 
sir ; his candor stamped him an honest man ; but it placed 
the brand of knave, swindler, and scoundrel on him from 
whom he purchased, assuming that he bought at the fountain- 
head or of him who made, compounded, or prepared the nox- 
ious stuffs. Probably every gentleman on this floor knows 
what steatite or soapstone is. If not, I will state that it is a 



soft, calcareous, easily cut rock, but probably surpassing any 
other in weight and density. Presumptively therefore not 
the most digestible article of diet known. 

True, as we are told, it is eaten by the natives of the Sene- 
gal, the Oronoco, and New Caledonia. But, I opine, sir, 
that it is under the spur of dire necessity and not from 
choice, and that these poor creatures, but one degree above the 
ape or the Digger Indian, would much prefer that his muf- 
fins, biscuits, or doughnuts had for basis rye, wheat, corn, or 
buckwheat, or even the favorite cereal of "Old Caledonia," 
which, according to old Sam Johnson, "is eaten in England 
by horses and in Scotland by men." Now, sir, what would 
be your inference, if told by the proprietor of one of these 
saponaceous quarries, as I have been, that he finds a ready 
sale for all the "soapstone flour" that he can grind ? And 
who are your customers ? Chiefly commercial millers and 
sugar refiners. 

Mine, sir, was that the information tallied with what I had 
previously seen in print, that the vile stuff enters largely into 
our tea, coffee, toddy, sweetmeats, and daily bread. Sir, it 
behooves those who hear to ponder well. Steatite may be an 
excellent lining for stoves. I doubt its coequal fitness for 
stomachs. "Hot biscuit for breakfast," "light bread for sup- 
per" was wont to gladden my heart in younger days, for in 
the house of an honored uncle who raised me "corn bread" 
as a rule was the staple staff of life. 

Think you that biscuit for breakfast or light bread for 
supper (Heaven save the mark, how could it have been made 
light?) would have been as palatable as ash-cake or johnny 
if one of the descendants of old Job's comforters had kindly 
volunteered the information that they were to be made out 
of nice white soapstone flour instead of the glorious golden 
grain grown on the broad acres around me ? 

Will men, grown-up men, lawmakers, be less alive to their 
corporeal well-being and that of those who made them such 
and confidingly intrusted their well-being into their hands ? 
In licensing this monstrous wrong, as we permissively do, 
wherein have we the advantage of the toad as regards the 
reasoning faculty ? I have been told that that creature, 



esthetically, intellectually, and as a mold of form one of the 
very lowest of the low order of batrachia, will^eat his fill of 
leaden shot, when thrown to him one by one, until by excess 
of artificial weight he is utterly unable to move. 

"Miserable creature !" was my involuntary exclamation, 
"how does he manage to digest them ?" "Oh," replied my 
juvenile informant, "he doesn't disgust 'em at all . We takes 
him by the left hind leg and holds him up, and all of the 
shot rims out of his mouth." 

Blessed batrachian, that can eat even lead with impunity, 
and disgorge the overweight through the co-operative agency 
of a hoodlum, a scientist, or other experimentalist. 

Miserable, besotted bipeds, who will persist in breaking 
bread, and eating it, too, knowing full well that it is of the 
leaden sort, and that they have no kind, considerate hoodlum 
to relieve them by the left-hind-leg process. 

In the late war, Mr. Speaker, the men who wore the soap- 
stone-color coat did bake and break and eat the bread whereof 
I speak, a simple admixture of flour and water, and ofttimes 
not half cooked at that. But, thanks to short rations, long 
marches, hard work, and easy conscience they managed to 
worry it through, and would have done it in my opinion 
though 50 per cent, of their scant handful of flour had been 
soapstone, sawdust, or brick-dust either. 

But, sir, this should not embolden us to hope for like im- 
munity. The digestive organism of the ostrich, the alligator, 
the Confederate soldier, and the anaconda is an exclusive 
prerogative, a close monoply, and does not appertain to all 
the sons of Adam alike. Give us, then, a little more starch 
and less steatite, more gluten and less glucose or crude glass. 

Our New England friends, Mr. Speaker, have the word 
"sharp," somewhat analagous to our Southern one of "smart," 
to qualify the possessor of "ways that are dark" and means 
that are doubtful, which, though not exactly beyond the pale 
of the law, are nevertheless beyond that attaching to the 
standard of a well-recognized morality. He who sells you 
sanded sugar, glucose sirup for the genuine article, soapstone 
or plaster-of-paris flour, cocoanut-shell black pepper, or red- 
lead cayenne is doubtless "sharp," "cute," "smart," and is 



bound to turn his penny (bonest or otherwise is immaterial to 
him) ; but, sir, he is none the less a cold-blooded, calculating- 
knave and scoundrel, and should be made amenable to the 
law. "Tell me not of the patriotism of such," exclaimed the 
impassioned Burke, in speaking of a far more honorable 
class, "his desk is his altar, his ledger is his Bible, and his 
gold is his god." 

Mr. Speaker, under the operation of our delectable revenue 
laws, as at present enforced, there are grievous penalties 
attaching to illicit distillation, as many of the poor moun- 
taineers in my poor State know full well to their cost JSTow, 
sir, I opine that if the restrictions on distillation, including 
tax on the legitimate article and pains and penalties on the 
illicit or "moonshine," were removed altogether, and these 
makers of a pure article of whisky and brandy left as free 
as their fathers were, in that regard, and the same punish- 
ments doubled or quadrupled meted out to the compounders 
of the poisonous stuffs engendered by the tricks of chemistry, 
the cause of morality and the sanitary cause, not to say the 
cause of liberty and sobriety, woidd be materially subserved 

Let me give you an instance in proof. When a younger 
man than I am today by many years I passed some weeks in 
Bonnie Scotland. I had heard before getting there that the 
breeehless sons of the Lothians were not averse to a wee drop 
of "rock and rye," and not overparticular if the rock was 
left out, and faith, Mr. Speaker, observations convinced me 
that they had not been slandered. Why, sir, one-half of the 
average potations, judging from what I saw, and assuming 
that it was a national average, would in this country, in a 
single year, more than double the victims of drink mania and 
cram to repletion our inebriate asylums. And yet no such 
dire effect was visible there ; mania a potu, like spinal menin- 
gitis, was literally unknown. 

Expressing my surprise to a friend in Edinburgh at the 
marked difference in capacity of absorption between the den- 
izens of the two countries, I asked the cause. Sir, I was not 
and am not satisfied with the explanation he vouchsafed. It 
was, as recollected, that the volume of pyroligneous acid 



evolved from peat smoke bad a purifying effect upon the 
liquid distilled. That may be science, but it is not sense. 
My explanation is simply pure whisky. The Highlandmen 
of Scotland in that day, like the highlandmen of North Car- 
olina in ours, were not up to the tricks and devices of devilish 
science. They made an honest article of whisky, drank it, 
and lived out their allotted span a brave, hardy, simple race 
on their bleak free mountain-sides. 

Like cause would produce like effect in our own midst 
]STow, Mr. Speaker, coming back to our mutton, compel the 
nefarious manufacturer or compounder to drink his own vile 
decoctions with a slight additional infusion of fusil oil, to be 
administered by the public executioner, and bury his ac- 
cursed secret with him, and, mark the prediction, delirium 
tremens and other resulting effects, such as wife-beating and 
kindred brutality, misery, and murder, will very materially 
diminish as the cmality improves. 

What is true of distilled spirits is none the less so of beer 
and other malt liquors, wines, and cordials ; for as enormous 
as the profits are in both cases, they are not sufficient to sat- 
isfy these rapacious ghouls. The beer-maker is as little con- 
tent with those resulting from accredited hops as the basis as 
is the whisky or brandy maker with him from honest rye, 
corn, wheat, or fruits. It is said that the highest encomium 
that an Irishman can pay his poteen when, with the charac- 
teristic hospitality of his race, he sets it before his guest, is 
the trite remark : "The divil a penny of rivenue has it paid 
the Queen." 

But he who clinks canakins with honest Pat has the satis- 
faction of feeling that while Her Majesty's money-bags may 
thereby weigh less than they ought nevertheless the devil a 
drop of vile chemicals or doctor's stuff has entered into its 
composition. So, believing, Mr. Speaker, if I were snake-bit- 
ten in blessed St. Patrick's land I would vastly prefer the 
only recognized antidote on such occasions (and efficacious I 
know it to be by personal experience in a Robeson County 
swamp) to be of the unpaid-tax quality to the so-called honest 
tax-paid stuff stretched out by the infusion of strychnine and 
other deadly drugs. Let casuists determine which is the 



most meretricious, the man who makes the first or the govern- 
ment which permits the last to be made. 

It is safe to assume, Mr. Speaker, that were the question 
put to the leading medical men of the country a large major- 
ity of them would decide that the alarming increase of late 
years in nervous, cerebral, and kidney diseases is directly 
traceable to the cause assigned, namely, adulterated drinks of 
all kinds, including vinous, malt and distilled. Is not insan- 
ity fearfully on the increase, as evidenced by the overcrowded 
bedlams of the land and the mania for self-destruction ? Then 
seek for reason why, and find it, too, no less in poisoned bev- 
erage than in the growing passion for wild speculation. 

In view of the statements made and facts alleged, all of 
which are susceptible of proof, I ask, and ask with due delib- 
eration, might not the philanthropist better subserve the cause 
of humanity by directing the batteries of his denunciation 
from alcoholic drinks per se to the adulteration of them; by 
advocating purity instead of prohibition? 

I have thus, Mr. Speaker, briefly adverted to abuses falling 
under the general head of meat and drink adulteration. The 
witnesses upon whom it is relied to sustain allegation will 
appear in appendix. 

But, sir, the field is too extensive, proofs too voluminous, 
if proof be needed where criminality stands confessed, to 
permit my going into further detail under this head of my 
subject. But I were derelict to my subject, my constituents, 
and myself did I close without some allusion to like vicious 
practice in the make-up of medicine ; for, sir, human deprav- 
ity, with utter disregard of human life, has even dared invade 
the sacred precincts of the pharmacopoeia, to lift the tops of 
the mystic jars on shelves arranged, and to infuse base sub- 
stance in their portentous contents, where oft the difference 
of a feather's weight may involve the mortal life of immor- 
tal men. Medical skill is impotent to act and powerless to 
grapple with fell disease in critical juncture, because by 
base admixture with medicinals it is at loss to know what 
measure to prescribe to compass end desired. 

I broadly, boldly make the charge and challenge the re- 
futal of investigation. A distinguished physician told me 

22 [337] 


some years since, in a neighboring city, that probably more 
deaths resulted directly and indirectly from that source than 
would from disease if left to itself; and that he made it an 
inflexible rule never to prescribe medicines unless he was well 
acquainted with the commercial and moral character of the 
druggist who was to supply them. If such is the state of the 
case in a great city, what chance is there of obtaining pure 
drugs in village shops and country stores ? 

Mr. Speaker, this branch of my subject is certainly one 
demanding most instant and efficacious remedy at our hands. 
Of all men in the world the chemist and wholesale druggist 
has least occasion and excuse for tampering with his wares. 
His profits are enormous when confined to legitimate chan- 

I do not propose, Mr. Speaker, to take down and look into 
each separate jar on the shelves of the Constitution amender; 
am not sufficiently deep in science for that; but I do intend 
to look into one — and judge the rest by inference. 

I see before me "sulphate of quinia." That means in our 
vernacular "quinine," qui-nine, or quin-in, as folks prefer 
to call it. "Jesuit's bark" is the staple from which it is com- 
pounded, and the introduction of which to the European 
world entitles the Society of Loyola to the everlasting grati- 
tude of a sinful and suffering world. It is today, in the 
world's conception, almost as indispensable an article to 
man's welfare as bread or meat or drink. I have heard that 
out on the raging Wabash or in the Arkansas bottom, where 
the musical mosquito delighteth to hum and to make his 
home, where the ague shaketh the sons of men, they would 
willingly swap, pound for ounce, blood for Jesuit's bark in 
its etherealized state, known as quinine. 

Now, sir, a short time back, a Democratic House of Repre- 
sentatives, recognizing the indispensable necessity of this 
light but costly wMte powder, erased it from the list of the 
thousand or two other protected articles and put it on the 
free-list, and the whole country arose and called that Con- 
gress blessed. Quinine fell from five or six dollars an ounce 
to $1.50 nominally. But, sir, I opine the reduction in price 
is more fictitious than real. The quinine of to-day is not as 



a rule the quinine of former times. Then it was bitter — 
deucedly bitter — and there was no horrid apprehension of 
morphia or other deadly drug left in the mind as afterclap. 
To-day it is far different, for although not exactly a confec- 
tion or sweetmeat, it has nevertheless so far laid aside its 
acerbity as to suggest the thought, a la J\Irs. Toodles, what a 
convenient thing a stomach-pump is to have in the house 
when one is taking white powders. 

Now, sir, I ask why the change in its taste, which is so 
perceptible as to be the subject of general remark? Is it 
that the bark of the cinchona tree is losing its natural proper- 
ties, or is it that less expensive barks and other substances 
are worked in with it to increase bulk and weight, and thus 
make up for the falling off in price ? 

It would be an interesting investigation if the question 
were submitted to a special committee of medical experts. 
The cinchona is doubtless to-day what it was when Pizarro's 
followers first found it, and so is red oak or willow. 

Almost every leading government in Europe has stringent 
laws against adulteration. Of these England has perhaps 
the most perfect and complete system, and yet it is only of 
yesterday's growth. Less than thirty years ago Dr. John 
Postgate, a country physician, seeing the abuses perpetrated 
by adulterators of every class, took the matter in hand and 
after years of persistent effort, beginning with only one sup- 
porter in Parliament, Mr. Scholefield, and with all the large 
manufacturers and dealers in Great Britain hounding and 
denouncing him, succeeded at last in having his ideas adopted 
as embodied in the adulteration acts of the last decade. 

As a public benefactor he will rank in the history of his 
country as the peer of Jenner, Stevenson, Arkwright, and 
Davy; for food adulteration is virtually wiped out so far as 
it affects English palates and constitutions. But what com- 
pounders are forbidden to sell at home they can readily mar- 
ket abroad. For is it not obvious that as long as they are 
debarred a home market by repressory edicts they will nat- 
urally export their base counterfeits to our own more tolerant 
shores ? Eliminate the foreign supply of poisoned and pois- 
onous foods, and forbid the sale of "home manufactured" 



stuffs of kindred class in the District of Columbia and where- 
ever else the strong arm of the Federal Government will 
reach, and a most important step in the work of their eradica- 
tion and extermination will have been accomplished. 

Mr. Speaker, my remarks as originally prepared after a 
careful investigation of the subject contemplated a broader 
field of inquiry and ultimate repression than that embraced 
in the bill under consideration. They were intended to sus- 
tain my bill, or rather resolution, introduced early in the 
session, authorizing the Committee of Public Health to in- 
quire into the truth or falsity of the alleged abuses in this 
regard, and to suggest what legislation should be had for 
their eradication — a simple inquiry into damning allegations, 
with an eye to a simple recommendation of remedy. It re- 
ceived, I believe, the unanimous approval of that honorable 
committee, and they and I were alike at loss when, during 
my absence at the death-bed of a loved and honored relative, 
it was killed by a majority of one on the floor of this House. 
My unavoidable absence on that occasion will be one of the 
regrets of my life. 

In conclusion I now propose, Mr. Speaker, to introduce 
the witnesses and to adduce the proofs upon which it is in- 
tended to rely to sustain the sweeping allegations made. These 
will appear in the form of appendix in the Record. If they 
seem to any to take more space than is usually accorded in 
that diurnal history of our doings to any abstract question 
let the importance of the subject and the ignorance and in- 
difference which prevail regarding it stand me in justifica- 
tion and excuse. As bulky as it will appear, it is not a tithe 
of what might be adduced from these and other high author- 
ities in support of the existence of the evils charged and the 
necessity for remedial relief. Let us hearken to their warn- 
ing and give that relief to the fullest extent of our constitu- 
tional powers. As transcendently important as I believe it 
to be, I would not have this House go one step beyond to ac- 
complish the end in view under "the general welfare" clause. 





Some thirty years ago the London Lancet, the leading med- 
ical and surgical journal of the world, owing to the repeated 
exposures of Dr. Postgate, determined to employ at its own 
expense one of the best analytical chemists of the age to in- 
vestigate the subject. For that purpose Dr. Hassall, a man 
of national reputation and fellow of a dozen learned societies, 
was selected. He devoted several years to the work and col- 
lated his researches in a large sized volume. His book con- 
stituted the basis of subsequent Parliamentary investigation, 
which gives it quasi-official character. Prom it will be 
found below copious extracts bearing upon a few of the most 
glaring abuses: 

During the course of the last six years the author has examined 

minutely and scrupulously, microscopically and chemically, over 3,000 

samples of the principal articles of consumption, as well as many drugs; 

and as the one great result of this somewhat extended experience, he 

affirms that some short time back there were few articles of consumption 

the adulteration of which was practicable, and which, at the same time, 

could be rendered profitable, which were not extensively subjected to 



Dr. Normandy, one of the highest authorities of the age, concludes his 
evidence before the parliamentary committee with this remark: 

"Adulteration is a widespread evil which has invaded every branch of 

commerce; everything which can be mixed or adulterated or debased in 

any way is debased." 


The subjoined table contains not only the names of the substances used 
in adulteration possessing more or less injurious properties, but also the 
names of the articles in which they have been discovered. It will be 
perceived that the number of injurious substances thus employed is 
very great. 

Injurious substances actually detected in adulterated articles of con- 


Cocculus indicus 

Arsenic of copper, emeral green, or 
Scheele's green. 

Sulphate of copper or blue vitriol, 
and acetate of copper or verdi- 

Carbonate of copper or verditer . . . 


Beer, rum. 

Colored sugar confectionery. 

Pickles, bottled fruits, and vege- 
tables, preserves, dried and crys- 
talized fruits. 

Colored sugar, confectionery and 



Injurious substances actually detected in adulterated articles, etc. — 


The three chromates of lead. 

Red oxide of lead 

Red ferruginous earths, as Vene- 
tian red, bole Armenian, red and 
yellow ochers, umber, etc. 

Carbonate of lead 

Plumbago or black lead 

Bisulphuret of mercury or cinna- 

Sulphate of iron 

Sulphate of copper 



Chromates of potash 

The three false Brunswick greens, 
being mixtures of the chromates 
of lead and indigo, or Prussian 

Oxychlorides of copper or true 
Brunswick greens. 

Orpiment or sulphuret of arseni- 

Ferrocyanide of iron or Prussian 

Antwerp blue or Prussian blue and 



Artificial ultramarine 

Hydrated sulphate of lime, miner- 
al white, or plaster of Paris. 


Sulphuric acid 

Bronze powders or alloys of cop- 
per and zinc. 



Custard powders, sugar, 
tionery, tea, and snuff. 

Cayenne, curry-powder. 

Red sauces, as shrimp, lobster, an- 
chovy, and tomato sauces, and in 
potted meats and fish, cocoa, 
chicory, anchovies, annatto, 
cheese, tea, and snuff, etc. 

Sugar, confectionery. 

In certain black and Li teas. 

Cayenne, sugar, confectionery. 

Redried tea, and in beer. 

Bread, rarely; annatto. 

Gin, rum, ginger, and mustard. 

Sugar confectionery. 

Tea and snuff. 

Sugar confectionery. 

Sugar confectionery. 

Sugar confectionery. 

Sugar confectionery. 

Sugar confectionery. 

Sugar confectionery. 

Sugar confectionery. 

Sugar confectionery. 

Flour, bread, sugar confectionery. 

Bread and flour. 
Vinegar, gin. 
Sugar confectionery. 

These disclosures, be it recollected, were made nearly 
thirty years ago, and when food-poisoning was but yet in its 
infancy. It was long anterior to the day when tallow and 
suet supplanted legitimate and normal butter by most abnor- 
mal and disgusting process; or glucose, cane-sugar, or scores 
of other improvements had been made upon the recognized 
time-honored processes of our fathers. In this, as in other 
things, the world has moved since then. 



Dr. Hassall concludes his general introduction on the sub- 
ject of food adulteration in the following pertinent and im- 
pressive words : 

Legislation on the subject is required — 

First. For the protection of the public health. The evidence given 
before the parliamentary committee on adulteration proves that the 
deadliest poisons are daily resorted to for purposes of adulteration, to the 
injury of the health and the destruction of the lives of thousands. There 
is scarcely a poisonous pigment known in these islands which are not 
thus employed. 

Second. For the protection of the revenue. This will be readily ac- 
knowledged when it is known that nearly half the national revenue is 
derived from taxes on food and beverages. It has already been shown 
that not long since adulteration was rife, and it still exists to a large 
extent in nearly all articles of consumption, both solid and fluid, and 
including even those under the supervision of the excise. 

Third. In the interests of the honest merchant and trader. The up- 
right trader is placed in a most trying and unfair position in conse- 
quence of adulteration. He is exposed to the most ruinous and un- 
scrupulous competition; too often he is undersold, and his business thus 
taken from him. It is therefore to the interest of the honest trader 
that effective legislation should take place, and not only is it to his 
interest, but we can state that it is his most anxious desire that adulter- 
ation should be abolished. In advocating the suppression of adultera- 
tion we are, therefore, advocating the rights and interests of all honor- 
able traders. 

Fourth. For the sake of the consumer. That the consumer is exten- 
sively robbed through adulteration, sometimes of his health, but always 
of his money, is unquestionable. It is, however, the poor man, the 
laborer and the artisan, who is the most extensively defrauded; for 
occupied early and late with his daily labor, often in debt with those 
with whom he deals, he has no time or power to help himself in the 
matter, and if he had the time he still would require the requisite 
knowledge. The subject of adulteration, therefore, while it concerns all 
classes, is eminently a poor man's question; the extent to which he is 
cheated through adulteration is really enormous. 

Fifth. On the ground of public morality. Adulteration involves de- 
ception, dishonesty, fraud, and robbery, and since adulteration is so 
prevalent, so equally must these vices prevail to the serious detriment 
of public morality and to the injury of the character of the whole nation 
for probity in the eyes of the world. We repeat, then, that some prompt, 
active, and efficient legislative interference is demanded for the sake of 
public morality and the character of this country among the nations of 
the world. 

Hassall's adulteration of food. 

From an examination of this table it appears: 

1. That of the thirty-four coffees, thirty-one were adulterated. 

2. That chicory was present in thirty-one of the samples. 

3. Roasted corn in twelve. 

4. Beans and potato flour, each in one sample. 



5. That in sixteen cases the adulteration consisted of chicory only. 

6. That in the remaining fifteen samples the adulteration consisted of 
chicory and either roasted corn, beans, or potatoes. 

7. That in many instances the quantity of coffee present was very 
small; while in others it formed not more than one-fifth, fourth, third, 
half, and so on of the whole article. 

We are satisfied that the gross aggregate of the adulterations detected 
did not amount to less than one-third of the entire bulk of the quantity 



Speaking of the articles used in the adulteration of tea, the author 
says : 

"The principal of these substances are Dutch pink, rose pink, logwood, 
tumeric, carbonate of lime, carbonate of magnesia, steatite, soapstone or 
silicate of magnesia, chromate of lead, the chromates of potash, ferro- 
cyanide of iron, indigo, carbonate of copper, acetate of copper, arsenic 
of copper." 


Thus it has been shown that exhausted tea-leaves are sometimes made 
up with gum, etc., and resold to the public as genuine black tea, and, 
when artificially colored and glazed, even as green tea. 

That the substances employed in the coloring are in many cases very 
much more objectionable and injurious than those used by the Chinese, 

being sometimes highly poisonous. 


Out of seventy-two samples of brown sugar, as procured at different 
shops, subjected to examination, fragments of sugar-cane were present 
in all but one. These were usually so small that they were visible only 
by the aid of the microscope. 

Sporules and filaments of fungus were present in nearly all the sugars. 
The acari were present in sixty-nine of the samples, and in many in very 
considerable quantities. 

Grape sugar was detected in all the sugars. 

Four of the sugars contained proportions of starch so considerable as 
to lead to the inference that they were adulterated. 

Eleven other samples of brown sugar, as imported from the East and 
West Indies, furnished nearly similar results. Two only could be re- 
garded as pure and fit for human consumption. 


Concerning Bread. — We have already referred, to some extent, to the 
adulteration of bread with water. Bread naturally contains a large 
quantity of water, estimated at sixty-six parts in every one hundred and 
fifty of bread, sixteen of these only being natural to the flour, but is 
frequently made to contain greater amounts. One principal means by 
which this is effected is by the addition of rice or rice-flour to bread; 
this, swelling up, absorbs much more water than wheat flour. Potatoes 
used in any quantity probably have, to some extent, the same effect. In 
the introduction of rice, then, into bread there is a double evil: first, a 
substance is put into the bread which does not possess nearly so much 
nourishment as wheat flour ; and, second, by its means a larger quantity 
of another substance is absorbed by the bread, and which has no nour- 
ishing properties whatever. While wheat flour seldom contains less and 
often much more than 12 per cent of gluten, rice has only about 7 per 
cent of that nutritious substance, and potatoes are equally deficient in 



The public, then, in judging of the quality of bread by its color, by its 
whiteness, commits a most serious mistake; there is little or no connec- 
tion between color and quality ; in fact, very generally, the whitest breads 
are the most adulterated. The public, therefore, should lose no time in 
correcting its judgment on this point. 

Again, the mistaken taste of the public for very white bread, which, 
be it known, cannot be obtained even from the finest and best flour except 
by the use of alum or some other substance similar in its operation, 
tends to the serious injury of the bread in another way. 

After proving that alum enters injuriously in almost all 
bought bread, he adds : 

Further, alum is very apt to disorder the stomach and to occasion 
acidity and dyspepsia. 

Vinegar. — The principal adulterations of vinegar are with water, sul- 
phuric acid, and burnt sugar, and sometimes with acid substances, as 
chillies and grains of paradise, and also with pyroligneous or acetic 

The water is added to increase the bulk, sulphuric acid and acid sub- 
stances to make it pungent, and burnt sugar to restore the color lost by 

Vinegar is not unfrequently contaminated with arsenic, this being 
introduced through the sulphuric acid used in its adulteration. 

A mixture of muriatic acid and soda has been used in bread, and I 
have seen muriatic acid containing a very fearful quantity of arsenic. 

The following evidence in regard to the use of corrosive sublimate was 
given by Mr. Gray before the parliamentary committee: 

"Corrosive sublimate has been used for years and years in some 
houses, and not a cask has gone out without a certain proportion of 
corrosive sublimate." 

"Chairman. Do you believe that corrosive sublimate was mixed with 
the vinegar in injurious proportions?" 

"I do; it was done to give strength to the vinegar. When the D. W. 
and 0. V. have been used the corrosive sublimate is put into it to give 
it a tartness again in the mouth." 

Chairman. "Are these technical expressions in the trade — 0. V. for 
oil of vitriol, and D. W. for distilled water?" 

"Just so. Corrosive sublimate is called 'the doctor.' " 

White or distilled vinegar, as it is called, is usually made with water 

and acetic acid, what is sold is rarely distilled at all. 


That nineteen out of twenty of the vinegars submitted to analysis, 
poor as they were, yet owed a portion of their acidity to sulphuric acid 
the amount of which varied in the different samples from 38 to 252 in 
the 1,000 grains, the largest quantity of this acid being detected in the 
vinegars in which the red cabbages were pickled. That in the whole of 
the sixteen different pickles analyzed for copper that poisonous metal 
was discovered in various amounts. 

On the adulterations of cayenne. — Of twenty-eight samples of cayenne 
submitted to microscopic and chemical examination no less than twenty- 
four were adulterated, and four only were genuine. Twenty-two con- 
tained mineral coloring matter. 

In thirteen cases this consisted of red lead, which was present in very 



considerable quantities, while in the remaining seven samples it was 
some red ferruginous earth, Venetian red, or red ocher. Vermillion or 
sulpheret of mercury was present in one of this cayennes. 

Six of the cayennes consisted of a mixture of ground rice, turmeric, 
and cayenne colored, with either red lead, vermillion, red, or ocher. 

Six of the cayennes contained large quantities of salt, sometimes alone, 
but mostly combined with rice and the red earths or red lead. 

One of the samples was adulterated with a large quantity of the husk 
of white mustard seed. 

Lastly. Two were adulterated with rice, and were colored in addi- 
tion, the one with red lead, and the other with a red ferruginous earth. 
The object of the use of red lead and other red coloring matters is two 
fold: first, to conceal other adulterations, and second, to preserve the 
color of the cayenne, as when exposed to the light for any time it 
usually loses part of the bright red color which it at first possesses, and 
therefore it becomes deteriorated in the eyes of the purchaser. The red 
lead, etc., added does not of course preserve the color of the cayenne, but 
simply supplies the place of that which it loses in consequence of 

Salt is employed for the same purpose. This substance has a remark- 
able effect in bringing out the color of the cayenne. It is, however, also 
used to increase its weight. 

The adulteration of cayenne with such substances as red lead and 
mercury is doubtless highly prejudicial to health. It has been stated 
that colic and parlysis have both been produced by the use of cayenne 
containing red lead. 

The salts of lead and mercury are characterized by the circumstance 
that they are apt to accumulate in the system, and finally to produce 
symptoms of a very serious nature. Thus no matter how small the quan- 
tity of mercury or lead introduced each day, the system is sure in the 
end, although it be slowly and insidiously, to be brought under the in- 
fluence of these poisons, and to become seriously affected. The quantity 
of red lead introduced into the system in adulterated cayenne is, how- 
ever, by no means inconsiderable. 


[From Chambers's Encyclopcedia.] 


The adulteration of food of almost every kind is unfortunately so 
common a custom that our limited space will merely allow of our no- 
ticing a few of the leading points in regard to it. 

Wheat flour is not infrequently adulterated with one or more of the 
following substances: flour of beans, Indian corn, rye, or rice, potato- 
starch, alum, chalk, carbonate of magnesia, bone-dust, plaster-of-paris, 
sand, clay, etc. The organic matters — the inferior flours and starch — do 
little or no serious harm. Most of the inorganic matters are positively 
injurious, and of these, alum (one of the commonest adulterations) is 
the worst. The beneficial action of wheat-flour on the system is in part 
due to the large quantity of soluble phosphates which it contains. 
When alum is added these phosphates uniting with the alumina of the 
alum and forming an insoluble compound, the beneficial effect of the 
soluble phosphates is thus lost. 

Coffee, in its powdered form, is not merely largely adulterated with 
chicory, but additionally with roasted grain, roots, acorns, saw-dust, ex- 



hausted tan (termed croats), coffina (the seeds of a Turkish plant), 
burnt sugar, and (worst of all) baked horses' and bullocks' liver. In 
the Quarterly Journal of the Chemical Society for April, 1856, there is 
an excellent report by Messrs. Graham, Stenhouse, and Campbell on the 
mode of detecting vegetable substances mixed with coffee. Even whole 
roasted coffee is not safe from adulteration, a patent having been ac- 
tually taken out to mold chicory into the form of coffee-berries. 

Cocoa and chocolate are adulterated with flour, potato-starch, sugar, 
clarified mutton-suet, and various mineral substances, such as chalk, 
plaster-of-paris, red earth, red ocher, and venetial earth, the last three 
being used as coloring matter. 

Vinegar is adulterated with water, sulphuric acid, and sometimes with 
chillies, grains of paradise, and pyroligneous acid. It appears from evi- 
dence taken before the parliamentary committee on adulterations that 
arsenic and corrosive sublimate are no uncommon ingredients in vinegar. 
In conection with vinegar we may place pickles. Dr. Hassall analyzed 
sixteen different pickles for copper, and discovered that poisonous metal, 
more or less, abundantly in all of them ; '"in three, in a very considerable 
quantity; in one, in highly deleterious amount; and in two, in poisonous 

Preserved fruits and vegetables, especially gooseberries, rhubarb, green 
gages, and olives, are often also contaminated largely with copper. In 
these cases the copper, if in considerable quantity, may be easily detected 
by placing a piece of polished iron or steel in the suspected liquid for 
twenty-four hours, to which we previously add a few drops of nitric acid. 
The copper will be deposited on the iron. Or ammonia may be added 
to the fluid in which the pickles or fruit were lying, when, if copper is 
present, a blue tint is developed. We should be suspicious of all pickles, 
olives, preserved gooseberries, etc., with a particularly bright-green tint. 

Milk is usually believed to be liable to numerous adulterations, such 
as flour, chalk, mashed brains, etc. It appears, however, from Dr. Has- 
sall's researches on London milk, that as a general rule, water is the 
only adulteration. The results of the examinations of twenty-six sam- 
ples were that twelve were genuine, and that fourteen were adulterated, 
the adulteration consisting principally in the addition of water, the per- 
centages of which varied from 10 to 50 per cent, or one-half water. If 
space permitted we might extend the list of alimentary substances liable 
to adulteration to a much greater length. 

Beer is adulterated in many ways. Burned sugar (caramel) is added 
to give color; cocculus, indicus to supply an intoxicating agent which 
will give an appearance of strength to the beer ; quassia, to impart bitter- 
ness in place of hops ; grains of paradise and cayenne pepper, to commun- 
icate pungency; coriander and caraway seeds, to yield flavor; liquorice, 
treacle, and honey to supply color and consistence. To stale beer there 
is sometimes added green vitriol (sulphate of iron) or alum and common 
salt, which when agitated with the beer communicate a fine cauli- 
flower head. 


[Report of select parliamentary committee, 1855-1856, upon inquiry into 
the adulteration of food, from the Westminster Review, volume 91, 
page 195.] 

In the process of their investigations they examined some sixty wit- 
nesses, who gave answers to near eight thousand questions, all of them 



tending more or less distinctly and directly to prove that the practice of 
adulteration was very prevalent and most injurious in its effects upon 
the health, morality, and prosperity of the country. Upward of thirty 
of the witnesses were physicans, surgeons, analytical chemists, and drug- 
gists, and the remainder were gentlemen who occupied responsible posi- 
tions in the fiscal and sanitary departments of government, of persons 
acquainted with the manufacture and sale of the larger proportion of 

such commodities as are in most general use. 


Though the witnesses differed both as to the extent to which adultera- 
tion is carried on and as to its nature and effects, your committee can- 
not avoid the conclusion that adulteration widely prevails, though under 
circumstances of very various character. As regards foreign products, 
some arrive in this country in an adulterated condition, while others are 
adulterated by the English dealer. Other commodities again, the pro- 
duce of this country, are shown to be in an adulterated state when pass- 
ing into the hands of the dealer, while others undergo adulteration by 
the dealers themselves. 

"Not only is the public health thus exposed to danger and pecuniary 
fraud committed on the whole community, but the public morality is 
tainted and the high commercial character of this country seriously low- 
ered both at home and in the eyes of foreign countries. Though very 
many refuse under every temptation to falsify the quality of their wares, 
there are unfortunately large numbers, who, though reluctantly prac- 
ticing deception, yield to the pernicious contagion of example or to the 
hard pressure of competition forced upon them by their less scrupulous 

And then they proceed to give the following summary: 
"Without entering into voluminous details of the evidence taken, your 
committee would enumerate the many articles which have been proved 
to be more or less commonly adulterated. These are: Arrowroot, adul- 
terated with potato and other starches; bread, with potatoes, plaster of 
Paris, alum, and sulphate of copper; bottled fruits and vegetables, with 
certain salts of copper; coffee, with chicory, roasted wheat, beans, and 
mangel-wurzel; chicory, with roasted wheat, carrots, sawdust and Vene- 
tian red; cocoa, with arrowroot, potato-flour, sugar, chicory, and some 
ferriginous red earth; cayenne and ground rice, mustard, husk, etc.; 
alcohol, with red lead; lard, with potato-flour, mutton suet, carbonate of 
soda, and caustic lime; mustard, with wheat flour and turmeric; mar- 
malade, with apples and turnips; porter and stout (though sent out in 
a pure state from the brewers ) , with water, sugar, treacle, salt, alum, 
cocculus indicus, grains of paradise, mix vomica, and sulphuric acid; 
pickles and preserves, with salts of copper; snuff, with various chro- 
matics, red lead, lime, and powdered glass; tobacco, with water, sugar, 
rhubarb, and treacle; vinegar, with water, sugar, and sulphuric acid; 
jalap, with powdered wood; opium, with poppy capsules, wheat-flour, 
powdered wood, and sand; scammony, with wheat-flour, chalk, resin, and 
sand ; confectionery, with plaster of Paris and other similar ingredients, 
colored with various pigments of a highly poisonous nature; and acid 
drops purporting to be compounded of jargonelle, pear, ribston, pippin, 
lemon, etc., with essential oils containing prussic acid and other dan- 
gerous ingredients." 




[Extracts from English statutes bearing on the subject, 11th August, 


Whereas, it is desirable that the acts now in force relative to the 
adulteration of food should be repealed and that the law requiring the 
sale of food and drugs in a pure and genuine state should be amended: 

Be it therefore enacted, etc. * * * 

Sec. 2. The term "food" shall include every article used for food or 
drink by man, other than drugs and water. The term "drugs" shall in- 
clude medicine for internal or external use. 

Sec. 3. No person shall mix, color, stain, or powder, or order or permit 
any other person to mix, color, stain, or powder, any article of food with 
any ingredient or material so as to render the article injurious to 
health, with intent that the same may be sold in that state; and no 
person shall sell any such article so mixed, colored, stained, or pow- 
dered, under a penalty in each case not exceeding £50 for the first 
offense; every offense after a conviction for a first offense shall be a mis- 
demeanor for which the person shall, on conviction, be imprisoned for a 
period not exceeding six months, with hard labor. 

Sec. 4. No person shall, except for the purpose of compounding, as 
hereinafter described, mix, color, stain, or powder any drug with any 
ingredient or material so as to affect injuriously the quality of such 
drug with intent that the same may be sold in that State, and no person 
shall sell any such drug so mixed, colored, strained, or powdered under 
the same penalty in each case, respectively, as in the preceding section 

for a first and subsequent offense. 


Sec. 6. No person shall sell to the purchaser any article of food or 
any drug which is not of the nature, substance, and quality of the article 
demanded by such purchaser, under a penalty not exceeding £20, etc. 

Sec. 7. No person shall sell any compounded article of food or com- 
pounded drug, which is not composed of ingredients in accordance with 
the demands of the purchaser, under a penalty not exceeding £20. 
(Glen's Law of Public Health, 38 and 39 Victoria, chapter 63.) 

You will thus see, Mr. Speaker, the estimation in which 
the offense is held by our cousins across the water. It is meet 
that the two great Anglo-Saxon nationalities should profit, 
each by the teaching of the other. May not the younger profit 
by the lesson here laid down by the elder ? 

I have letters, Mr. Speaker, from some of the leading 
grocers and druggists of the country, offering to come on and 
testify before a properly accredited committee at their own 
expense, to give, cause, and adduce proof why like legislation 
is imperatively demanded on Capitol Hill. Let them be 
heard for our sake, if not for theirs.